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Research Methods for Social Work : Becoming Consumers and Producers of Research,9780205365296
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Research Methods for Social Work : Becoming Consumers and Producers of Research

by
ISBN13:

9780205365296

ISBN10:
0205365299
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $96.60
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Summary

Research Methods for Social Work, First Edition, is ideal for a one-semester research methods course for undergraduate or graduate social work students with little or no prior knowledge of research. It has a practical and easy-to-read writing style and offers numerous social work examples. The text also comes with an Instructors Manual and Test Bank. The text places considerable emphasis on how research and social work practice are connected. The text prepares students to be effective in both the consumer and producer research roles. The text emphasizes the CSWE-mandated areas of social work. Quantitative and qualitative methods are covered throughout the text. Illustrations and case vignettes are included throughout each chapter. The author has taught both research methods and social work practice courses for over 25 years and understands first-hand how practice and research are connected and so vital to each other.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
chapter 1 Why Social Workers Need Research
Research as a Source of Knowledge
2(2)
What Is Research?
4(1)
Distinctiveness of Scientific Research
5(5)
Development of Theory
6(1)
Importance of Diversity in Theories
7(1)
Systematic and Rigorous Methods
8(1)
Empirical Evidence
8(1)
Commitment to Neutrality
9(1)
Obligation to an Ethical Code
10(1)
Similarities between Social Work Practice and the Scientific Research Process
10(1)
Consumer and Producer Roles
10(5)
Consumer Role
10(3)
Producer Role
13(1)
Using Critical Thinking Skills as a Consumer and a Producer
14(1)
Why Do Social Work Researchers Conduct Studies?
15(2)
Research Topics of Interest to Social Workers
17(1)
Chapter Reflections: The Book's Perspective about the People Who Are Studied
18(2)
chapter 2 Philosophies and Perspectives about Research 20(17)
Inductive and Deductive Philosophies
21(3)
Inductive Research
21(2)
Deductive Research
23(1)
Assessment of Your Philosophical Tendencies
24(1)
Quantitative and Qualitative Methodologies
24(5)
Quantitative Methods
26(1)
Qualitative Methods
27(2)
Some Specialized Areas in Social Work Research
29(5)
Participatory Action Research
29(3)
Feminist Research
32(1)
Afrocentric Research
33(1)
Chapter Reflections: Critical Thinking and Social Work Research
34(3)
chapter 3 Research Ethics and Social Work's Mandates 37(27)
Ethical Problems in Research
38(6)
Physical Harm
38(1)
Psychological Harm
39(1)
Invasion of Privacy
39(2)
Deception of Participants
41(1)
Misrepresentation of Findings
42(1)
Balancing Risks and Gains
43(1)
Ethical Safeguards of Research
44(7)
Confidentiality
44(1)
Informed Consent
45(5)
Monitoring Study Effects and Offering Assistance
50(1)
Involving Participants in Decision Making
50(1)
Selecting Researchers without a Conflict of Interest
51(1)
Mandates of Social Work
51(10)
Adhering to Values and Ethics of Social Work
51(2)
Promoting an Interest in Diversity
53(4)
Promoting Social and Economic justice
57(4)
Chapter Reflections: Attending to Social Work Mandates throughout the Book
61(3)
chapter 4 Understanding the Research Topic 64(18)
What Issues Affect Topic Selection?
65(5)
Political Perspective
65(1)
Sociocultural Views
66(1)
Professional Discipline
66(1)
Specializations within Social Work
67(1)
Personal Life Experiences
68(1)
Funding, Employer Mandates, and Other External Influences
69(1)
Research Topics and Social Work
70(4)
The Research Topic and the Producer Role
71(3)
The Research Topic and the Consumer Role
74(1)
The Literature Review
74(5)
Tips on Completing Literature Searches
75(1)
Purposes in Completing a Literature Review
76(1)
Strategies for Gathering Information
77(1)
Writing Up a Literature Review
78(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
79(3)
chapter 5 Defining and Measuring Concepts 82(33)
Concepts, Variables, Values, and Constants
82(6)
Constructing and Measuring Variables
84(4)
Understanding Measurement
88(2)
How Knowledge Is Generated
90(1)
Quantitative and Qualitative Measurements
90(5)
Numbers
91(1)
Words
92(1)
Longer Word Forms
93(2)
Levels of Measurement
95(2)
Validity and Reliability
97(7)
Validity
98(2)
Reliability
100(4)
Standardized Scales
104(4)
Likert Scales
106(1)
Thurstone and Guttman Scales
107(1)
Diversity Issues and Standardized Scales
108(1)
A Goal Attainment Scale for Evaluating Social Work Practice
108(4)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
112(3)
chapter 6 Focusing a Research Study 115(17)
Exploratory Studies Ask General Research Questions
117(2)
Explanatory Studies Test Hypotheses
119(5)
Constructing Hypotheses
120(1)
Types of Variables
121(3)
Three Conditions of Causal Relationships
124(2)
Practical Uses of Hypotheses
126(2)
Hypothesizing to Evaluate Social Work Practice
127(1)
Generating Hypotheses
128(1)
Focusing a Research Study and the Consumer Role
128(2)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
130(2)
chapter 7 Designing the Study 132(15)
Review of Prior Steps
132(1)
Considering Secondary Research
133(2)
Is the Study Exploratory or Explanatory?
135(2)
Exploratory Research Designs
136(1)
Explanatory Research Designs
136(1)
Three Key Questions
137(1)
An Illustration of an Exploratory Study
