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As the Romans Did : A Sourcebook in Roman Social History

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780195089745

ISBN10:
019508974X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/9/1997
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $68.95

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Summary

Revised to include new selections and updated bibliographical material, the second edition of this popular sourcebook offers a rich, revealing look at everyday Roman life. It provides clear, lively translations of a fascinating array of documents drawn from Latin and Greek source material--from personal letters, farming manuals, medical texts, and recipes to poetry, graffiti, and tombstone inscriptions. Each selection has been translated into readable, contemporary English. This edition includes more than 50 additional selections that introduce new topics and expand coverage of existing topics. In addition, the commentary on all the selections has been revised to reflect the recent scholarship of social and cultural historians. Extensive annotations, abundant biographical notes, maps, appendices, cross-references to related topics, and a newly-updated bibliography provide readers with the historical and cultural background material necessary to appreciate the selections.
Arranged thematically into chapters on family life, housing, education, entertainment, religion, and other important topics, the translations reveal the ambitions and aspirations not only of the upper class, but of the average Roman citizen as well. They tell of the success and failure of Rome's grandiose imperialist policies and also of the pleasures and hardships of everyday life. Wide-ranging and lively, the second edition of As the Romans Did offers the most lucid account available of Roman life in all its diversity. Ideal for courses in Ancient Roman History, Social History of Rome, Roman Civilization, and Classics, it will also appeal to readers interested in ancient history.

Author Biography


Jo-Ann Shelton is Professor of Classics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She is the author of several books and articles on the social and cultural history of Rome in the early imperial period, including Hercules Furens: The Madness of Hercules (1991).

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Introduction 1(3)
The Roman Ideal
2(2)
1. Horatius at the Bridge
2(2)
I. The Structure of Roman Society 4(12)
Class Structure
4(7)
2. Aristocracy
8(1)
3, 4. Definitions of Justice and Law
9(1)
5, 6. Discrimination in Assigning Penalties
9(2)
Patronage
11(5)
7. Patrician and Plebeian
12(1)
8. Patrons and Clients in Republican Rome
12(1)
9. Patrons and Clients in Imperial Rome
13(1)
10. Seeking a Handout
14(1)
11. Patrons and Patrons
14(1)
12. Rude Patrons
14(1)
13. Another Rude Patron
15(1)
14. No Free Lunches (or Dinners)
15(1)
II. Families 16(21)
Fathers
17(3)
15. Patria Potestas
17(1)
16. Horace's Father
18(1)
17. Quintilian's Sons
18(1)
18. Cicero's Grief
19(1)
Mothers
20(3)
19. The Ideal
21(1)
20. Memory of a Warm Moment
21(1)
21. Maternal Tenderness
22(1)
22. A Mother's Concern
22(1)
23. An Ungrateful Son
22(1)
Blended Families
23(1)
24. Step-Parents
23(1)
