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Research Methods for Social Workers,9780205332335
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Research Methods for Social Workers

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205332335

ISBN10:
0205332331
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

The Fifth Edition of Research Methods for Social Workers includes new information on needs assessment, how quantitative and qualitative methods can be used together, more coverage of ethical issues throughout the text and an updated literature review section. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
PART I Knowledge Building for Social Work Practice 1(44)
How Do We Get Our Knowledge?
3(22)
Historical Origins of Current Attitudes
3(5)
Tension between Research and Practice
4(1)
Efforts to Close the Gap
5(2)
Research and Practice---No Need for a Gap
7(1)
Types of Knowledge
8(2)
Descriptive Knowledge
9(1)
Predictive Knowledge
9(1)
Prescriptive Knowledge
10(1)
Where Do We Get Our ``Knowledge''?
10(4)
Two Examples
12(2)
Characteristics of the Scientific Alternative
14(2)
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
16(2)
Quantitative Approaches to Knowledge Building
16(1)
Qualitative Approaches to Knowledge Building
17(1)
The Traditional Scientific Research Process
18(2)
The Environment for Scientific Social Work Research
20(3)
Summary
23(1)
References
23(2)
Ethical Issues in Social Work Research
25(20)
Treatment of Research Participants
26(10)
Evolution of Ethical Standards for Treatment of Participants
26(10)
Today's Standards for Treatment of Participants
36(6)
Voluntary Informed Consent
36(3)
No Unnecessary Pain and Suffering
39(1)
Anonymity/Confidentiality
40(1)
Need to Conduct the Research
41(1)
Other Ethical Obligations of Researchers
42(1)
Summary
43(1)
References
43(2)
PART II Beginning the Research Process 45(54)
Research Problems and Questions
47(16)
Why We Begin with Research Problems
48(1)
Setting Problem Priorities
49(5)
Identifying the Real Problem
54(2)
Selecting Research Questions
56(4)
Summary
60(1)
References
60(3)
Using Existing Knowledge
63(18)
What Is the Review of Literature?
63(2)
Purpose of the Review of Literature
65(1)
Potential Sources of ``Literature''
66(10)
Standard Reference Materials
66(1)
Computer-Accessible Databases
67(1)
The Internet
67(1)
Books and Articles in Professional Journals
68(3)
Personal Interviews with Authorities
71(1)
Research Reports and Monographs
72(1)
Presentations at Conferences and Symposia
72(1)
Content of Workshops
73(1)
Public Documents and Records of Public Gatherings
73(1)
Newspapers
73(1)
Radio and Television Broadcasts
74(1)
Magazines and Periodicals
74(2)
Organizing the Literature Review
76(1)
Writing the Report of a Review of Literature
77(3)
Direction and Flow
77(1)
Use of Quotations and Citations
78(1)
The Role of the Researcher in a Report of the Literature Review
79(1)
Summary
80(1)
References
80(1)
Focused Research Questions and Hypotheses
81(18)
Focused Research Questions
81(2)
Hypotheses
83(14)
Related Definitions
85(4)
Types of Relationships Expressed in Hypotheses
89(3)
Forms of Research Hypotheses
92(1)
When Are Hypotheses Appropriate?
93(1)
Wording of Hypotheses
94(2)
The ``Perfectly Worded'' Hypothesis
96(1)
Use of Subhypotheses
96(1)
Summary
97(1)
References
98(1)
PART III Research Design Issues 99(156)
Introduction to Research Design
101(28)
What Is a Research Design?
101(1)
The Purpose of Research Designs
102(1)
Broad Research Typologies
102(3)
Cross-Sectional Designs
103(1)
Longitudinal Designs
103(2)
The Knowledge-Building Continuum
105(12)
Exploratory Designs
106(3)
Descriptive Designs
109(3)
Explanatory Research
112(5)
Internal Validity and External Validity
117(7)
Internal Validity
118(4)
External Validity
122(1)
External Validity and Cultural Issues
123(1)
What Is the ``Best'' Research Design?
124(1)
Characteristics of Good Designs
125(2)
Summary
127(1)
References
128(1)
Qualitative Research Methods
129(24)
Interviewing in Qualitative Research
129(3)
Focus Groups and One-on-One Interviews
130(1)
Purpose of Interviews
130(1)
Relationship with Participants
131(1)
Structure
131(1)
Dealing with Sensitive Topics
132(1)
Research That Relies on Qualitative Methods
132(11)
Unstructured Systematic Observation
133(2)
Ethnographic Research
135(3)
Cross-Cultural Research
138(1)
Case Studies
139(2)
Grounded Theory
141(1)
Oral Histories
