9781118309940

RF Circuit Design

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781118309940

  • ISBN10:

    1118309944

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2012-08-14
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

Summarizes the schemes and technologies in RF circuit design, describes the basic parameters of an RF system and the fundamentals of RF system design, and presents an introduction of the individual RF circuit block design.

Forming the backbone of today's mobile and satellite communications networks, radio frequency (RF) components and circuits are incorporated into everything that transmits or receives a radio wave, such as mobile phones, radio, WiFi, and walkie talkies. RF Circuit Design, Second Edition immerses practicing and aspiring industry professionals in the complex world of RF design.

Completely restructured and reorganized with new content, end-of-chapter exercises, illustrations, and an appendix, the book presents integral information in three complete sections:

  • Part One explains the different methodologies between RF and digital circuit design and covers voltage and power transportation, impedance matching in narrow-band case and wide-band case, gain of a raw device, measurement, and grounding. It also goes over equipotentiality and current coupling on ground surface, as well as layout and packaging, manufacturability of product design, and radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC).
  • Part Two includes content on the main parameters and system analysis in RF circuit design, the fundamentals of differential pair and common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), Balun, and system-on-a-chip (SOC).
  • Part Three covers low-noise amplifier (LNA), power amplifier (PA), voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), mixers, and tunable filters.

RF Circuit Design, Second Edition is an ideal book for engineers and managers who work in RF circuit design and for courses in electrical or electronic engineering.

Author Biography

RICHARD CHI-HSI LI has more than twenty years experience with RF circuit design and has worked for companies such as Motorola, Texas Instruments, and RCA. Professor Li has taught many courses and given more than sixty lectures on RF circuit design in recent years.

Table of Contents

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xix

PART 1 DESIGN TECHNOLOGIES AND SKILLS 1

1 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RF AND DIGITAL CIRCUIT DESIGN 3

1.1 Controversy 3

1.1.1 Impedance Matching 4

1.1.2 Key Parameter 5

1.1.3 Circuit Testing and Main Test Equipment 6

1.2 Difference of RF and Digital Block in a Communication System 6

1.2.1 Impedance 6

1.2.2 Current Drain 7

1.2.3 Location 7

1.3 Conclusions 9

1.4 Notes for High-Speed Digital Circuit Design 9

Further Reading 10

Exercises 11

Answers 11

2 REFLECTION AND SELF-INTERFERENCE 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Voltage Delivered from a Source to a Load 16

2.2.1 General Expression of Voltage Delivered from a Source to a Load when l λ/4 so that Td →0 16

2.2.2 Additional Jitter or Distortion in a Digital Circuit Block 20

2.3 Power Delivered from a Source to a Load 23

2.3.1 General Expression of Power Delivered from a Source to a Load when l λ/4 so that Td →0 23

2.3.2 Power Instability 26

2.3.3 Additional Power Loss 27

2.3.4 Additional Distortion 28

2.3.5 Additional Interference 31

2.4 Impedance Conjugate Matching 33

2.4.1 Maximizing Power Transport 33

2.4.2 Power Transport without Phase Shift 35

2.4.3 Impedance Matching Network 37

2.4.4 Necessity of Impedance Matching 40

2.5 Additional Effect of Impedance Matching 42

2.5.1 Voltage Pumped up by Means of Impedance Matching 42

2.5.2 Power Measurement 49

Appendices 51

2.A.1 VSWR and Other Reflection and Transmission Coefficients 51

2.A.2 Relationships between Power (dBm), Voltage (V), and Power (W) 58

Reference 58

Further Reading 58

Exercises 59

Answers 59

3 IMPEDANCE MATCHING IN THE NARROW-BAND CASE 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Impedance Matching by Means of Return Loss Adjustment 63

