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Review of Medical Physiology

by
Edition:
21st
ISBN13:

9780071402361

ISBN10:
0071402365
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/17/2003
Publisher(s):
MCG (Manual)

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Summary

This book provides a current and concise overview of mammalian and human physiology. Examples from clinical medicine have been integrated throughout the chapters to illuminate important physiologic concepts. The book includes more than 700 attractive and informative illustrations. A valuable self-study guide, which features content summaries, objectives, essay questions, and multiple-choice questions, is provided at the end of the book and is an excellent tool for students when reviewing for the USMLE and other examinations.

Author Biography

William F. Ganong is Lange Professor Emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco.

Table of Contents

SECTION I. INTRODUCTION

1. The General & Cellular Basis of Medical Physiology

Introduction

General Principles

Functional Morphology of the Cell

Structure & Function of DNA & RNA

Transport Across Cell Membranes

The Capillary Wall

Intercellular Communication

Homeostasis

Aging

Section I References

SECTION II. PHYSIOLOGY OF NERVE & MUSCLE CELLS

2. Excitable Tissue: Nerve

Introduction

Nerve Cells

Excitation & Conduction

Ionic Basis of Excitation & Conduction

Properties of Mixed Nerves

Nerve Fiber Types & Function

Neurotrophins

Neuroglia

3. Excitable Tissue: Muscle

Introduction

Skeletal Muscle

Morphology
Electrical Phenomena & Ionic Fluxes
Contractile Responses
Energy Sources & Metabolism
Properties of Skeletal Muscles in the Intact Organism

Cardiac Muscle

Morphology
Electrical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Metabolism
Pacemaker Tissue

Smooth MuscleMorphology

Visceral Smooth Muscle
Multi-Unit Smooth Muscle

4. Synaptic & Junctional Transmission

Introduction

Synaptic Transmission

Functional Anatomy
Electrical Events in Postsynaptic Neurons
Inhibition & Facilitation at Synapses
Chemical Transmission of Synaptic Activity
Principal Neurotransmitter Systems
Synpatic Plasticity & Learning

Neuromuscular Transmission

Neuromuscular Junction
Nerve Endings in Smooth & Cardiac Muscle
Denervation Hypersensitivity

5. Initiation of Impulses in Sense Organs

Introduction

Sense Organs & Receptors

The Senses

Generation of Impulses in Different Nerves

"Coding" of Sensory Information

Section II References

Section III. FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

6. Reflexes

Introduction

Monosynaptic Reflexes: The Stretch Reflex

Polysynaptic Reflexes: The Withdrawal Reflex

General Properties of Reflexes

7. Cutaneous, Deep, & Visceral Sensation

Introduction

Pathways

Touch

Proprioception

Temperature

Pain

Other Sensations

8. Vision

Introduction

Anatomic Considerations

The Image-Forming Mechanism

The Photoreceptor Mechanism

Responses in the Visual Pathways & Cortex

Color Vision

Other Aspects of Visual Function

Eye Movements

9. Hearing & Eqilibrium

Introduction

Anatomic Considerations

Hair Cells

Hearing

Vestibular Function

10. Smell & Taste

Introduction

Smell

Taste

Receptor Organs & Pathways

11. Alert Behavior, Sleep, & the Electrical Activity of the Brain

Introduction

The Thalamus & the Cerebral Cortex

The Reticular Formation & the Reticular Activating System

Evoked Cortical Potentials

The Electroencephalogram

Physiologic Basis of the EEG, Consciousness, & Sleep

12. Control of Posture & Movement

Introduction

General Principles

Corticospinal & Corticobulbar System

Anatomy & Function
Posture-Regulating Systems
Spinal Integration
Medullary Components
Midbrain Components
Coritcal Components
Basal Ganglia