142(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Qualitative Designs
143(1)
Feminist Research
144(5)
Goals and Assumptions
144(1)
Feminist Research as a Response to Traditional Research Methods
145(1)
Design Features
146(1)
Examples of Feminist Research
146(3)
Using Qualitative Methods to Evaluate Practice Effectiveness
149(1)
Summary
149(1)
References
150(3)
Quantitative Research Methods
153(26)
Research That Uses Secondary Data Analysis
154(8)
Sources of Secondary Data
154(1)
Different Uses of Secondary Data Analysis
155(1)
Tasks Required in Secondary Data Analysis
156(1)
Advantages of Secondary Data Analysis
156(1)
Disadvantages of Secondary Data Analysis
157(1)
Some Specialized Methods of Secondary Data Analysis
157(5)
Research That Collects and Analyzes Original Data
162(14)
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
162(1)
Structured Observation
162(3)
In-Person Interviews
165(4)
Telephone Interviews and E-Mail Surveys
169(2)
Mailed Surveys
171(5)
Using Quantitative Methods to Evaluate Practice Effectiveness
176(1)
Summary
176(1)
References
177(2)
Case Sampling
179(18)
Sampling Terminology
179(7)
Probability Sampling
186(4)
Simple Random Sampling
186(1)
Systematic Random Sampling
187(1)
Stratified Sampling
187(2)
Cluster Sampling
189(1)
Nonprobability Sampling
190(3)
Convenience Sampling
190(1)
Purposive Sampling
191(1)
Snowball Sampling
192(1)
Quota Sampling
192(1)
Selecting a Good Sample
193(2)
Available Resources
193(1)
Overall Design and Purpose of the Study
193(1)
Type of Statistical Analysis to Be Used
194(1)
Level of Representativeness Required
195(1)
Summary
195(1)
References
195(2)
Measurement Concepts and Issues
197(16)
Preparation for Measurement
198(2)
Conceptualization
198(1)
Operationalization
199(1)
Levels of Measurement
200(2)
Criteria for Good Measurement
202(9)
Reliability
203(3)
Validity
206(5)
Cultural Issues in Measurement of Variables
211(1)
Summary
212(1)
References
212(1)
Use of Data Collection Instruments
213(20)
Fixed-Alternative and Open-Ended Items
214(1)
Indexes and Scales
215(7)
Indexes
215(1)
Scales
216(5)
Construction of Scales
221(1)
When Are Existing Instruments Appropriate for Use?
222(1)
Use of Revised Instruments
223(1)
Constructing New Instruments
224(4)
Issues in Development of New Instruments
225(3)
Use of Self-Administered Instruments
228(2)
Advantages of Self-Administered Instruments
228(1)
Supervised Administeration of Self-Administered Instruments
229(1)
Summary
230(1)
References
231(2)
Analyzing Data and Disseminating Findings
233(22)
The Data in Perspective
233(2)
Preparing for Statistical Analysis of Data
235(1)
Statistical Analysis of Research Data: An Overview
236(7)
The Uses of Statistical Analysis
237(6)
Interpreting and Reporting the Results of Statistical Analysis
243(1)
Disseminating Research Knowledge
244(8)
Reports and Monographs
244(3)
Internal Correspondence and In-Service Training
247(1)
Major Conference Presentations
247(2)
Other Professional Gatherings
249(1)
Publication in Professional Journals
250(2)
Summary
252(1)
References
252(3)
PART IV Evaluation Research 255(56)
Evaluating Programs
257(24)
What Is Program Evaluation?
258(8)
Planning/Evaluation Models
259(1)
Needs Assessment
260(2)
Evaluating Program Implementation
262(2)
Evaluating Program Outcomes
264(2)
What Is the Appropriate Design for a Program Evaluation?
266(2)
Other Types of Evaluation Research
268(3)
Cost-Benefit Analysis
268(1)
Program Impact Evaluations
269(1)
Program Structure Evaluations
270(1)
Who Should Conduct Evaluative Research?
271(3)
Use of an In-House Evaluator
271(1)
Use of an External Evaluator
272(1)
Empowerment Evaluation
273(1)
The Political Context of Program Evaluation
274(2)
Ethical Issues
276(1)
Reports of Program Evaluations
277(2)
Summary
279(1)
References
280(1)
Evaluating Individual Practice Effectiveness
281(30)
Alternatives to Single-System Research
281(4)
Supervisor Feedback
281(1)
Consumer Feedback
282(1)
Goal Attainment Scaling
283(2)
Single-System Research
285(5)
Conducting Single-System Research
290(1)
Design Alternatives
290(15)
B
291(1)
AB
292(2)
ABA
294(3)
ABAB
297(1)
BAB
298(1)
ABCD
299(3)
Multiple Baseline
302(3)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Single-System Research
305(2)
Ethical Issues
307(1)
Summary
308(1)
References
309(2)
Postscript 311(2)
Additional Readings in Research Methods 313(6)
Index 319


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