3.2.1 Return Loss Circles on the Smith Chart 63

3.2.2 Relationship between Return Loss and Impedance Matching 66

3.2.3 Implementation of an Impedance Matching Network 67

3.3 Impedance Matching Network Built by One Part 68

3.3.1 One Part Inserted into Impedance Matching Network in Series 68

3.3.2 One Part Inserted into the Impedance Matching Network in Parallel 70

3.4 Impedance Matching Network Built by Two Parts 74

3.4.1 Regions in a Smith Chart 74

3.4.2 Values of Parts 75

3.4.3 Selection of Topology 81

3.5 Impedance Matching Network Built By Three Parts 84

3.5.1 “” Type and “T” Type Topologies 84

3.5.2 Recommended Topology 84

3.6 Impedance Matching When ZS Or ZL Is Not 50 85

3.7 Parts In An Impedance Matching Network 93

Appendices 94

3.A.1 Fundamentals of the Smith Chart 94

3.A.2 Formula for Two-Part Impedance Matching Network 99

3.A.3 Topology Limitations of the Two-Part Impedance Matching Network 110

3.A.4 Topology Limitation of Three Parts Impedance Matching Network 114

3.A.5 Conversion between and T Type Matching Network 122

3.A.6 Possible and T Impedance Matching Networks 124

Reference 124

Further Reading 124

Exercises 125

Answers 127

4 IMPEDANCE MATCHING IN THE WIDEBAND CASE 131

4.1 Appearance of Narrow and Wideband Return Loss on a Smith Chart 131

4.2 Impedance Variation Due to the Insertion of One Part Per Arm or Per Branch 136

4.2.1 An Inductor Inserted into Impedance Matching Network in Series 137

4.2.2 A Capacitor Inserted into Impedance Matching Network in Series 139

4.2.3 An Inductor Inserted into Impedance Matching Network in Parallel 141

4.2.4 A Capacitor Inserted into Impedance Matching Network in Parallel 143

4.3 Impedance Variation Due to the Insertion of Two Parts Per Arm or Per Branch 145

4.3.1 Two Parts Connected in Series to Form One Arm 146

4.3.2 Two Parts Are Connected in Parallel to Form One Branch 148

4.4 Partial Impedance Matching for an IQ (in Phase Quadrature) Modulator in a UWB (Ultra Wide Band) System 151

4.4.1 Gilbert Cell 151

4.4.2 Impedances of the Gilbert Cell 153

4.4.3 Impedance Matching for LO, RF, and IF Ports Ignoring the Bandwidth 155

4.4.4 Wide Bandwidth Required in a UWB (Ultra Wide Band) System 159

4.4.5 Basic Idea to Expand the Bandwidth 160

4.4.6 Example 1: Impedance Matching in IQ Modulator Design for Group 1 in a UWB System 161

4.4.7 Example 2: Impedance Matching in IQ Modulator Design for Group 3 + Group 6 in a UWB System 172

4.5 Discussion of Passive Wideband Impedance Matching Network 174

4.5.1 Impedance Matching for the Gate of a MOSFET Device 175

4.5.2 Impedance Matching for the Drain of a MOSFET Device 177

Further Reading 179

Exercises 179

Answers 180

5 IMPEDANCE AND GAIN OF A RAW DEVICE 181

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 Miller Effect 183

5.3 Small-Signal Model of a Bipolar Transistor 187

5.4 Bipolar Transistor with CE (Common Emitter) Configuration 190

5.4.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Gain Av,CE of a CE Device 190

5.4.2 Short-Circuit Current Gain βCE and Frequency Response of a CE Device 194

5.4.3 Primary Input and Output Impedance of a CE (common emitter) device 196

5.4.4 Miller’s Effect in a Bipolar Transistor with CE Configuration 197

5.4.5 Emitter Degeneration 200

5.5 Bipolar Transistor with CB (Common Base) Configuration 204

5.5.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Gain Av,CB of a CB Device 204

5.5.2 Short-Circuit Current Gain βCG and Frequency Response of a CB Device 206

5.5.3 Input and Output Impedance of a CB Device 208

5.6 Bipolar Transistor with CC (Common Collector) Configuration 214

5.6.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Gain Av,CC of a CC Device 214

5.6.2 Short-Circuit Current Gain βCC and Frequency Response of the Bipolar Transistor with CC Configuration 217

5.6.3 Input and Output Impedance of a CC Device 218

5.7 Small-Signal Model of a MOSFET 221

5.8 Similarity Between a Bipolar Transistor and a MOSFET 225

5.8.1 Simplified Model of CS Device 225

5.8.2 Simplified Model of CG Device 228

5.8.3 Simplified Model of CD Device 230

5.9 MOSFET with CS (Common Source) Configuration 235

5.9.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Gain Av,CS of a CS Device 235

5.9.2 Short-Circuit Current Gain βCS and Frequency Response of a CS Device 237

5.9.3 Input and Output Impedance of a CS Device 239

5.9.4 Source Degeneration 240

5.10 MOSFET with CG (Common Gate) Configuration 244

5.10.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Gain of a CG Device 244

