9780884157908

Rules of Thumb for Mechanical Engineers

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780884157908

  • ISBN10:

    0884157903

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1996-12-09
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Save time with this collection of straightforward, common-sense techniques that provide quick, accurate solutions to your engineering problems. Rules of Thumb for Mechanical Engineers assembles hundreds of shortcuts, calculations, practical "how-to" methods, and concise background reviews into one convenient volume. Whether you're concerned with design, selection, or performance, you'll find fast, accurate answers here - all without wading through pages of theory. Experts from all engineering disciplines have packed this book's sixteen chapters with design criteria and practical tips. You'll find easy-to-read descriptions on fluids, heat transfer, thermodynamics, seals, pumps, and compressors, drivers, gears, and bearings, as well as piping and pressure vessels. Also covers tribology, vibrations, materials, stress and fatigue, instrumentation, and engineering economics. * Save time with this collection of straightforward, common-sense techniques that provide quick, accurate solutions to your engineering problems. * Hundreds of shortcuts, calculations and practical "how-to" methods in one convenient volume. * Fast, accurate answers to design, selection, or performance issues.

Table of Contents

Fluids
1(17)
Fluid Properties
2(2)
Density, Specific Volume, Specific Weight, Specific Gravity, and Pressure
2(1)
Surface Tension
2(1)
Vapor Pressure
2(1)
Gas and Liquid Viscosity
3(1)
Bulk Modulus
3(1)
Compressibility
3(1)
Units and Dimensions
3(1)
Fluid Statics
4(1)
Manometers and Pressure Measurements
4(1)
Hydraulic Pressure on Surfaces
4(1)
Buoyancy
5(1)
Basic Equations
5(2)
Continuity Equation
5(1)
Euler's Equation
5(1)
Bernoulli's Equation
6(1)
Energy Equation
6(1)
Momentum Equation
6(1)
Moment-of-Momentum Equation
6(1)
Advanced Fluid Flow Concepts
7(1)
Dimensional Analysis and Similitude
7(1)
Nondimensional Parameters
7(1)
Equivalent Diameter and Hydraulic Radius
8(1)
Pipe Flow
8(3)
Friction Factor and Darcy Equation
9(1)
Losses in Pipe Fittings and Valves
10(1)
Pipes in Series
10(1)
Pipes in Parallel
10(1)
Open-Channel Flow
11(2)
Frictionless Open-Channel Flow
11(1)
Laminar Open-Channel Flow
12(1)
Turbulent Open-Channel Flow
12(1)
Hydraulic Jump
12(1)
Fluid Measurements
13(3)
Pressure and Velocity Measurements
13(1)
Flow Rate Measurement
14(1)
Hot-Wire and Thin-Film Anemometry
14(1)
Open-Channel Flow Measurements
15(1)
Viscosity Measurements
15(1)
Other Topics
16(2)
Unsteady Flow, Surge, and Water Hammer
16(1)
Boundary Layer Concepts
16(1)
Lift and Drag
16(1)
Oceanographic Flows
17(1)
Heat Transfer
18(33)
Introduction
19(1)
Conduction
19(4)
Single Wall Conduction
19(2)
Composite Wall Conduction
21(1)
The Combined Heat Transfer Coefficient
22(1)
Critical Radius of Insulation
22(1)
Convection
23(3)
Dimensionless Numbers
23(1)
Correlations
24(2)
Typical Convection Coefficient Values
26(1)
Radiation
26(3)
Emissivity
27(1)
View Factors
27(2)
Radiation Shields
29(1)
Finite Element Analysis
29(4)
Boundary Conditions
29(1)
2D Analysis
30(1)
Transient Analysis
30(1)
Evaluating Results
31(2)
Heat Exchanger Classification
33(9)
Types of Heat Exchangers
33(3)
Shell-and-Tube Exchangers
36(2)
Tube Arrangements and Baffles
38(2)
Shell Configurations
40(2)
