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Review of Medical Physiology

by ;
Edition:
19th
ISBN13:

9780838582527

ISBN10:
0838582524
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Appleton

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Summary

The most comprehensive and up-to-date review of mammalian and human physiology. Examples from clinical medicine integrated throughout each chapter connect science with practice and illuminate important physiologic concepts. New and expanded coverage of vascular smooth muscle, gene expression, genetic basis of various diseases, obesity, regulation of insulin secretion, dyslexia, circadian rhythms, exercise tolerance, and more. Self-study section with 630 multiple choice questions - ideal for self-assessment and USMLE Step 1 review. More than 700 attractive and informative illustrations. Currently translated into 18 languages and endorsed by students and instructors around the world. Book jacket.

Author Biography

William F. Ganong is Lange Professor Emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
The General & Cellular Basis of Medical Physiologyp. 1
Introductionp. 1
General Principlesp. 1
Functional Morphology of the Cellp. 8
Structure & Function of DNA & RNAp. 18
Transport Across Cell Membranesp. 28
The Capillary Wallp. 36
Intercellular Communicationp. 36
Homeostasisp. 49
Agingp. 49
Section I Referencesp. 49
Physiology of Nerve & Muscle Cellsp. 51
Excitable Tissue: Nervep. 51
Introductionp. 51
Nerve Cellsp. 51
Excitation & Conductionp. 54
Ionic Basis of Excitation & Conductionp. 58
Properties of Mixed Nervesp. 60
Nerve Fiber Types & Functionp. 60
Neurotrophinsp. 62
Neurogliap. 63
Excitable Tissue: Musclep. 65
Introductionp. 65
Skeletal Musclep. 65
Cardiac Musclep. 78
Smooth Musclep. 82
Synaptic & Junctional Transmissionp. 86
Introductionp. 86
Synaptic Transmissionp. 87
Neuromuscular Transmissionp. 118
Initiation of Impulses in Sense Organsp. 122
Introductionp. 122
Sense Organs & Receptorsp. 122
The Sensesp. 122
Generation of Impulses in Different Nervesp. 124
"Coding" of Sensory Informationp. 125
Section II Referencesp. 128
Functions of the Nervous Systemp. 129
Reflexesp. 129
Introductionp. 129
Monosynaptic Reflexes: The Stretch Reflexp. 130
Polysynaptic Reflexes: The Withdrawal Reflexp. 135
General Properties of Reflexesp. 137
Cutaneous, Deep, & Visceral Sensationp. 139
Introductionp. 139
Pathwaysp. 139
Touchp. 142
Proprioceptionp. 143
Temperaturep. 143
Painp. 143
Other Sensationsp. 148
Visionp. 150
Introductionp. 150
Anatomic Considerationsp. 150
The Image-Forming Mechanismp. 155
The Photoreceptor Mechanismp. 159
Responses in the Visual Pathways & Cortexp. 163
Color Visionp. 166
Other Aspects of Visual Functionp. 168
Eye Movementsp. 171
Hearing & Equilibriump. 173
Introductionp. 173
Anatomic Considerationsp. 173
Hair Cellsp. 176
Hearingp. 178
Vestibular Functionp. 186
Smell & Tastep. 188
Introductionp. 188
Smellp. 188
Tastep. 191
Receptor Organs & Pathwaysp. 191
Alert Behavior, Sleep, & the Electrical Activity of the Brainp. 195
Introductionp. 195
The Thalamus & the Cerebral Cortexp. 195
The Reticular Formation & the Reticular Activating Systemp. 195
Evoked Cortical Potentialsp. 196
The Electroencephalogramp. 197
Physiologic Basis of the EEG, Consciousness, & Sleepp. 199
Control of Posture & Movementp. 205
Introductionp. 205
General Principlesp. 205
Corticospinal & Corticobulbar Systemp. 206
Cerebellump. 220
The Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 226
Introductionp. 226
Anatomic Organization of Autonomic Outflowp. 226
Chemical Transmission at Autonomic Junctionsp. 228
Responses of Effector Organs to Autonomic Nerve Impulsesp. 231
Central Regulation of Visceral Functionp. 235
Introductionp. 235
Medulla Oblongatap. 235
