9780876309995

Response to Disaster: Psychosocial, Community, and Ecological Approaches

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780876309995

  • ISBN10:

    0876309996

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 1999-09-01
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Summary

Psychological service in the wake of cataclysmic life events has emerged as a prominent and visible component of social response. This has generated a bandwagon of potential service providers, service approaches, and service venues. Where once help was scarce, it has become plentiful enough to engender its own set of conflicts and contradictions along with its intended solace and aid.Response to Disasterreconciles the technical, theoretical, and applied interests represented in these various populations and provides a contemporary treatment that can help define the directions of their increasing interaction.

Table of Contents

Contributors xi
Foreword xiii
Preface xv
Psychosocial, Ecological, and Community Perspectives on Disaster Response
1(24)
Richard Gist
Bernard Lubin
Bradley G. Redburn
Introduction
1(1)
Interventionism versus Empowerment
2(3)
Lessons in Humility
5(1)
The Debriefing Debates
6(6)
``There's Nothing So Practical As Good Theory''
12(4)
References
16(9)
PART 1: THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
The Experience of Disaster: Individuals and Communities Sharing Trauma
25(38)
Krzysztof Kaniasty
Fran Norris
Introduction
25(3)
The Experience of Disaster: Six Facets of the Cube
28(22)
One Way to Piece Things Together
50(4)
Conclusion
54(1)
References
55(8)
The Short- and Long-Term Psychological Impact of Disasters: Implications for Mental Health Interventions and Policy
63(20)
Mark S. Salzer
Leonard Bickman
Introduction
63(2)
Psychological Distress Following a Disaster
65(5)
Longevity of Psychological Distress Following Disasters
70(3)
Destruction, Disruption, Distress, and Recovery
73(3)
Implications for Interventions and Policy
76(2)
Conclusion
78(1)
References
79(4)
Assessing the Impact of Trauma in Work-Related Populations: Occupational and Cultural Determinants of Traumatic Reactivity
83(18)
Douglas Paton
Leigh M. Smith
Robert Ramsay
Debo Akande
Introduction
83(2)
The Development and Use of Assessment Instruments
85(3)
Method
88(1)
Results
89(4)
Discussion
93(4)
Conclusion
97(1)
References
98(3)
A Critical Look at PTSD: Constructs, Concepts, Epidemiology, and Implications
101(32)
Jeffrey P. Staab
Carol S. Fullerton
Robert J. Ursano
Introduction
101(2)
A Model of Traumatic Stress
103(11)
Applications of the Model
114(10)
Conclusion
124(1)
References
124(9)
PART 2: COMMUNITY STRATEGIES FOR INTERVENTION
The Help-Seeking Process for Distress after Disasters
133(34)
Suzanne Yates
Danny Axsom
Karyn Tiedeman
Introduction
133(2)
Conceptual Overview
135(3)
The Awareness of Distress
138(6)
The Interpretation of the Problem
144(5)
The Consideration of Coping Alternatives
149(8)
Enactment of the Coping Alternative
157(1)
Conclusion
157(1)
References
158(9)
Coping with Disastrous Events: An Empowerment Model of Community Healing
167(26)
Julie van den Eynde
Arthur Veno
Introduction
167(1)
Definitions of Disasters
167(4)
Conceptions about Social Change
171(2)
Conclusions about Change and Distress
173(1)
Is There Universal Resistance to Change?
173(1)
Social Support
174(4)
Case Study: Banksia Village---Trauma in Paradise
178(4)
Empowerment and Grass-Roots Community Groups
182(6)
Conclusion
188(2)
References
190(3)
Children's Responses to Disaster: Family and Systems Approaches
193(18)
Eric M. Vernberg
Introduction
193(1)
Characteristics of Disasters: Exposure to Traumatic Events
194(4)
Preexisting Child Characteristics
198(5)
Characteristics of Post-Disaster Recovery Environment
203(3)
Conclusion
206(1)
References
207(4)
There Are No Simple Solutions to Complex Problems: The Rise and Fall of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing as a Response to Occupational Stress in the Fire Service
211(30)
Richard Gist
S. Joseph Woodall
Contemporary Views of Firefighter Stress
213(2)
Alternative Constructions of Occupational Stress and Occupational Stressors
215(2)
A Systematic View of Occupational Stress
217(2)
Limitations of the CISD Model
219(1)
Professional Issues, Client Relationships, and Ethical Dilemmas
220(2)
Pursuing a More Reasoned Course
222(3)
Comparative Tests of the Models
225(1)
Back to the Basics
226(5)
References
231(10)
PART 3: CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN COMMUNITY SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
Ethical Issues in Working with Communities in Crisis
241(28)
Patrick O'Neill
Informed Consent
242(5)
Risk-Benefit Analysis
247(6)
Competence
253(4)
Divided Loyalties
257(8)
Conclusion
265(1)
References
265(4)
``And then you do the Hokey-Pokey and you turn yourself around...''
269(22)
Richard Gist
S. Joseph Woodall
Lynn K. Magenheimer
The Cloak of Science
271(1)
The Socialization of Scientists
272(1)
Social Science vs. Social Movements
273(2)
The Growth of ``Trauma Tourism''
275(3)
The Tip of the Iceberg
278(7)
Shamans, Showmen, and Science
285(2)
References
287(4)
Pseudoscience and the Commerical Promotion of Trauma Treatments
291(36)
Jeffrey M. Lohr
Robert W. Montgomery
Scott O. Lilienfeld
David F. Tolin
Introduction
291(2)
Theoretical Analysis of Alleged Treatment Effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
293(2)
TFT
295(1)
Empirical Validation Research
295(1)
EMDR
296(5)
The Effect of EMDR on PTSD
301(4)
Implications for Intervention on the Trauma Experience
305(2)
EMDR, TFT, and Pseudoscientific Explanation Definition of Pseudoscience
307(1)
Common Practices in Pseudoscience
308(2)
The Sale of Pseudoscience
310(8)
Acceptance of EMDR by Mental Health Clinicians
318(2)
Implications for Trauma Treatment
320(1)
References
321(6)
In the Public Arena: Disaster as a Socially Constructed Problem
327(20)
Lennis G. Echterling
Mary Lou Wylie
Introduction
327(1)
Framing the Issues
328(1)
Public Discourse
329(11)
Implications
340(3)
References
343(4)
Epilogue 347(6)
Index 353

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