Cerebellum

13. The Autonomic Nervous System

Introduction

Anatomic Organization of Autonomic Outflow

Chemical Transmission at Autonomic Junctions

Responses of Effector Organs to Autonomic Nerve Impulses

14. Central Regulation of Visceral Function

Introduction

Medulla Oblongata

Hypothalamus

Anatomic Considerations
Hypothalamic Function
Relation to Autonomic Function
Relation to Sleep
Relation to Cyclic Phenomena
Hunger
Control of Posterior Pituitary Secretion
Control of Anterior Pituitary Secretion
Temperature Regulation

15. Neural Basis of Instinctual Behavior & Emotions

Introduction

Anatomic Considerations

Limbic Functions

Sexual Behavior

Other Emotions

Motivation & Addiction

Brain Chemistry & Behavior

16. "Higher Functions of the Nervous System": Conditioned Reflexes, Learning, & Related Phenomena

Introduction

Methods

Learning & Memory

Functions of the Neocortex

Section III References

SECTION IV. ENDOCRINOLOGY, METABOLISM, & REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

17. Energy Balance, Metabolism, & Nutrition

Introduction

Energy Metabolism

Intermediary Metabolism

Carbohydrate Metabolism

Protein Metabolism

Fat Metabolism

Nutrition

18. The Thyroid Gland

Introduction

Anatomic Considerations

Formation & Secretion of Thyroid Hormones

Transport & Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones

Effects of Thyroid Hormones

Regulation of Thyroid Secretion

Clinical Correlates

19. Endocrine Functions of the Pancreas & Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Introduction

Islet Cell Structure

Structure, Biosynthesis, & Secretion of Insulin

Fate of Secreted Insulin

Effects of Insulin

Mechanism of Action

Consequences of Insulin Deficiency

Insulin Excess

Regulation of Insulin Secretion

Glucagon

Other Islet Cell Hormones

Effects of Other Hormones & Exercise on Carbohydrate Metabolism

Hypoglycemia & Diabetes Mellitus in Humans

20. The Adrenal Medulla & Adrenal Cortex

Introduction

Adrenal Morphology

Adrenal Medulla

Structure & Function of Medullary Hormones
Regulation of Adrenal Medullary Secretion

Adrenal Cortex

Structure & Biosynthesis of Adrenocortical Hormones
Transport, Metabolism, & Excretion of Adrenocortical Hormones
Effects of Adrenal Androgens & Estrogens
Physiologic Effects of Glucocorticoids
Pharmacologic & Pathologic Effects of Glucocorticoids
Regulation of Glucocorticoid Secretion
Effects of Mineralocorticoids
Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion
Role of Mineralocorticoids in the Regulation of Salt Balance
Summary of the Effects of Adrenocortical Hyper- & Hypofunction in Humans

21. Hormonal Control of Calcium Metabolism & the Physiology of Bone

Introduction

Calcium & Phosphorus Metabolism

Bone Physiology

Vitamin D & the Hydroxycholecalciferols

The Parathyroid Glands

Calcitonin

Effects of Other Hormones & Humoral Agents on Calcium Metabolism

22. The Pituitary Gland

Introduction

Morphology

Intermediate-Lobe Hormones

Growth Hormone

Physiology of Growth

Pituitary Insufficiency

Pituitary Hyperfunction in Humans

23. The Gonads: Development & Function of the Reproductive System

Introduction

Sex Differentiation & Development

Chromosomal Sex
Embryology of the Human Reproductive System
Aberrant Sexual Differentiation
Puberty
Precocious & Delayed Puberty
Menopause

Pituitary Gonadotropins & Prolactin

The Male Reproductive System

Structure
Gametogenesis & Ejaculation
Endocrine Function of the Testes
Control of Testicular Function
Abnormalities of Testicular Function

The Female Reproductive System

The Menstrual Cycle
Ovarian Hormones
Control of Ovarian Function
Abnormalities of Ovarian Function