5.10.2 Short-Circuit Current Gain and Frequency Response of a CG Device 245

5.10.3 Input and Output Impedance of a CG Device 247

5.11 MOSFET with CD (Common Drain) Configuration 249

5.11.1 Open-Circuit Voltage Gain Av,CD of a CD Device 250

5.11.2 Short-Circuit Current Gain βCD and Frequency Response of a CD Device 250

5.11.3 Input and Output Impedance of a CD Device 251

5.12 Comparison of Transistor Configuration of Single-stage Amplifiers with Different Configurations 252

Further Reading 256

Exercises 256

Answers 256

6 IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT 259

6.1 Introduction 259

6.2 Scalar and Vector Voltage Measurement 260

6.2.1 Voltage Measurement by Oscilloscope 260

6.2.2 Voltage Measurement by Vector Voltmeter 262

6.3 Direct Impedance Measurement by a Network Analyzer 263

6.3.1 Direction of Impedance Measurement 263

6.3.2 Advantage of Measuring S Parameters 265

6.3.3 Theoretical Background of Impedance Measurement by S Parameters 266

6.3.4 S Parameter Measurement by Vector Voltmeter 268

6.3.5 Calibration of the Network Analyzer 270

6.4 Alternative Impedance Measurement by Network Analyzer 272

6.4.1 Accuracy of the Smith Chart 272

6.4.2 Low- and High-Impedance Measurement 275

6.5 Impedance Measurement Using a Circulator 276

Appendices 277

6.A.1 Relationship Between the Impedance in Series and in Parallel 277

Further Reading 278

Exercises 278

Answers 279

7 GROUNDING 281

7.1 Implication of Grounding 281

7.2 Possible Grounding Problems Hidden in a Schematic 283

7.3 Imperfect or Inappropriate Grounding Examples 284

7.3.1 Inappropriate Selection of Bypass Capacitor 284

7.3.2 Imperfect Grounding 286

7.3.3 Improper Connection 288

7.4 ‘Zero’ Capacitor 290

7.4.1 What is a Zero Capacitor 290

7.4.2 Selection of a Zero Capacitor 290

7.4.3 Bandwidth of a Zero Capacitor 293

7.4.4 Combined Effect of Multi-Zero Capacitors 295

7.4.5 Chip Inductor is a Good Assistant 296

7.4.6 Zero Capacitor in RFIC Design 298

7.5 Quarter Wavelength of Microstrip Line 300

7.5.1 A Runner is a Part in RF Circuitry 300

7.5.2 Why Quarter Wavelength is so Important 304

7.5.3 Magic Open-Circuited Quarter Wavelength of Microstrip Line 305

7.5.4 Testing for Width of Microstrip Line with Specific Characteristic Impedance 307

7.5.5 Testing for Quarter Wavelength 307

Appendices 309

7.A.1 Characterizing of Chip Capacitor and Chip Inductor by Means of S21 Testing 309