137(3)
An Illustration of an Explanatory Study
140(4)
Designing a Study and the Consumer Role
144(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
145(2)
chapter 8 Considering Sampling Techniques 147(15)
Important Concepts about Sampling
147(2)
Selecting a Sample
149(1)
Probability and Nonprobability Sampling
150(7)
Types of Probability Sampling
151(3)
Types of Nonprobability Sampling
154(3)
Using Combinations of Sampling Approaches
157(1)
Sample Size
157(2)
Probability Samples
158(1)
Nonprobability Samples
158(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
159(3)
chapter 9 Constructing Surveys 162(21)
Using Interviews in Research
162(3)
Types of Interviews
162(3)
Ways to Conduct Interviews
165(1)
Using Questionnaires in Research
165(2)
Types of Questionnaires
165(1)
Ways to Administer Questionnaires
166(1)
Similarities between Data Collection in Research and Social Work
167(2)
Importance of High Response Rates
169(1)
Validity and Reliability Issues
170(1)
Comparing Interviews and Questionnaires
170(1)
Interviews
170(1)
Questionnaires
171(1)
How to Construct a Survey
171(8)
Constructing Qualitative Surveys
179(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
180(3)
chapter 10 Constructing Observational Studies 183(14)
Conducting Structured Observations
184(2)
Conducting Unstructured Observations
186(3)
Participant Observation
186(1)
Nonparticipatory Unstructured Observation
187(2)
Ethical Problems in Observing Covertly
189(1)
Advantages of Observational Research
190(1)
Validity and Reliability Issues
191(1)
How to Construct an Observational Data Collection Instrument
191(1)
Observing Social Artifacts and Other Nonhuman Entities
192(1)
Examples of Observations in Social Work Settings
193(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
194(3)
chapter 11 Exploring Causal Relationships 197(28)
Relevance of Causal Relationships in Social Work Practice
198(1)
Claiming That the Intervention Makes a Difference
199(3)
Documenting the Impact of Social Work Interventions
202(1)
Extraneous Influences
203(1)
Validity and Group Designs
204(1)
Group Designs for Exploring the Impact of an Intervention
205(11)
One-Group Posttest-Only Design
205(2)
One-Group Pretest/Posttest Design
207(1)
Pretest/Posttest Comparison Group Design
208(2)
Time Series Design
210(2)
Pretest/Posttest Control Group Design
212(4)
Single System Designs and Practice Evaluations
216(5)
Different Types of Single System Designs
217(2)
Implementing a Single System Design
219(2)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
221(4)
chapter 12 Collecting the Data 225(12)
Differences in Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data
225(3)
Quantitative Methods
226(1)
Qualitative Methods
226(2)
Preparation for Data Collection
228(4)
Preparation for Quantitative Methods
228(1)
Preparation for Qualitative Methods
229(1)
Preparation for Leading Focus Groups
230(2)
Considering the Influence of the Personal Characteristics of the Researcher
232(1)
Collecting the Data and the Consumer Role
233(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
234(3)
chapter 13 Analyzing Data 237(8)
What Is Data Analysis?
238(1)
Planning for Data Analysis
239(1)
Quantitative versus Qualitative Data Analysis
240(2)
Quantitative Data Analysis
240(1)
Qualitative Data Analysis
241(1)
Analyzing Data and the Consumer Role
242(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
243(2)
chapter 14 Quantitative Data Analysis 245(26)
Coding the Data
245(5)
Coding Questions That Directly Elicit a Numerical Response
246(1)
Coding Forced-Response Questions
246(4)
A Code Book
250(1)
Descriptive Statistics for Data Analysis
250(4)
Frequency Distributions
251(1)
Measures of Central Tendencies
252(1)
Measures of Variability
253(1)
Bivariate Statistics for Data Analysis
254(12)
Significance
254(1)
Statistical Significance
255(1)
Statistical Tests
256(1)
Measuring the Association between Two Variables
257(5)
Comparing Two or More Groups
262(4)
Working with a Data Set
266(2)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
268(3)
chapter 15 Qualitative Data Analysis 271(20)
Varied Types of Qualitative Data
272(1)
How Are Qualitative Data Analyzed?
272(1)
Option 1: Case Studies
273(3)
Option 2: Summarizing Responses to Open-Ended Questions
276(4)
How to Summarize Reponses for Open-Ended Questions
277(3)
Option 3: Theme Analysis
280(6)
How to Conduct a Theme Analysis
281(5)
Data Collection Approaches and the Three Options
286(1)
Other Types of Qualitative Data Analysis
286(2)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
288(3)
chapter 16 Preparing the Report 291(16)
Tasks Involved in Preparing a Report
291(1)
Task 1. Highlighting Background Material on the Study
292(1)
Task 2. Organizing the Findings
292(4)
Focusing the Findings
293(1)
Accuracy and Clarity
294(1)
Use of Graphics
294(2)
Task 3. Developing Recommendations
296(4)
Task 4. Writing or Presenting the Report
300(3)
Considering Potential Readers of the Report
300(1)
Contents of a Traditional Research Report
301(1)
Reporting on Qualitative Studies
302(1)
Task 5. Disseminating and Utilizing the Results
303(2)
Utilization by Staff Members
303(1)
Informing and Empowering Clients
304(1)
Reporting on the Research and the Consumer Role
305(1)
Chapter Reflections: Values and Ethics, Diversity, At-Risk Groups, and Social Justice
305(2)
APPENDIX A The Consumer Role: Questions to Ask When Critiquing a Research Report 307(3)
APPENDIX B Ethical Standards of the National Association of Social Workers 310(16)
Glossary 326(5)
Index 331


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