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The book is intended for Roman History courses in Classics or History Departments, but is also ocassionally used in Roman Civ classes. The Romans gives a thorough account of the political and military history of ancient Rome down to the fall of the empire in 476, while also providing a solidgrounding in the social and cultural history of the period. The art and map program have been updated and slightly expanded, with a new 8-page color insert.
Table of Contents
*=New to this Edition Maps Figures Plates Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgments Notes to the Reader About the Authors 1. ARCHAIC ITALY AND THE ORIGINS OF ROME Italy and the Mediterranean World The Evidence Italy Before the City Greeks and Phoenicians in the Central Mediterranean The Rise of Cities Beginning of Writing Appearance of an Elite Cities and Monumental Architecture Warfare in the Orientalizing and Archaic Periods Social and Economic Organization Greeks and Etruscans Greek Cities of Southern Italy and Sicily Etruscans The Emergence of Rome The Romans and Their Early History Table 1.1 Dates of Rome's Kings According to Varro Source 1.1 Plutarch, Romulus Politics and Society under the Kings Rome and the Latins 2. REPUBLICAN ROME AND THE CONQUEST OF ITALY The Early Republic Rome and Its Neighbors in the Fifth Century Struggle of the Orders Fall of Veii and the Sack of Rome The City and Its Institutions in the Fourth Century Officials Senate Assemblies of Citizens Source 2.1 Servius Tullius' Creation of the Census (Livy) Table 2.1 Roman Assemblies The City, Its Gods, and Its Priests Source 2.2 The Roman Games (Dionysius of Halicarnassus) Rome and Central Italy Warfare and the Civic Order Rome in Latium and Campania Samnite Wars Expansion of Roman Control Over Italy Wars in Central and Northern Italy Conquest of the South War and the Roman State 3. THE BEGINNINGS OF A MEDITERRANEAN EMPIRE Sources The Nobility and the City of Rome Source 3.1 Triumph of Scipio Africanus (Appian) Wars with Carthage First Punic War (264-241) Second Punic War (218-201) * Source 3.2 Rome's Reaction to Defeat at Cannae A Mediterranean Empire Governors, Provinces, and Empire Spain Greece and Asia Minor * Source 3.3 Popillius Laenas Forestalls Antiochus' Invasion of Egypt (Polybius) North Africa 4. ITALY AND EMPIRE Senators, Officials, and Citizen Assemblies Italy and the Consequences of Empire Changing Relations Between Rome, Its Municipia, and Allies Roman and Italian Elites Source 4.1 Scipio Africanus' Army Loots Carthago Nova (Polybius and Livy) Demographic and Economic Changes Roman Politics from the Mid-Second Century Scipio Aemilianus Tiberius Gracchus * Source 4.2 Tiberius Gracchus Urges Romans to Support his Land-Assignment Scheme (Plutarch) Gaius Gracchus 5. ITALY THREATENED, ENFRANCHISED, DIVIDED Changes in Roman Society War with Jugurtha (112-105) Italy Threatened from the North (113-101) * Source 5.1 A Spanish People Surrenders to Rome Changes in the Roman Army Marius' Career in Roman Politics Source 5.2 Marius' Bid for the Consulship (Sallust) Sixth Consulship of Marius and Second Tribunate of Saturninus (100) Administration of the Provinces Tribunate of Livius Drusus (91) Social War (91-87) Tribunate of Sulpicius Rufus (88) Sulla's First March on Rome (88) Cinna's Rule (87-84) Sulla's Second March on Rome (83-83) 6. THE DOMINATION OF SULLA AND ITS LEGACY Sulla's Proscriptions (82-81) Sulla the Dictator and His Program (82-81) Senate Tribunate Equites, Courts Citizens Governors Verdicts on Sulla's Program Source 6.1 Cicero's Defense of Sextus Roscius Lepidus' Uprising and Its Aftermath (78-77) Challenge from Sertorius in Spain (80-73) Source 6.2 Pompey's Letter from Spain (Sallust) Spartacus's Slave Revolt (73-71) Consulship of Crassus and Pompey (70) Pompey Frees the Mediterranean of Pirates (67) Threat from King Mithrades VI of Pontus Sulla's Campaign Against Mithridates (87-85) Lucullus' Struggle with Mithridates (74-67) Pompey's Defeat of Mithridates (66-63) Roles of Cassus and Cicero in Rome (65-63) Caitline's Uprising (63-62) 7. END OF THE REPUBLIC: CAESAR'S DICTATORSHIP Sources Pompey's Return from the East (62) Pompey and Political Stalemate in Rome Partnership of Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar Caesar's First Consulship (59) Clodius' Tribunate (58) Cicero's Recall and the Renewal of the Triumvirate (57-56) Caesar's Campaigns in Gaul (58-51) Death of Clodius and Pompey's Sole Consulship (52) Prospect of Civil War (51-49) Causes and