Brothers and Sisters
23(1)
25. Brotherly Love
23(1)
26. Sisterly Affection
24(1)
Producing a Family
24(2)
27. Fertility
24(1)
28, 29. Birth Announcements
25(1)
30. Miscarriage
25(1)
31. Infant Deaths
26(1)
Birth Control
26(3)
32, 33. Contraception
26(1)
34, 35. Abortion
27(1)
36, 37. Exposure
28(1)
Encouraging Fertility
29(1)
38-40. The Legislation of Augustus
29(1)
Adoption
30(1)
41. An Adoption Agreement
30(1)
42. Giving Away One's Child
30(1)
Raising Children
31(3)
43. Filial Obedience
31(1)
44. Spoiled Brats
31(1)
45. Advice about Parental Severity
32(1)
46, 47. Nurses
32(1)
48. Paedagogues
33(1)
49. A Persistant Paedagogue
33(1)
Guardians
34(1)
50. Appointing Guardians
34(1)
Orphans
35(1)
51. An Appeal for Help
35(1)
Welfare Assistance
35(2)
52. Public Assistance
35(1)
53. Private Charity
36(1)
III. Marriage 37(22)
The Age of Marriage Partners
37(1)
54. Child Brides
37(1)
Arranged Marriages
38(1)
55. Matchmakers
38(1)
Weddings
39(5)
56. A Wedding Song
39(4)
57. A Marriage Contract
43(1)
58. Expectations of Marriage
44(1)
Wives
44(3)
59. The Duties of a Wife
44(1)
60. A Perfect Marriage
44(1)
61. Pliny's Wife
45(1)
62. Calpurnia
45(1)
63. Quintilian's Wife
46(1)
64. Love for a Wife
46(1)
65. A Good Wife
47(1)
Husbands
47(2)
66. Battered Wives
47(1)
67. Wife-Beating
48(1)
68. Love for a Husband
48(1)
In-Laws
49(1)
69, 70. Family Intervention
49(1)
Divorce
50(1)
71. A Divorce Agreement
50(1)
72. Response to Divorce
50(1)
Adultery
51(8)
73. Where to Meet
51(1)
74. Deceiving One's Husband
52(1)
75. Poems to a Mistress
53(1)
76. Another Perspective
54(1)
77. Laws to Control Adultery
54(1)
78. Augustus's Own Behavior
55(4)
IV. Housing and City Life 59(20)
Single-Family Houses in the City
59(4)
79. Designs for City Houses
59(4)
Apartments
63(1)
80. Complaints from an Apartment Dweller
63(1)
81. A Dingy Apartment
63(1)
82. A Landlord's Problems
64(1)
House Prices
64(1)
83. The High Cost of Living in Rome
64(1)
Rental Advertisements
64(1)
84, 85. Shops and Apartments for Rent
64(1)
Homeowner's Insurance
65(1)
86. Fire Insurance
65(1)
The Benefits of City Life
65(4)
87. Aqueducts
65(2)
88. Roads, Sewers, and the Campus Martius
67(1)
89. Toilets
68(1)
90, 91. Roads
68(1)
The Problems of City Life
69(2)
92. Crowds, Traffic, and Muggers
69(1)
93. Noise
70(1)
94. Theft
70(1)
95. Burglary
71(1)
96. Neighbors
71(1)
Housing in Rural Areas
71(8)
97. Farm Houses
71(3)
98. Vacation Villas
74(5)
V. Domestic and Personal Concerns 79(21)
Meals
79(6)
99. A Peasant's Dinner
80(1)
100. A Modest Dinner
81(1)
101. A Dinner Invitation
82(1)
102. A Rejected Host
82(1)
103. Recipe for Fish Sauce
83(1)
104. Numidian Chicken
84(1)
105. Rabbit with Fruit Sauce
84(1)
106. Liver Sausage
85(1)
107. Anchovy Delight without the Anchovies
85(1)
108. Sweet and Sour Pork
85(1)
Illness
85(2)
109. Dysentery
86(1)
110. Asthma
86(1)
Medical Treatments
87(1)
111. Jaundice
87(1)
112. Broken Bones
87(1)
113. Strains and Bruises
88(1)
Doctors
88(2)
114. Medical Training
88(1)
115, 116. Change of Profession
89(1)
117. Distrust of Doctors
89(1)
118. Midwives
90(1)
Life Expectancy
90(1)
119. Lutatia Secundina
91(1)
120. Magnilla
91(1)
121. Mercurius
91(1)
122. Firminus
91(1)
Death
91(3)
123. Death Notices
91(1)
124. Cicero's Grief
92(1)
125. Condolences
92(2)
Funerary Laws and Funerals
