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Research Methods and Statistics in Criminal Justice : An Introduction,9780534534370
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Research Methods and Statistics in Criminal Justice : An Introduction

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534534370

ISBN10:
0534534376
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/23/2001
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $117.95

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Summary

Formerly a Nelson Hall title, this comprehensive introduction to the basics of criminal justice research introduces simple research methodologies and gradually advances to more complicated ones. The book describes elementary descriptive and inferential statistics, demonstrates research techniques, and examines the various scientific perspectives used in research today. This approach encourages readers to think critically about the research they will encounter in their studies as well as think about ways they can conduct their own research.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Research and Criminal Justice
1(29)
Research in Everyday Life
3(1)
Criminal Investigation and Scientific Research
4(1)
Basic and Applied Research
5(1)
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
6(6)
Evaluation Research
12(3)
Prediction Research
15(3)
In-House, Hired-Hand, and Third-Party Research
18(3)
Research in Criminal Justice: An Illustration
21(5)
Review Questions
26(1)
Exercises
27(1)
Notes
28(2)
Perspectives and Research
30(32)
What Is a Perspective?
30(4)
Different Kinds of Language
34(2)
Principles of a Scientific Perspective
36(6)
Empiricism
36(1)
Objectivity
37(2)
Tentativeness
39(1)
Skepticism
40(1)
Ethical Neutrality
40(1)
Parsimony
40(1)
Determinism
40(1)
Publication
41(1)
Replication
42(1)
Social Science as Science
42(2)
An Example of a Social Science Perspective: Symbolic Interactionism
44(2)
Other Perspectives in Criminal Justice Studies
46(1)
Theory
47(1)
Scope
47(1)
Integration
47(1)
Verification
47(1)
Relationships Among Theory, Research, and Methodology
48(1)
Research Ethics
48(6)
Anonymity and Confidentiality
49(1)
Risk and Voluntary Informed Consent
50(1)
Deception in Research
51(1)
Sharing Results and Benefits with Research Participants
51(1)
Research Ethics and Other Standards of Fairness
52(1)
Responsibility to Scientific Community
53(1)
Current Critiques of the Scientific Perspective
54(4)
Review Questions
58(1)
Exercises
58(1)
Notes
59(3)
An Introduction to Research Methodology and Design
62(31)
Choosing a Research Topic
63(1)
Identifying Units of Analysis
64(1)
Defining Concepts and Variables
65(1)
Types of Definitions
65(1)
Variables
66(1)
Validity, Reliability, and Precision in Categorizations and Measurements
66(2)
Validity
67(1)
Reliability
67(1)
Precision
68(1)
Choosing a Research Design
68(20)
Exploratory Research
69(1)
Descriptive Research
69(4)
Explantatory Research
73(6)
Internal and External Threats to the Validity of Research Results
79(9)
Triangulation
88(1)
A Final Note About the Research Process
88(2)
Review Questions
90(1)
Exercises
90(1)
Notes
91(2)
Sampling
93(15)
Probability Sampling
94(7)
Random Sampling
96(1)
Stratified Random Sampling and Proportionate Sampling
97(1)
Disproportionate Sampling
97(2)
Systematic Sampling
99(1)
Cluster Sampling
99(1)
Multistage Sampling
100(1)
Nonprobability Sampling
101(4)
Sample Size
105(1)
Determining the Population to Be Sampled
105(1)
Review Questions
106(1)
Exercises
106(1)
Notes
107(1)
Research Tools and Techniques: Survey Research Through Questionnaires and Interviews
108(18)
Questionnaires
108(10)
Types of Questions
109(1)
Constructing Questionnnaires
110(4)
Pretesting Questionnaires
114(1)
Precoding Questionnaires
114(1)
A Sample Questionnaire
115(2)
Increasing Response Rates
117(1)
Interviews
118(5)
Telephone Surveys
121(1)
Internet Surveys
122(1)
Review Questions
123(1)
Exercises
123(2)
Notes
125(1)
Research Tools and Techniques: Document Research, Physical Evidence, Observation, and Experimentation
126(18)
Document Research
127(4)
Content Analysis
130(1)
Observation
131(4)
Recording and Coding
134(1)
Accuracy of Observations
135(1)
Physical Evidence
135(1)
Experiments
136(3)
Entering the Field
139(2)
Review Questions
141(1)
Exercises
141(1)
Notes
142(2)
An Introduction to Descriptive Statistics
144(33)