Pregnancy

Lactation

24. Endocrine Functions of the Kidneys, Heart, and Pineal Gland

Introduction

The Renin-Angiotensin System

Erythropoietin

Hormones of the Heart & Other Natriuretic Factors

Pineal Gland

Section IV References

SECTION V. GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION

25. Digestion & Absorption

Introduction

Carbohydrates

Proteins & Nucleic Acids

Lipids

Absorption of Water & Electrolytes

Absorption of Vitamins & Minerals

26. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function

Introduction

General Considerations

Gastrointestinal Hormones

Mouth & Esophagus

Stomach

Exocrine Portion of the Pancreas

Liver & Biliary System

Small Intestine

Colon

Section V References

SECTION VI. CIRCULATION

27. Circulating Body Fluids

Introduction

Blood

Bone Marrow
White Blood Cells
Immunity
Platelets
Red Blood Cells
Blood Types
Plasma
Hemostasis

Lymph

28. Origin of the Heartbeat & the Electrical Activity of the Heart

Introduction

Origin & Spread of Cardiac Excitation

The Electrocardiogram

Cardiac Arrhythmias

Electrocardiographic Findings in Other Cardiac & Systemic Diseases

29. The Heart as a Pump

Introduction

Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle

Cardiac Output

30. Dynamics of Blood & Lymph Flow

Introduction

Functional Morphology

Biophysical Considerations

Arterial & Arteriolar Circulation

Capillary Circulation

Lymphatic Circulation & Intestinal Fluid Volume

Venous Circulation

31. Cardiovascular Regulatory Mechanisms

Introduction

Local Regulation

Substances Secreted by the Endothelium

Systemic Regulation by Hormones

Systemic Regulation by the Nervous System

32. Circulation Through Special Regions

Introduction

Cerebral Circulation

Anatomic Considerations
Cerebrospinal Fluid
The Blood-Brain Barrier
Cerebral Blood Flow & Its Regulation
Brain Metabolism & Oxygen Requirements

Coronary Circulation

Splanchnic Circulation

Cutaneous Circulation

Placental & Fetal Circulation

33. Cardiovascular Homeostasis in Health & Disease

Introduction

Compensation for Gravitational Effects

Exercise

Inflammation & Wound Healing

Shock

Hypertension

Heart Failure

Section VI References

SECTION VII. RESPIRATION

34. Pulmonary Function

Introduction

Properties of Gases

Anatomy of the Lungs

Mechanics of Respiration

Gas Exchange in the Lungs

Pulmonary Circulation

Other Functions of the Respiratory System

35. Gas Transport Between the Lungs & the Tissues

Introduction

Oxygen Transport

Carbod Dioxide Transport

36. Regulation of Respiration

Introduction

Neural Control of Breathing

Regulation of Respiratory Activity

Chemical Control of Breathing

Nonchemical Influences on Respiration

37. Respiratory Adjustments in Health & Disease

Introduction

Effects of Exercise

Hypoxia

Hypoxic Hypoxia

Other Forms of Hypoxia

Oxygen Treatment

Hypercapnia & Hypocapnia

Other Respiratory Abnormalities

Diseases Affecting the Pulmonary Circulation

Effects of Increased Barometric Pressure

Artificial Respiration

Section VII References

SECTION VIII. FORMATION & EXCRETION OF URINE

38. Renal Function & Micturition

Introduction

Functional Anatomy

Renal Circulation

Glomerular Filtration

Tubular Function

Water Excretion

Acidification of the Urine & Bicarbonate Excretion

Regulation of NA+ & Cl- Excretion

Regulation of K+ Excretion

Diuretics

Effects of Disordered Renal Function

Filling of the Bladder

Emptying of the Bladder

39. Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition & Volume

Introduction

Defense of Tonicity

Defense of Volume

Defense of Specific Ionic Composition

Defense of H+ Concentration

Section VIII References

Self-Study: Objectives, Essay Questions, & Multiple-Choice Questions

Answers to Quantitative & Multiple-Choice Questions

Appendix

Index



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