Consequences of Caesar Crossing the Rubicon (January 49) Cicero's Governorship of Cilicia (51-50) Civil War Campaigns (49-45) Caesar's Activity as Dictator (49-44) Caesar's Impact Upon the City of Rome Political Prospects for Rome, and for Caesar 8. AUGUSTUS AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ROMAN WORLD Reactions to the Assassination of Caesar (44-43) Emergence of a Second Triumvirate (43) Battle of Philippi (42) Source 8.1 Laudatio Turiae Perusine War (41-40) Elimination of Sextus Pompey and Lepidus (39-36) Antony in the East (42 onwards) Clash Between Antony and Octavian (36-30) Octavian as Sole Ruler (30 Onwards) "The Republic Restored" Second Settlement (23) The Roman Family in the Augustan Period Succession Table 8.1 The Julio-Claudian Family Senate and Equites Army The Empire and Its Expansion Source 8.2 Oath of Loyalty Latin Literature in the Late Republic and Augustan Age City of Rome Attitudes Outside Rome Res Gestae of Augustus Augustus: Final Assessment 9. THE EARLY PRINCIPATE (A.D. 14-69): THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS, THE CIVIL WAR OF 68-69, AND LIFE IN THE EARLY EMPIRE Sources The Julio-Claudian Emperors: Civil Government and Military Concerns Tiberius (14-37) Source 9.1 Senatorial Decree Concerning the Elder Gnaeus Piso Gaius (Caligula) (37-41) Claudius (41-54) Source 9.2 Claudius' Speech on the Admission of Gauls to the Senate Nero (54-68) Civil War in 68-69: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian Economic and Social Change: Army Economy Intellectual Life "Beneficial Ideology" Cities and Provinces Women Diversity: Local Languages and Culture Religious Practices and Principles Imperial Cult 10. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE PRINCIPATE: MILITARY EXPANSION AND ITS LIMITS, THE EMPIRE AND THE PROVINCES (69-138) Sources Institutionalization of the Principate Vespasian (69-79) Titus (79-81) Domitian (81-96) A New, Better Era? Nerva (96-98) Trajan (98-117) Table 10.1 The Antonine Family Hadiran (117-138) Source 10.1 Hadrian Inspects Troops at Lambaesis, Numidia Roman Cities and the Empire's Peoples Theaters and Processions Circuses and Chariot Racing The Amphitheather, and Gladitorial Games Other Urban Amenities Education State Religion and Imperial Cult 11. ITALY AND THE PROVINCES: CIVIL AND MILITARY AFFAIRS (138-235) Sources Antoninus Pius (138-161) Marcus Aurelius (161-180) and Lucius Verus (161-169) Source 11.1 A Greek Provincial Praises Roman Citizenship Source 11.2 Morbidity and Mortality in the Roman Empire Commodus (176-192, Ruling as Sole Augustus After 180) Civil War and the Rise of Septimus Severus (193-211) Table 11.1 The Severan Family Source 11.3 Deification Ceremonies for Pertinax in Septimus Severus' Rome Caracalla (198-217, Ruling as Sole Augustus After 211) Macrinus (217-218) Elagabalus (218-222) Severus Alexander (222-235) Roman Law Roman Citizenship Source 11.4 Grant of Roman Citizenship (Tabula Banasitana) Rome and Christianity Source 11.5 Pliny, Trajan, and Christians 12. THE THIRD-CENTURY CRISIS AND THE TETRARCHIC RESTABILIZATION Sources Mid-Third Century Aurelian (270-275) Diocletian, the Tetrarchy, and the Dominate (284-305) Dissolution of the Tetrarchy (305-313), and the Rise of Constantine (306-324) Source 12.1 Galerius' Edict of Toleration (April 311) Administrative Reorganization Under the Dominate Source 12.2 The Tetrarchs Introduce Their Edict on Maximum Prices * 13. THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY AND THE GROWTH OF THE BARBARIAN THREAT (324-395) Sources Constantine: A Christian Emperor The Sons of Constantine (337-361): The Power of Dynasty Table 13.1 The Constantinian Family Julian (361-363): A Test of the Christian Empire Source 13.1 Julian Attempts to Bring Paganism into Line with Christianity Jovian, Valentinian I, and Valens (363-378) Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I (379-395) New Elites for the Empire Paganism and Christianity Source 13.2 The End of Pagan Sacrifice * 14. THE FINAL YEARS OF THE WESTERN EMPIRE AND ROME'S REVIVAL IN THE EAST Sources The Theodosian Dynasty to the First Sack of Rome (395-410) Table 14.1 The Theodosian Family The Fall of the Western Empire (410-476) Source 14.1 The Gothic King Athaulf's Shifting Attitude toward Rome The Growth of a Byzantine Empire in the East (408-491) A Christian Culture Source 14.2 Holy Land Pilgrimage and the Cult of Relics Women's Power in Late Antiquity The "Decline and Fall" of the Roman Empire Timeline Glossary Principal Ancient Authors Art Credits Gazeteer Index