Miscellaneous Data
42(1)
Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Heat Transfer
42(9)
Flow Regimes
42(4)
Flow Maps
46(2)
Estimating Pressure Drop
48(3)
Thermodynamics
51(15)
Thermodynamic Essentials
52(6)
Phases of a Pure Substance
52(1)
Thermodynamic Properties
53(2)
Determining Properties
55(1)
Types of Systems
56(1)
Types of Processes
56(1)
The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
57(1)
First Law of Thermodynamics
58(1)
Work
58(1)
Heat
58(1)
First Law of Thermodynamics for Closed Systems
58(1)
First Law of Thermodynamics for Open Systems
58(1)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
59(1)
Reversible Processes and Cycles
59(1)
Thermodynamic Temperature Scale
59(1)
Useful Expressions
59(1)
Thermodynamic Cycles
60(6)
Basic Systems and Systems Integration
60(1)
Carnot Cycle
60(1)
Rankine Cycle: A Vapor Power Cycle
61(1)
Reversed Rankine Cycle: A Vapor Refrigeration Cycle
61(1)
Brayton Cycle: A Gas Turbine Cycle
62(1)
Otto Cycle: A Power Cycle
63(1)
Diesel Cycle: Another Power Cycle
63(1)
Gas Power Cycles with Regeneration
64(2)
Mechanical Seals
66(26)
Basic Mechanical Seal Components
67(1)
Sealing Points
67(1)
Mechanical Seal Classifications
68(1)
Basic Seal Designs
68(4)
Basic Seal Arrangements
72(2)
Basic Design Principles
74(3)
Materials of Construction
77(2)
Desirable Design Features
79(1)
Equipment Considerations
80(1)
Calculating Seal Chamber Pressure
81(1)
Seal Flush Plans
82(3)
Integral Pumping Features
85(2)
Seal System Heat Balance
87(2)
Flow Rate Calculation
89(2)
References
91(1)
Pumps and Compressors
92(33)
Pump Fundamentals and Design
93(17)
Pump and Head Terminology
93(1)
Pump Design Parameters and Formulas
93(1)
Types of Pumps
94(1)
Centrifugal Pumps
95(1)
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and Cavitation
96(1)
Pumping Hydrocarbons and Other Fluids
96(1)
Recirculation
97(1)
Pumping Power and Efficiency
97(1)
Specific Speed of Pumps
97(1)
Pump Similitude
98(1)
Performance Curves
98(1)
Series and Parallel Pumping
99(1)
Design Guidelines
100(3)
Reciprocating Pumps
103(7)
Compressors
110(14)
Definitions
110(1)
Performance Calculations for Reciprocating Compressors
111(3)
Estimating Suction and Discharge Volume Bottle Sizes for Pulsation Control for Reciprocating Compressors
114(3)
Compression Horsepower Determination
117(2)
Generalized Compressibility Factor
119(1)
Centrifugal Compressor Performance Calculations
120(3)
Estimate HP Required to Compress Natural Gas
123(1)
Estimate Engine Cooling Water Requirements
124(1)
Estimate Fuel Requirements for Internal Combustion Engines
124(1)
References
124(1)
Drivers
125(8)
Motors: Efficiency
126(1)
Motors: Starter Sizes
127(1)
Motors: Service Factor
127(1)
Motors: Useful Equations
128(1)
Motors: Relative Costs
128(1)
Motors: Overloading
129(1)
Steam Turbines: Steam Rate
129(1)
Steam Turbines: Efficiency
129(1)
Gas Turbines: Fuel Rates
130(2)
Gas Engines: Fuel Rates
132(1)
Gas Expanders: Available Energy
132(1)
Gears
133(12)
Ratios and Nomenclature
134(1)
Spur and Helical Gear Design
134(5)
Bevel Gear Design
139(2)
Cylindrical Worm Gear Design
141(1)
Materials
142(1)
Summary of Gear Types
143(1)
Buying Gears and Gear Drives
144(1)
References
144(1)
Bearings
145(33)
Types of Bearings
146(6)
Ball Bearings
146(1)
Roller Bearings
147(2)
Standardization
149(2)
Materials
151(1)
Rating and Life
152(4)
ABMA Definitions
152(1)
Fatigue Life
153(1)
Life Adjustment Factors
154(2)
Load and Speed Analysis
156(4)
Equivalent Loads