Measurement and Scales
145(3)
Continuous and Discrete Variables
145(1)
Levels of Measurement
146(2)
Describing the Data
148(6)
Raw Numbers
149(1)
Percentages
150(2)
Rates
152(1)
Frequency Distributions
153(1)
Measures of Central Tendency
154(2)
The Mean
155(1)
The Median
156(1)
The Mode
156(1)
Selecting Measures of Central Tendency
156(3)
Measures of Dispersion
159(4)
Range
159(1)
Average Deviation
159(1)
Standard Deviation
160(3)
Indicators of Location in a Distribution
163(4)
Distributions: Symmetrical and Otherwise
167(7)
Unimodal and Multimodal Distributions
167(3)
The Normal Distribution and Standard Scores
170(4)
Review Questions
174(1)
Exercises
175(1)
Notes
176(1)
Descriptive Statistics: Examining Relationships Between Two or More Variables Through Cross-Tabulation
177(22)
Comparing Frequency Distributions
177(2)
Fundamentals of Cross-Tabulation
179(7)
Constructing a Cross-Tabulation
179(3)
Collapsing Categories
182(2)
Using Percentages in Cross-Tabulation
184(2)
Elaboration Analysis
186(10)
Explanation
189(1)
Interpretation
189(1)
Specification
190(1)
No Apparent Relationship in the Zero-Order Table
190(1)
Some Examples of Elaboration Analysis
190(6)
Review Questions
196(1)
Exercises
197(1)
Notes
198(1)
Descriptive Statistics: Measuring Relationships Between Two or More Variables Through Regression and Correlation Analysis
199(17)
Scattergrams
200(2)
Linear and Nonlinear Relationships
201(1)
Regression Analysis
202(5)
Correlation Analysis
207(6)
Multiple and Partial Correlation
211(2)
Correlation and Cross-Tabulation
213(1)
Diagnoals
213(1)
Other Statistical Measures of Association
214(1)
Review Questions
215(1)
Exercises
215(1)
Notes
215(1)
An Introduction to Inferential Statistics and Parameter Estimation
216(22)
Determining Probabilities Empirically and Mathematically
219(2)
Sampling Distributions and Sampling Error
221(7)
The Binomial Distribution
223(5)
Sampling Distributions for Other Sample Statistics
228(1)
A Few Words About Nonparametric Statistics
229(1)
Point and Interval Estimation
230(6)
Confidence Intervals and Confidence Limits
230(6)
Review Questions
236(1)
Exercises
236(1)
Note
237(1)
Inferential Statistics: Hypothesis Testing
238(20)
Testing Hypotheses
238(4)
Type I and Type II Error
239(1)
Significance Level
240(1)
One- and Two-Tailed Tests
241(1)
Difference Between Means Test (Student's t)
242(4)
Analysis of Variance (One Way)
246(5)
Assessing Relationships Between Variables in Tables
251(2)
Chi Square
251(2)
Significance Tests for the Correlation Coefficient
253(1)
Some Final Cautions
253(1)
Review Questions
254(1)
Exercises
255(2)
Notes
257(1)
Common Errors in Presenting and Interpreting Research Findings
258(14)
The Trappings of Science
259(2)
Scientific Costumes and Props
259(1)
Quoting or Relying on Authorities
259(1)
Using Technical Vocabulary
260(1)
The Many Uses and Misuses of Numbers
261(2)
Graphs: Their Uses and Misuses
263(4)
Bar Graphs
263(1)
Pie Graphs
263(1)
Pictographs
263(1)
Hazards in Interpreting Graphs
263(4)
Correlation and Causation
267(1)
Hypothesis Testing and Probabilities
268(2)
Review Questions
270(1)
Exercises
270(1)
Note
271(1)
Preparing and Reading Research Reports
272(21)
The Title
273(1)
Acknowledging Sources of Support
273(1)
The Abstract
273(1)
The Introduction
274(1)
The Literature Review
275(7)
Initiating the Literature Review
277(1)
Completing the Literature Review
278(1)
Referencing
279(3)
Methods
282(3)
Presentation and Analysis of Data
285(3)
The Conclusion
288(2)
The Bibliography or List of References
290(1)
Appendices
291(1)
A Final Note on Research Reports
291(1)
Review Questions
291(1)
Exercises
292(1)
Note
292(1)
Computers in Criminal Justice Research
293(9)
Components of the Computer
294(1)
Preparing Data for Computer Analysis
295(2)
Current Computer Applications in Criminal Justice
297(2)
Limitations of Computers
299(1)
The Internet and Scientific Research
300(1)
Review Questions
301(1)
Exercises
301(1)
Notes
301(1)
Conclusions
302(5)
Appendix A Table of Random Numbers 307(3)
Appendix B Areas Under the Normal Curve 310(6)
Appendix C Student's t Distributions Table 316(2)
Appendix D F Distribution Tables 318(5)
Appendix E Chi Square Table 323(3)
Appendix F Excerpts from the Code of Ethics of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences 326(8)
Glossary 334(15)
Index 349


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