7.A.2 Characterizing of Chip Resistor by Means of S11 of S22

Testing 319

Reference 321

Further Reading 322

Exercises 322

Answers 323

8 EQUIPOTENTIALITY AND CURRENT COUPLING ON THE GROUND SURFACE 325

8.1 Equipotentiality on the Ground Surface 325

8.1.1 Equipotentiality on the Grounded Surface of an RF Cable 325

8.1.2 Equipotentiality on the Grounded Surface of a PCB 326

8.1.3 Possible Problems of a Large Test PCB 327

8.1.4 Coercing Grounding 328

8.1.5 Testing for Equipotentiality 333

8.2 Forward and Return Current Coupling 335

8.2.1 Indifferent Assumption and Great Ignore 335

8.2.2 Reduction of Current Coupling on a PCB 336

8.2.3 Reduction of Current Coupling in an IC Die 338

8.2.4 Reduction of Current Coupling between Multiple RF Blocks 340

8.2.5 A Plausible System Assembly 341

8.3 PCB or IC Chip with Multimetallic Layers 344

Further Reading 346

Exercises 346

Answers 347

9 LAYOUT 349

9.1 Difference in Layout between an Individual Block and a System 349

9.2 Primary Considerations of a PCB 350

9.2.1 Types of PCBs 350

9.2.2 Main Electromagnetic Parameters 351

9.2.3 Size 351

9.2.4 Number of Metallic Layers 352

9.3 Layout of a PCB for Testing 352

9.4 VIA Modeling 355

9.4.1 Single Via 355

9.4.2 Multivias 359

9.5 Runner 360

9.5.1 When a Runner is Connected with the Load in Series 360

9.5.2 When a Runner is Connected to the Load in Parallel 363

9.5.3 Style of Runner 363

9.6 Parts 369

9.6.1 Device 369

9.6.2 Inductor 369

9.6.3 Resistor 370

9.6.4 Capacitor 370

9.7 Free Space 371

References 373

Further Reading 373

Exercises 373

Answers 374

10 MANUFACTURABILITY OF PRODUCT DESIGN 377

10.1 Introduction 377

10.2 Implication of 6σ Design 379

10.2.1 6σ and Yield Rate 379

10.2.2 6σ Design for a Circuit Block 382

10.2.3 6σ Design for a Circuit System 383

10.3 Approaching 6σ Design 383

10.3.1 By Changing of Parts’ σ Value 383

10.3.2 By Replacing Single Part with Multiple Parts 385

10.4 Monte Carlo Analysis 386

10.4.1 A Band-Pass Filter 386

10.4.2 Simulation with Monte Carlo Analysis 387

10.4.3 Sensitivity of Parts on the Parameter of Performance 392

Appendices 392

10.A.1 Fundamentals of Random Process 392

10.A.2 Index Cp and Cpk Applied in 6σ Design 398

10.A.3 Table of the Normal Distribution 398

Further Reading 398

Exercises 399

Answers 399

11 RFIC (RADIO FREQUENCY INTEGRATED CIRCUIT) 401

11.1 Interference and Isolation 401

11.1.1 Existence of Interference in Circuitry 401

11.1.2 Definition and Measurement of Isolation 402

11.1.3 Main Path of Interference in a RF Module 403

11.1.4 Main Path of Interference in an IC Die 403

11.2 Shielding for an RF Module by a Metallic Shielding Box 403

11.3 Strong Desirability to Develop RFIC 405

11.4 Interference going along IC Substrate Path 406

11.4.1 Experiment 406

11.4.2 Trench 408

11.4.3 Guard Ring 409

11.5 Solution for Interference Coming from Sky 411

11.6 Common Grounding Rules for RF Module and RFIC Design 412

11.6.1 Grounding of Circuit Branches or Blocks in Parallel 412

11.6.2 DC Power Supply to Circuit Branches or Blocks in Parallel 413

11.7 Bottlenecks in RFIC Design 414

11.7.1 Low-Q Inductor and Possible Solution 414

11.7.2 “Zero” Capacitor 419

11.7.3 Bonding Wire 419

11.7.4 Via 419

11.8 Calculating of Quarter Wavelength 420

Reference 423

Further Reading 423

Exercises 424

Answers 425

PART 2 RF SYSTEM 427

12 MAIN PARAMETERS AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN RF CIRCUIT DESIGN 429

12.1 Introduction 429

12.2 Power Gain 431

12.2.1 Basic Concept of Reflection Power Gain 431

12.2.2 Transducer Power Gain 434

12.2.3 Power Gain in a Unilateral Case 437

12.2.4 Power Gain in a Unilateral and Impedance-Matched Case 438

12.2.5 Power Gain and Voltage Gain 439

12.2.6 Cascaded Equations of Power Gain 439

12.3 Noise 441

12.3.1 Significance of Noise Figure 441

12.3.2 Noise Figure in a Noisy Two-Port RF Block 443

12.3.3 Notes on Noise Figure Testing 444

12.3.4 An Experimental Method to Obtain Noise Parameters 445

12.3.5 Cascaded Equations of Noise Figure 446

12.3.6 Sensitivity of a Receiver 448

12.4 Nonlinearity 453

12.4.1 Nonlinearity of a Device 453

12.4.2 IP (Intercept Point) and IMR (Intermodulation Rejection) 461

12.4.3 Cascaded Equations of Intercept Point 472

12.4.4 Nonlinearity and Distortion 479

12.5 Other Parameters 480

12.5.1 Power Supply Voltage and Current Drain 480

12.5.2 Part Count 482

12.6 Example of RF System Analysis 482

Appendices 485

12.A.1 Conversion between Watts, Volts, and dBm in a System with 50 Input and Output Impedance 485

12.A.2 Relationship between voltage reflection coefficient, , and Transmission coefficients when the load Ro is equal to the standard characteristic resistance, 50 ) 485