Hypothalamusp. 236
Relation to Cyclic Phenomenap. 238
Hungerp. 240
Thirstp. 243
Control of Posterior Pituitary Secretionp. 245
Control of Anterior Pituitary Secretionp. 251
Temperature Regulationp. 254
Neural Basis of Instinctual Behavior & Emotionsp. 260
Introductionp. 260
Anatomic Considerationsp. 260
Limbic Functionsp. 260
Sexual Behaviorp. 261
Other Emotionsp. 263
Motivation & Addictionp. 264
Brain Chemistry & Behaviorp. 266
"Higher Functions of the Nervous System": Conditioned Reflexes, Learning, & Related Phenomenap. 270
Introductionp. 270
Methodsp. 270
Learning & Memoryp. 270
Functions of the Neocortexp. 276
Section III Referencesp. 280
Endocrinology, Metabolism, & Reproductive Functionp. 282
Energy Balance, Metabolism, & Nutritionp. 282
Introductionp. 282
Energy Metabolismp. 282
Intermediary Metabolismp. 285
Carbohydrate Metabolismp. 289
Protein Metabolismp. 295
Fat Metabolismp. 302
Nutritionp. 313
The Thyroid Glandp. 320
Introductionp. 320
Anatomic Considerationsp. 320
Formation & Secretion of Thyroid Hormonesp. 321
Transport & Metabolism of Thyroid Hormonesp. 324
Effects of Thyroid Hormonesp. 326
Regulation of Thyroid Secretionp. 329
Clinical Correlatesp. 331
Endocrine Functions of the Pancreas & Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolismp. 336
Introductionp. 336
Islet Cell Structurep. 336
Structure, Biosynthesis, & Secretion of Insulinp. 337
Fate of Secreted Insulinp. 338
Effects of Insulinp. 339
Mechanism of Actionp. 341
Consequences of Insulin Deficiencyp. 343
Insulin Excessp. 347
Regulation of Insulin Secretionp. 348
Glucagonp. 351
Other Islet Cell Hormonesp. 354
Effects of Other Hormones & Exercise on Carbohydrate Metabolismp. 355
Hypoglycemia & Diabetes Mellitus in Humansp. 356
The Adrenal Medulla & Adrenal Cortexp. 359
Introductionp. 359
Adrenal Morphologyp. 359
Adrenal Medullap. 361
Adrenal Cortexp. 364
Physiologic Effects of Glucocorticoidsp. 372
Pharmacologic & Pathologic Effects of Glucocorticoidsp. 374
Regulation of Glucocorticoid Secretionp. 375
Effects of Mineralocorticoidsp. 378
Regulation of Aldosterone Secretionp. 381
Role of Mineralocorticoids in the Regulation of Salt Balancep. 383
Summary of the Effects of Adrenocortical Hyper- & Hypofunction in Humansp. 383
Hormonal Control of Calcium Metabolism & the Physiology of Bonep. 385
Introductionp. 385
Calcium & Phosphorus Metabolismp. 385
Bone Physiologyp. 387
Vitamin D & the Hydroxycholecalciferolsp. 390
The Parathyroid Glandsp. 393
Calcitoninp. 396
Effects of Other Hormones & Humoral Agents on Calcium Metabolismp. 398
The Pituitary Glandp. 399
Introductionp. 399
Morphologyp. 400
Intermediate-Lobe Hormonesp. 401
Growth Hormonep. 402
Physiology of Growthp. 409
Pituitary Insufficiencyp. 412
Pituitary Hyperfunction in Humansp. 413
The Gonads: Development & Function of the Reproductive Systemp. 415
Introductionp. 415
Sex Differentiation & Developmentp. 415
Pituitary Gonadotropins & Prolactinp. 425
The Male Reproductive Systemp. 428
The Female Reproductive Systemp. 437
Pregnancyp. 452
Lactationp. 455
Endocrine Functions of the Kidneys, Heart, & Pineal Glandp. 458
Introductionp. 458
The Renin-Angiotensin Systemp. 458
Erythropoietinp. 463
Hormones of the Heart & Other Natriuretic Factorsp. 464
Pineal Glandp. 467
Section IV Referencesp. 469
Gastrointestinal Functionp. 471
Digestion & Absorptionp. 471
Introductionp. 471
Carbohydratesp. 471
Proteins & Nucleic Acidsp. 475
Lipidsp. 477
Absorption of Water & Electrolytesp. 479
Absorption of Vitamins & Mineralsp. 481
Regulation of Gastrointestinal Functionp. 483
Introductionp. 483
General Considerationsp. 483
Gastrointestinal Hormonesp. 486
Mouth & Esophagusp. 492
Stomachp. 495
Exocrine Portion of the Pancreasp. 501
Liver & Biliary Systemp. 502
Small Intestinep. 508
Colonp. 512