94(4)
126. Funerary Laws
94(1)
127. Curses on Graverobbers
94(1)
128. Funerals
95(1)
129. A Funeral Club
96(2)
130. Final Words: An Epitaph
98(1)
Personal Messages
98(2)
131-133. The Walls of Pompeii
98(2)
VI. Education 100(23)
The Roman Ideal
100(1)
134. A Traditional Education
100(1)
A Child's Early Years
101(1)
135. The Role of the Parents
101(1)
Teachers and Schools
102(6)
136. Private Tutors
102(1)
137. Orbilius, the Schoolteacher
103(1)
138. Corporal Punishment
104(1)
139. A Schoolteacher's Hours
104(1)
140. A Schoolteacher's Salary
105(1)
141. Incentives for Learning
106(1)
142. Book Awards
106(1)
143. An Endowment for a School
106(2)
144. A Letter Home
108(1)
The Litterator
108(3)
145. A Day in the Life of a Schoolboy
108(1)
146. Morals and Memorization
109(1)
147. An Arithmetic Lesson
110(1)
148. Enough Education for the Average Man
110(1)
Vocational Training
111(2)
149. Apprenticeship to a Weaver
111(1)
150. Career Choice
112(1)
151. Working Girls
112(1)
The Grammaticus
113(1)
152. Curriculum
113(1)
The Rhetor
114(6)
153. The Good Old Days
114(1)
154, 155. Classroom Exercises
115(2)
156. Pity the Teacher
117(1)
157. Criticism of the Rhetor's Exercises
117(1)
158. Criticism of the "New Style"
118(1)
159. The Ideal Orator
119(1)
A Year Abroad
120(3)
160. Studying in Athens
120(3)
VII. Occupations 123(40)
The Day's Activities
123(2)
161. Dividing Up the Day
123(1)
162. City Life
124(1)
Working for a Living
125(9)
163. Scorn for the Working Class
125(1)
164. Tradesmen and Craftsmen
126(1)
165. Workers
127(1)
166. Pride of Workmanship
128(1)
167. Temporary Employment
129(1)
168. Wage and Price Control
129(3)
169. The Grain Dole
132(2)
Business and Investments
134(11)
170. The Roman Attitude toward Profit
134(1)
171. Traders
135(1)
172. Rome, The World Trade Center
135(1)
173. Moneylending
136(1)
174. Loan Companies
137(1)
175. War Bonds
137(2)
176. Cato's Financial Activities
139(1)
177. A Real Estate Speculator
139(2)
178. A Government Construction Contract
141(1)
179. A Government Contract for Military Provisions
142(1)
180. Contract Fraud
142(1)
181, 182. Government Contracts for Tax Collection
143(1)
183. Moneylending in the Provinces
144(1)
184. Kingmakers
145(1)
Activities of the Senatorial Class
145(3)
185. Pliny's Investments
145(2)
186. Pliny's Activities
147(1)
Agriculture
148(15)
187. An Attempt at Land Reform
151(2)
188. Tillers of the Field
153(2)
189. Tenant Farmers
155(1)
190. Sharecroppers
156(1)
191. A Farmer's Life
157(1)
192. Shepherds
158(1)
193. Harassment of Shepherds
159(1)
194. Farmers and Heroes
160(1)
195. Retreat from Reality
161(1)
196. The Romantic Vision
161(1)
197. The Country Mouse and the City Mouse
162(1)
VIII. Slaves 163(26)
Enslavement
163(1)
198. Captives of War
163(1)
Selling Slaves
164(1)
199. Regulations
164(1)
Buying Slaves
164(1)
200. A Contract for the Sale of a Slave
164(1)
201. A Friend's Advice
165(1)
Renting Slaves
165(1)
202. A Contract for the Rental of a Slave
165(1)
Slaves in the City and on the Farm
166(6)
203. Household Slaves
167(1)
204. Adjusting to Enslavement
168(1)
205. State-Owned Slaves
168(1)
206. Choosing Slaves for the Farm
168(2)
207. Farm Slaves and a Frugal Owner
170(1)
208. Managing Your Slaves
171(1)
Slaves in the Mines
172(1)
209. Spanish Silver Mines