156(1)
Contact Stresses
157(1)
Preloading
157(1)
Special Loads
158(1)
Effects of Speed
159(1)
Lubrication
160(6)
General
160(1)
Oils
161(1)
Greases
161(1)
Lubricant Selection
162(1)
Lubricating Methods
163(1)
Relubrication
164(1)
Cleaning, Preservation, and Storage
165(1)
Mounting
166(9)
Shafting
166(3)
Housings
169(3)
Bearing Clearance
172(2)
Seals
174(1)
Sleeve Bearings
175(2)
References
177(1)
Piping and Pressure Vessels
178(48)
Process Plant Pipe
179(11)
Definitions and Sizing
179(8)
Pipe Specifications
187(1)
Storing Pipe
188(1)
Calculations to Use
189(1)
Transportation Pipe Lines
190(5)
Steel Pipe Design
190(1)
Gas Pipe Lines
190(2)
Liquid Pipe Lines
192(3)
Pipe Line Condition Monitoring
195(11)
Pig-based Monitoring Systems
195(1)
Coupons
196(1)
Manual Investigation
196(1)
Cathodic Protection
197(9)
Pressure Vessels
206(20)
Stress Analysis
206(1)
Failures in Pressure Vessels
207(1)
Loadings
208(1)
Stress
209(4)
Procedure 1: General Vessel Formulas
213(2)
Procedure 2: Stresses in Heads Due to Internal Pressure
215(2)
Joint Efficiencies (ASME Code)
217(1)
Properties of Heads
218(2)
Volumes and Surface Areas of Vessel Sections
220(1)
Maximum Length of Unstiffened Shells
221(1)
Useful Formulas for Vessels
222(2)
Material Selection Guide
224(1)
References
225(1)
Tribology
226(12)
Introduction
227(1)
Contact Mechanics
227(6)
Two-dimensional (Line) Hertz Contact of Cylinders
227(2)
Three-dimensional (Point) Hertz Contact
229(3)
Effect of Friction on Contact Stress
232(1)
Yield and Shakedown Criteria for Contacts
232(1)
Topography of Engineering Surfaces
233(2)
Definition of Surface Roughness
233(1)
Contact of Rough Surfaces
234(1)
Life Factors
234(1)
Friction
235(1)
Wear
235(1)
Lubrication
236(1)
References
237(1)
Vibration
238(21)
Vibration Definitions, Terminology, and Symbols
239(4)
Solving the One Degree of Freedom System
243(2)
Solving Multiple Degree of Freedom Systems
245(1)
Vibration Measurements and Instrumentation
246(4)
Table A: Spring Stiffness
250(1)
Table B: Natural Frequencies of Simple Systems
251(1)
Table C: Longitudinal and Torsional Vibration of Uniform Beams
252(1)
Table D: Bending (Transverse) Vibration of Uniform Beams
253(1)
Table E: Natural Frequencies of Multiple DOF Systems
254(1)
Table F: Planetary Gear Mesh Frequencies
255(1)
Table G: Rolling Element Bearing Frequencies and Bearing Defect Frequencies
256(1)
Table H: General Vibration Diagnostic Frequencies
257(1)
References
258(1)
Materials
259(35)
Classes of Materials
260(1)
Definitions
260(2)
Metals
262(19)
Steels
262(2)
Tool Steels
264(1)
Cast Iron
265(1)
Stainless Steels
266(2)
Superalloys
268(1)
Aluminum Alloys
269(1)
Joining
270(3)
Coatings
273(3)
Corrosion
276(3)
Powder Metallurgy
279(2)
Polymers
281(3)
Ceramics
284(1)
Mechanical Testing
284(4)
Tensile Testing
284(1)
Fatigue Testing
285(1)
Hardness Testing
286(1)
Creep and Stress Rupture Testing
287(1)
Forming
288(1)
Casting
289(1)
Case Studies
290(2)
Failure Analysis
290(1)
Corrosion
291(1)
References
292(2)
Stress and Strain
294(35)
Fundamentals of Stress and Strain
295(4)
Introduction
295(1)
Definitions--Stress and Strain
295(2)
Equilibrium
297(1)
Compatibility
297(1)
Saint-Venant's Principle
297(1)
Superposition
298(1)
Plane Stress/Plane Strain
298(1)
Thermal Stresses
298(1)
Stress Concentrations
299(6)
Determination of Stress Concentration Factors
300(5)
Design Criteria for Structural Analysis
305(1)
General Guidelines for Effective Criteria
305(1)
Strength Design Factors