Section V Referencesp. 516
Circulationp. 517
Circulating Body Fluidsp. 517
Introductionp. 517
Bloodp. 517
Lymphp. 548
Origin of the Heartbeat & the Electrical Activity of the Heartp. 549
Introductionp. 549
Origin & Spread of Cardiac Excitationp. 550
The Electrocardiogramp. 552
Cardiac Arrhythmiasp. 556
Electrocardiographic Findings in Other Cardiac & Systemic Diseasesp. 563
The Heart as a Pumpp. 567
Introductionp. 567
Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cyclep. 567
Cardiac Outputp. 572
Dynamics of Blood & Lymph Flowp. 579
Introductionp. 579
Functional Morphologyp. 579
Biophysical Considerationsp. 584
Arterial & Arteriolar Circulationp. 589
Capillary Circulationp. 593
Lymphatic Circulation & Interstitial Fluid Volumep. 595
Venous Circulationp. 596
Cardiovascular Regulatory Mechanismsp. 599
Introductionp. 599
Local Regulationp. 599
Substances Secreted by the Endotheliump. 600
Systemic Regulation by Hormonesp. 603
Systemic Regulation by the Nervous Systemp. 604
Circulation Through Special Regionsp. 614
Introductionp. 614
Cerebral Circulationp. 614
Coronary Circulationp. 623
Splanchnic Circulationp. 627
Cutaneous Circulationp. 628
Placental & Fetal Circulationp. 630
Cardiovascular Homeostasis in Health & Diseasep. 633
Introductionp. 633
Compensations for Gravitational Effectsp. 633
Exercisep. 635
Inflammation & Wound Healingp. 638
Shockp. 639
Hypertensionp. 644
Heart Failurep. 646
Section VI Referencesp. 648
Respirationp. 649
Pulmonary Functionp. 649
Introductionp. 649
Properties of Gasesp. 649
Anatomy of the Lungsp. 650
Mechanics of Respirationp. 651
Gas Exchange in the Lungsp. 662
Pulmonary Circulationp. 664
Other Functions of the Respiratory Systemp. 666
Gas Transport Between the Lungs & the Tissuesp. 669
Introductionp. 669
Oxygen Transportp. 669
Carbon Dioxide Transportp. 672
Regulation of Respirationp. 675
Introductionp. 675
Neural Control of Breathingp. 675
Regulation of Respiratory Activityp. 676
Chemical Control of Breathingp. 676
Nonchemical Influences on Respirationp. 682
Respiratory Adjustments in Health & Diseasep. 685
Introductionp. 685
Effects of Exercisep. 685
Hypoxiap. 687
Hypoxic Hypoxiap. 688
Other Forms of Hypoxiap. 694
Oxygen Treatmentp. 695
Hypercapnia & Hypocapniap. 696
Other Respiratory Abnormalitiesp. 696
Diseases Affecting the Pulmonary Circulationp. 698
Effects of Increased Barometric Pressurep. 698
Artificial Respirationp. 699
Section VII Referencesp. 700
Formation & Excretion of Urinep. 702
Renal Function & Micturitionp. 702
Introductionp. 702
Functional Anatomyp. 702
Renal Circulationp. 706
Glomerular Filtrationp. 709
Tubular Functionp. 711
Water Excretionp. 717
Acidification of the Urine & Bicarbonate Excretionp. 723
Regulation of Na[superscript +] & Cl[superscript -] Excretionp. 726
Regulation of K[superscript +] Excretionp. 727
Diureticsp. 728
Effects of Disordered Renal Functionp. 729
Filling of the Bladderp. 730
Emptying of the Bladderp. 730
Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition & Volumep. 733
Introductionp. 733
Defense of Tonicityp. 733
Defense of Volumep. 733
Defense of Specific Ionic Compositionp. 734
Defense of H[superscript +] Concentrationp. 734
Section VIII Referencesp. 742
Self-Study: Objectives, Essay Questions, & Multiple-Choice Questions (black edges)p. 743
Answers to Quantitative & Multiple-Choice Questions (black edges)p. 810
Appendixp. 813
General Referencesp. 813
Normal Values & the Statistical Evaluation of Datap. 813
Abbreviations & Symbols Commonly Used in Physiologyp. 816
Some Standard Respiratory Symbolsp. 823
Equivalents of Metric, United States, & English Measuresp. 823
Greek Alphabetp. 824
Indexp. 825
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.


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