172(1)
Slaves in a Mill
172(1)
210. A Flour Mill
172(1)
Cruelty to Slaves
173(3)
211. Flogging
174(1)
212. Sadism
174(1)
213. Brutality
174(1)
214. Cruel Laws
175(1)
Running Away
176(2)
215, 216. Slave Collars
176(1)
217. A Search for a Fugitive Slave
177(1)
Slave Revolts
178(2)
218. Revolt within the Household
178(1)
219. A Widespread Revolt
179(1)
Humane Treatment
180(6)
220. Sympathy
181(1)
221. A Stoic View of Slavery
182(1)
222. Laws to Curb Cruelty
183(1)
223. Hadrian's Legislation
183(1)
224. Reiteration
183(1)
225. Humane Interpretation of the Laws
184(1)
226. Slave Families
184(2)
IX. Freedmen and Freedwomen 186(17)
Reasons for Manumission
187(4)
227. Recognition of Talent
188(1)
228. Recognition of Intelligence
189(1)
229. Freeing Possible Witnesses
189(1)
230. Adoption
189(1)
231. Marriage
190(1)
232. Criticism of the Manumission Process
190(1)
Roman Attitudes toward Freedmen and Freedwomen
191(6)
233. The Sterotype of the Wealthy Freedman
192(3)
234. Resentment
195(1)
235. Prejudice against Foreigners
195(2)
Freedpersons and the Job Market
197(1)
236. Construction Work
197(1)
237. Herald
197(1)
238. Teacher
197(1)
239. Slaughterer
198(1)
240. Maid
198(1)
Freedpersons and Their Patrons
198(3)
241. Legal Obligations
198(1)
242. The Ideal Freedman
199(1)
243. A Troubled Relationship
199(1)
244. A Generous Patron
199(1)
245. Another Kind Patron
200(1)
246. Selective Kindness
200(1)
Private and Social Life
201(2)
247. A Life Story
201(1)
248. Friendship between Freedmen
201(1)
249. Mother and Daughter
201(1)
250. Buying Respectability
202(1)
X. Government and Politics 203(40)
The Assemblies
203(4)
251. The Comitia
205(1)
252. Comitia and Concilium: Some Differences
205(1)
253. Lex and Plebiscitum
206(1)
254. Contio
206(1)
Magistrates
207(8)
255. The Functions of the Magistrates
208(1)
256. The Titles of the Magistrates
209(1)
257. The Development of the Magistracies
210(1)
258. The Duties of the Consuls
211(1)
259. The Responsibilities of a Magistrate
212(1)
260. Friends in Power
213(1)
261. Abuse of Power
214(1)
Political Campaigns
215(6)
262. Planning a Campaign
216(4)
263. Campaign Literature
220(1)
The Senate
221(5)
264. The Senate in the Republican Period
221(2)
265. The Senate and the People
223(2)
266. The Senate and the Equestrians
225(1)
Government in the Early Imperial Period
226(10)
267. The Powers of Augustus
226(3)
268. The Prefect of the City
229(1)
269, 270. Careers in the Government
230(2)
271. The End of Popular Elections
232(1)
272, 273. Freedom of Speech
232(2)
274. The Emperor and the Senate
234(1)
275, 276. The Benefits of Imperial Rule
235(1)
Legislation
236(7)
277. The Roman Science
238(1)
278. Sources of Legislation
238(1)
279-281. Categories
239(1)
282. Definitions
240(1)
283-289. Equity
240(2)
290. The Force of Custom
242(1)
XI. The Roman Army 243(25)
The Army during the Republican Period
243(9)
291. The Army before Marius's Reforms
244(5)
292. A Good Republican Soldier
249(2)
293. A Triumph
251(1)
The Army during the Imperial Period
252(16)
294. Reasons for the Army's Success
252(3)
295. Enlistment
255(1)
296. Training
255(2)
297-299. Discipline
257(1)
300. Pay Records
257(1)
301. Supply and Service Troops
258(1)
302. A Letter Home
259(1)
303. A Letter of Recommendation
259(1)