12.A.3 Definition of Powers in a Two-Port Block by Signal Flow Graph 488

12.A.4 Main Noise Sources 489

References 491

Further Reading 491

Exercises 493

Answers 494

13 SPECIALITY OF ‘‘ZERO IF’’ SYSTEM 501

13.1 Why Differential Pair? 501

13.1.1 Superficial Difference between Single-Ended and Differential Pair 501

13.1.2 Nonlinearity in Single-Ended Stage 503

13.1.3 Nonlinearity in a Differential Pair 505

13.1.4 Importance of Differential Configuration in a Direct Conversion or Zero IF Communication System 507

13.1.5 Why Direct Conversion or Zero IF? 508

13.2 Can DC Offset be Blocked out by a Capacitor? 508

13.3 Chopping Mixer 511

13.4 DC Offset Cancellation by Calibration 516

13.5 Remark on DC Offset Cancellation 517

Further Reading 517

Exercises 518

Answers 519

14 DIFFERENTIAL PAIRS 521

14.1 Fundamentals of Differential Pairs 521

14.1.1 Topology and Definition of a Differential Pair 521

14.1.2 Transfer Characteristic of a Bipolar Differential Pair 524

14.1.3 Small Signal Approximation of a Bipolar Differential Pair 527

14.1.4 Transfer Characteristic of a MOSFET Differential Pair 528

14.1.5 Small Signal Approximation of a MOSFET Differential Pair 530

14.1.6 What Happens If Input Signal Is Imperfect Differential 531

14.2 CMRR (Common Mode Rejection Ratio) 533

14.2.1 Expression of CMRR 533

14.2.2 CMRR in a Single-Ended Stage 539

14.2.3 CMRR in a Pseudo-Differential Pair 539

14.2.4 Enhancement of CMRR 541

Reference 542

Further Reading 542

Exercises 542

Answers 543

15 RF BALUN 547

15.1 Introduction 547

15.2 Transformer Balun 549

15.2.1 Transformer Balun in RF Circuit Design with Discrete Parts 550

15.2.2 Transformer Balun in RFIC Design 550

15.2.3 An Ideal Transformer Balun for Simulation 551

15.2.4 Equivalence of Parts between Single-Ended and Differential Pair in Respect to an Ideal Transformer Balun 555

15.2.5 Impedance Matching for Differential Pair by means of Transformer Balun 568

15.3 LC Balun 571

15.3.1 Simplicity of LC Balun Design 572

15.3.2 Performance of a Simple LC Balun 572

15.3.3 A Practical LC Balun 576

15.4 Microstrip Line Balun 580

15.4.1 Ring Balun 580

15.4.2 Split Ring Balun 582

15.5 Mixing Type of Balun 583

15.5.1 Balun Built by Microstrip Line and Chip Capacitor 583

15.5.2 Balun Built by Chip Inductors and Chip Capacitors 585

Appendices 586

15.A.1 Transformer Balun Built by Two Stacked Transformers 586

15.A.2 Analysis of a Simple LC Balun 588

15.A.3 Example of Calculating of L and C Values for a Simple LC Balun 592

15.A.4 Equivalence of Parts between Single-Ended and Differential Pair with Respect to a Simple LC Balun 592