305(1)
Beam Analysis
306(3)
Limitations of General Beam Bending Equations
307(1)
Short Beams
307(1)
Plastic Bending
307(1)
Torsion
308(1)
Pressure Vessels
309(1)
Thin-walled Cylinders
309(1)
Thick-walled Cylinders
309(1)
Press Fits Between Cylinders
310(1)
Rotating Equipment
310(5)
Rotating Disks
310(3)
Rotating Shafts
313(2)
Flange Analysis
315(1)
Flush Flanges
315(1)
Undercut Flanges
316(1)
Mechanical Fasteners
316(3)
Threaded Fasteners
317(1)
Pins
318(1)
Rivets
318(1)
Welded and Brazed Joints
319(1)
Creep Rupture
320(1)
Finite Element Analysis
320(4)
Overview
321(1)
The Elements
321(1)
Modeling Techniques
322(1)
Advantages and Limitations of FEM
323(1)
Centroids and Moments of Inertia for Common Shapes
324(1)
Beams: Shear, Moment, and Deflection Formulas for Common End Conditions
325(3)
References
328(1)
Fatigue
329(23)
Introduction
330(1)
Stages of Fatigue
330(1)
Design Approaches to Fatigue
331(1)
Crack Initiation Analysis
331(7)
Residual Stresses
332(1)
Notches
332(3)
Real World Loadings
335(2)
Temperature Interpolation
337(1)
Material Scatter
338(1)
Estimating Fatigue Properties
338(1)
Crack Propagation Analysis
338(7)
K---The Stress Intensity Factor
339(3)
Crack Propagation Calculations
342(2)
Creep Crack Growth
344(1)
Inspection Techniques
345(3)
Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI)
345(1)
Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)
345(1)
Radiography
345(1)
Ultrasonic Inspection
346(1)
Eddy-current Inspection
347(1)
Evaluation of Failed Parts
347(1)
Nonmetallic Materials
348(1)
Fatigue Testing
349(1)
Liability Issues
350(1)
References
350(2)
Instrumentation
352(20)
Introduction
353(1)
Temperature Measurement
354(5)
Fluid Temperature Measurement
354(4)
Surface Temperature Measurement
358(1)
Common Temperature Sensors
358(1)
Pressure Measurement
359(3)
Total Pressure Measurement
360(1)
Static/Cavity Pressure Measurement
361(1)
Strain Measurement
362(4)
The Electrical Resistance Strain Gauge
363(1)
Electrical Resistance Strain Gauge Data Acquisition
364(2)
Liquid Level and Fluid Flow Measurement
366(4)
Liquid Level Measurement
366(2)
Fluid Flow Measurement
368(2)
References
370(2)
Engineering Economics
372(22)
Time Value of Money: Concepts and Formulas
373(7)
Simple Interest vs. Compound Interest
373(1)
Nominal Interest Rate vs. Effective Annual Interest Rate
374(1)
Present Value of a Single Cash Flow To Be Received in the Future
374(1)
Future Value of a Single Investment
375(1)
The Importance of Cash Flow Diagrams
375(1)
Analyzing and Valuing Investments/Projects with Multiple or Irregular Cash Flows
375(1)
Perpetuities
376(1)
Future Value of a Periodic Series of Investments
377(1)
Annuities, Loans, and Leases
377(1)
Gradients (Payouts/Payments with Constant Growth Rates)
378(1)
Analyzing Complex Investments and Cash Flow Problems
379(1)
Decision and Evaluation Criteria for Investments and Financial Projects
380(4)
Payback Method
380(1)
Accounting Rate of Return (ROR) Method
381(1)
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
382(1)
Net Present Value (NPV) Method
383(1)
Sensitivity Analysis
384(1)
Decision Tree Analysis of Investments and Financial Projects
385(4)
Accounting Fundamentals
389(4)
References and Recommended Reading
393(1)
Appendix 394(6)
Conversion Factors
395(4)
Systems of Basic Units
399(1)
Decimal Multiples and Fractions of SI units
399(1)
Temperature Conversion Equations
399(1)
Index 400

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