304. How to Advance Quickly
260(1)
305. Soldiers and the Emperor
260(1)
306. A Mutiny
261(1)
307, 308. The Height of Recruits
262(1)
309. Avoiding the Draft
263(1)
310. Soldiers and Civilians
264(1)
311. Requisitions
265(1)
312. Military Justice
265(1)
313. Life on the Frontier
266(1)
314. Retirement in the Provinces
266(1)
315. The Danube Frontier
266(1)
316. Roman Families in Britain
267(1)
XII. The Provinces 268(20)
Provincial Administration
268(20)
317. The Theory of Provincial Administration
270(1)
318. The Publican Problem
271(1)
319. Cicero as Governor
272(1)
320. The Noble Brutus
273(2)
321. A Most Unscrupulous Governor
275(9)
322. Fear of Rebellion
284(2)
323. Hatred of Roman Rule
286(1)
324. The Benefits of Roman Rule
287(1)
XIII. Women in Roman Society 288(19)
Childhood
289(1)
325. Little Women
289(1)
326. Single Women
289(1)
Life Expectancy
290(1)
327. A Brief Life
290(1)
328. Death in Childbirth
290(1)
Praiseworthy Behavior
291(6)
329. The Virtues of Women
291(1)
330. An Outstanding example of Pietas
292(2)
331. Emotional Control
294(1)
332. Loyalty
295(1)
333. Patience
296(1)
Unacceptable Behavior
297(4)
334. Scandalous Conduct
297(1)
335. Women and Politics
298(1)
336. Women and Education
299(1)
337. Women and Luxuries
300(1)
338. Women and Theatrical Performances
300(1)
Hysteria
301(2)
339. Symptoms
302(1)
340. Causes and Cures
302(1)
Working Women
303(2)
341. A Dressmaker
303(1)
342. A Hairdresser
304(1)
343. A Fishmonger
304(1)
344. Farm Women
304(1)
345. Comfort Women
305(1)
Cosmetics
305(2)
346. For the Skin He Loves to Touch
305(1)
347. The Dangers of Hair Dyes
306(1)
XIV. Leisure and Entertainment 307(52)
Leisure Activities
307(2)
348, 349. The Pleasures of Life
308(1)
350. Gambling and Gaming
308(1)
351. Athletic Activities
308(1)
Baths
309(5)
352. The Good Old Days
310(2)
353. Living Above a Public Bath Building
312(1)
354. The Design of a Bath Building
313(1)
Dinner Parties
314(4)
355. Fishing for a Dinner Invitation
314(1)
356. An Early Dinner Guest
315(1)
357. A Thrifty Man
315(1)
358. Roman Doggy Bags
315(1)
359. A Shameless Guest
316(1)
360. A Napkin Thief
316(1)
361. A Rude Host
317(1)
362. House of the Moralist
317(1)
Recitations
318(2)
363. The Persistent Poet
318(1)
364. The Popularity of Recitations
319(1)
365. A Recitation at Pliny's House
320(1)
Hunting and Literary Studies
320(3)
366. Pliny's Hunting Expedition
320(1)
367. A Day in the Country
321(2)
Travel
323(6)
368. Along the Appian Way
323(3)
369. Hotel Sign
326(1)
370. Hotel Bars
326(1)
371. Dishonest Innkeepers
327(1)
372. Hotel Prostitutes
327(1)
373. Homesickness
327(1)
374. Loneliness
328(1)
375. No Trespassing
328(1)
376. The Ancient Jet Set
328(1)
Spectacles
329(8)
377. Caesar's Games
331(1)
378. Nero's Games
332(1)
379. Political Wisdom
333(1)
380. The Road to Decadence
334(3)
Circus Events
337(9)
381. A Driver's Winning Techniques
338(1)
382. A Day at the Races
339(2)
383. Fanatical Fans
341(1)
384. A Successful Driver
342(1)
385. Cursing One's Opponent
343(1)
386. A Young Driver
344(1)
387. A Family of Drivers
345(1)
388. A Famous Driver
345(1)
Theater Events
346(2)
389. The Problems of a Playwright
346(2)
390. Pantomime
348(1)
Arena Events
348(11)
391, 392. Advertising Amphitheater Events
351(1)
393. Fight Statistics
352(1)
394. Fans