15.A.5 Some Useful Couplers 602

15.A.6 Cable Balun 603

Reference 604

Further Reading 604

Exercises 605

Answers 606

16 SOC (SYSTEM-ON-A-CHIP) AND NEXT 611

16.1 SOC 611

16.1.1 Basic Concept 611

16.1.2 Remove Bottlenecks in Approach to RFIC 612

16.1.3 Study Isolation between RFIC, Digital IC, and Analog IC 612

16.2 What is Next 612

Appendices 615

16.A.1 Packaging 615

References 621

Further Reading 622

Exercises 622

Answers 623

PART 3 INDIVIDUAL RF BLOCKS 625

17 LNA (LOW-NOISE AMPLIFIER) 627

17.1 Introduction 627

17.2 Single-Ended Single Device LNA 628

17.2.1 Size of Device 629

17.2.2 Raw Device Setup and Testing 632

17.2.3 Challenge for a Good LNA Design 639

17.2.4 Input and Output Impedance Matching 646

17.2.5 Gain Circles and Noise Figure Circles 648

17.2.6 Stability 649

17.2.7 Nonlinearity 653

17.2.8 Design Procedures 655

17.2.9 Other Examples 656

17.3 Single-Ended Cascode LNA 662

17.3.1 Bipolar CE–CB Cascode Voltage Amplifier 662

17.3.2 MOSFET CS–CG Cascode Voltage Amplifier 666

17.3.3 Why Cascode? 669

17.3.4 Example 671

17.4 LNA with AGC (Automatic Gain Control) 684

17.4.1 AGC Operation 684

17.4.2 Traditional LNA with AGC 686

17.4.3 Increase in AGC Dynamic Range 688

17.4.4 Example 689

References 690

Further Reading 690

Exercises 691

Answers 692

18 MIXER 695

18.1 Introduction 695

18.2 Passive Mixer 698

18.2.1 Simplest Passive Mixer 698

18.2.2 Double-Balanced Quad-Diode Mixer 699

18.2.3 Double-Balanced Resistive Mixer 702

18.3 Active Mixer 706

18.3.1 Single-End Single Device Active Mixer 706

18.3.2 Gilbert Cell 708

18.3.3 Active Mixer with Bipolar Gilbert Cell 712

18.3.4 Active Mixer with MOSFET Gilbert Cell 715

18.4 Design Schemes 717

18.4.1 Impedance Measuring and Matching 717

18.4.2 Current Bleeding 718

18.4.3 Multi-tanh Technique 719

18.4.4 Input Types 722

Appendices 723

18.A.1 Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Functions 723

18.A.2 Implementation of tanh−1 Block 724

References 726

Further Reading 726

Exercises 726

Answers 727

19 TUNABLE FILTER 731

19.1 Tunable Filter in A Communication System 731

19.1.1 Expected Constant Bandwidth of a Tunable Filter 732

19.1.2 Variation of Bandwidth 732

19.2 Coupling between two Tank Circuits 733

19.2.1 Inappropriate Coupling 735

19.2.2 Reasonable Coupling 738

19.3 Circuit Description 738

19.4 Effect of Second Coupling 739

19.5 Performance 743

Further Reading 746

Exercises 747

Answers 747

20 VCO (VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR) 749

20.1 “Three-Point” Types of Oscillator 749

20.1.1 Hartley Oscillator 751

20.1.2 Colpitts Oscillator 753

20.1.3 Clapp Oscillator 753

20.2 Other Single-Ended Oscillators 755

20.2.1 Phase-Shift Oscillator 755

20.2.2 TITO (Tuned Input and Tuned Output) Oscillator 757

20.2.3 Resonant Oscillator 757

20.2.4 Crystal Oscillator 758

20.3 VCO and PLL (Phase Lock Loop) 759

20.3.1 Implication of VCO 759

20.3.2 Transfer Function of PLL 760

20.3.3 White Noise from the Input of the PLL 763

20.3.4 Phase Noise from a VCO 764

20.4 Design Example of a Single-Ended VCO 769

20.4.1 Single-Ended VCO with Clapp Configuration 769

20.4.2 Varactor 770

20.4.3 Printed Inductor 770

20.4.4 Simulation 773

20.4.5 Load-Pulling Test and VCO Buffer 776

20.5 Differential VCO and Quad-Phases VCO 778

Reference 783

Further Reading 783

Exercises 784

Answers 784

21 PA (POWER AMPLIFIER) 789

21.1 Classification of PA 789

21.1.1 Class A Power Amplifier 790

21.1.2 Class B Power Amplifier 790

21.1.3 Class C Power Amplifier 791

21.1.4 Class D Power Amplifier 791

21.1.5 Class E Power Amplifier 792

21.1.6 Third-Harmonic-Peaking Class F Power Amplifier 793

21.1.7 Class S Power Amplifier 794

21.2 Single-Ended PA 794

21.2.1 Tuning on the Bench 795

21.2.2 Simulation 796

21.3 Single-Ended PA IC Design 798

21.4 Push–Pull PA Design 799

21.4.1 Main Specification 799

21.4.2 Block Diagram 799

21.4.3 Impedance Matching 800

21.4.4 Reducing the Block Size 804

21.4.5 Double Microstrip Line Balun 808

21.4.6 Toroidal RF Transformer Balun 817

21.5 PA with Temperature Compensation 822

21.6 PA with Output Power Control 823

21.7 Linear PA 824

References 828

Further Reading 828

Exercises 829

Answers 829

INDEX 833

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