352(1)
395. An Unsympathetic Point of View
353(1)
396. A More Enlightened View
353(1)
397. Rounding Up the Animals
354(1)
398. The Harmful Results of Spectacles
355(1)
399. Escaping the Tortures of the Arena
356(1)
400. The Victim's Perspective
357(1)
401. Fascination and Addiction
357(2)
XV. Religion and Philosophy 359(74)
The Gods of the State Religion
360(9)
402. Deities of the Environment
361(1)
403. A River Spirit
362(1)
404. Propitiating a Woodland Spirit
363(1)
405. A Multitude of Deities
363(2)
406. Naming the Deities
365(1)
407. The Greek Influence
365(2)
408. Importing Gods
367(1)
409. Welcoming the Gods of Your Enemy
368(1)
410. New Identities for Roman Deities
368(1)
411. Personal Devotion
369(1)
Ritual
369(15)
412. Formalism
371(1)
413. Conservatism
372(1)
414. Prayer
373(1)
415. Vow
374(1)
416, 417. Divination: Augury and Auspicium
375(2)
418. Divination: Extispicium
377(1)
419. The Sibylline Books
377(1)
420. Festivals
378(2)
421. Ambarvalia
380(1)
422. Robigalia
381(1)
423. Lupercalia
381(1)
424. Saturnalia
382(1)
425. Saturnalia Gifts
383(1)
Officers of the State Religion
384(2)
426. Pontifices
384(1)
427, 428. Vestal Virgins
385(1)
Deification
386(2)
429. Tiberius and the City of Gythium
387(1)
430. Requests for Emperor-Worship
387(1)
431. Tiberius's Resistance to Emperor-Worship
388(1)
The Permanence of the State Religion
388(3)
432. Neglect of the State Cult
388(1)
433. Resistance to Intolerance
389(2)
Religions from the East
391(2)
434. Turning to Other Religions
392(1)
Bacchus
393(5)
435. Suppression of the Bacchanalia
394(2)
436. The Decree of the Senate
396(2)
Cybele, Magna Mater
398(2)
437. Bringing the Goddess to Rome
398(1)
438. A Religious Procession
399(1)
Isis
400(4)
439. Worship of the Goddess
400(4)
440. Christian Skepticism
404(1)
Judaism
404(2)
441. Tolerance
404(1)
442. Persecution
405(1)
443. Compromise
406(1)
Christianity
406(11)
444. The Promises of Christianity
406(1)
445. First Christians in Rome
407(1)
446. An Early Instance of Persecution
408(1)
447. Imperial Advice about Dealing with Christians
409(2)
448. Christian Reaction to Trajan's Rescriptum
411(1)
449. Accusations against the Christians
412(1)
450. A Christian's Reply to the Accusations
413(2)
451. Martyrs
415(1)
452. Toleration
416(1)
453. Christian Intolerance
416(1)
Syncretism
417(1)
454. A Roman Virtue
417(1)
Magic and Superstition
417(3)
455. Superstitions
418(1)
456. The Potency of Words
419(1)
457. The Potency of Objects
419(1)
458. The Potency of Rituals
419(1)
459. Curse Tablets
420(1)
Epicureanism
420(4)
460. The Reasons for Studying Philosophy
421(1)
461. The First Principle
422(1)
462. The Second Principle
422(1)
463. Proof of the Existence of Atoms
423(1)
464. Void
424(1)
465. Life and Death
424(1)
Stoicism
424(9)
466. The Promise of Philosophy
425(1)
467. Stoic Definition of Happiness
425(1)
468. Fate and Free Will
426(1)
469. Emotions
426(1)
470. The Invulnerability of the Wise Man
427(1)
471. Death as True Freedom
428(1)
472. Training and Preparation
428(1)
473. Self-Discipline and Steadfastness
429(4)
Maps
433(7)
Appendix I: Sources 440(12)
Appendix II: Roman Money 452(1)
Appendix III: Important Dates and Events 453(4)
Bibliography 457(12)
Index 469


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