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Scalable Computing and Communications : Theory and Practice,9781118162651
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Scalable Computing and Communications : Theory and Practice

by ; ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781118162651

ISBN10:
111816265X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/22/2013
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Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Pr
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Summary

Scalable Computing and Communications reviews the latest advances in the all-important field of scalable computing. Bringing together contributions from world-renowned researchers in diverse areas, the book covers circuit and component design, software, operating systems, networking in scalable computing and mobile computing, green computing, next-generation networking, network-on-chip paradigms, cloud computing, computational grids, peer-to-peer systems, high-performance computing and more. It also offers insight into future trends and emerging topics, plus case studies to illustrate concepts under discussion.

Author Biography

SAMEE U. KHAN, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at North Dakota State University. He is the founding director of the bi-institutional and multi-departmental NDSU-CIIT Green Computing and Communications Laboratory (GCC Lab) and an Adjunct Professor of Computer Science, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan.

ALBERT Y. ZOMAYA, PhD, is the Chair Professor of High Performance Computing and Networking, and Australian Research Council Professorial Fellow in the School of Information Technologies, The University of Sydney. He is also the Director of the Centre for Distributed and High Performance Computing as well as the Series Editor for the Wiley Series on Parallel and Distributed Computing.

LIZHE WANG, PhD, is a Professor at the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is the ChuTian Scholar Chair Professor in the School of Computer, China University of Geosciences. A senior member of the IEEE, professional member of ACM, and member of the IEEE Computer Society, Dr. Wang has published six books and more than fifty technical papers.

Table of Contents

Preface xix

Contributors xxi

1. Scalable Computing and Communications: Past, Present, and Future 1

Yanhui Wu, Kashif Bilal, Samee U. Khan, Lizhe Wang, and Albert Y. Zomaya

1.1 Scalable Computing and Communications / 1

References / 4

2. Reliable Minimum Connected Dominating Sets for Topology

Control in Probabilistic Wireless Sensor Networks 7

Jing (Selena) He, Shouling Ji, Yi Pan, and Yingshu Li

2.1 Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) / 7

2.2 DS-Based Topology Control / 10

2.3 Deterministic WSNs and Probabilistic WSNs / 12

2.4 Reliable MCDS Problem / 13

2.5 A GA to Construct RMCDS-GA / 17

2.6 Performance Evaluation / 26

2.7 Conclusions / 27

References / 28

3. Peer Selection Schemes in Scalable P2P Video Streaming Systems 31

Xin Jin and Yu-Kwong Kwok

3.1 Introduction / 31

3.2 Overlay Structures / 32

3.3 Peer Selection for Overlay Construction / 34

3.4 A Game Theoretic Perspective on Peer Selection / 45

3.5 Discussion and Future Work / 47

3.6 Summary / 48

References / 49

4. Multicore and Many-Core Computing 55

Ioannis E. Venetis

4.1 Introduction / 55

4.2 Architectural Options for Multicore Systems / 60

4.3 Multicore Architecture Examples / 64

4.4 Programming Multicore Architectures / 67

4.5 Many-Core Architectures / 74

4.6 Many-Core Architecture Examples / 75

4.7 Summary / 77

References / 77

5. Scalable Computing on Large Heterogeneous CPU/GPU

Supercomputers 81

Fengshun Lu, Kaijun Ren, Junqiang Song, and Jinjun Chen

5.1 Introduction / 81

5.2 Heterogeneous Computing Environments / 82

5.3 Scalable Programming Patterns for Large

GPU Clusters / 84

5.4 Hybrid Implementations / 87

5.5 Experimental Results / 89

5.6 Conclusions / 94

Acknowledgments / 94

References / 94

6. Diagnosability of Multiprocessor Systems 97

Chia-Wei Lee and Sun-Yuan Hsieh

6.1 Introduction / 97

6.2 Fundamental Concepts / 98

6.3 Diagnosability of (1,2)-MCNS under PMC Model / 103

6.4 Diagnosability of 2-MCNS under MM* Model / 105

6.5 Application to Multiprocessor Systems / 110

6.6 Concluding Remarks / 122

References / 122

7. A Performance Analysis Methodology for MultiCore,

Multithreaded Processors 125

Miao Ju, Hun Jung, and Hao Che

7.1 Introduction / 125

7.2 Methodology / 126

7.3 Simulation Tool (ST) / 130

7.4 Analytic Modeling Technique / 132

7.5 Testing / 136

7.6 Related Work / 139

7.7 Conclusions and Future Work / 141

References / 141

8. The Future in Mobile Multicore Computing 145

Blake Hurd, Chiu C. Tan, and Jie Wu

8.1 Introduction / 145

8.2 Background / 146

8.3 Hardware Initiatives / 148

8.4 Software Initiatives / 151

8.5 Additional Discussion / 152

8.6 Future Trends / 153

8.7 Conclusion / 154

References / 155

9. Modeling and Algorithms for Scalable and Energy-Effi cient

Execution on Multicore Systems 157

Dong Li, Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos, and Kirk W. Cameron

9.1 Introduction / 157

9.2 Model-Based Hybrid Message-Passing Interface

(MPI)/OpenMP Power-Aware Computing / 158

9.3 Power-Aware MPI Task Aggregation Prediction / 170

9.4 Conclusions / 181

References / 182

10. Cost Optimization for Scalable Communication in Wireless

Networks with Movement-Based Location Management 185

Keqin Li

10.1 Introduction / 185

10.2 Background Information / 187

10.3 Cost Measure and Optimization for a Single User / 190

10.4 Cost Optimization with Location Update Constraint / 192

10.5 Cost Optimization with Terminal Paging Constraint / 196

10.6 Numerical Data / 201

10.7 Concluding Remarks / 206

References / 206

11. A Framework for Semiautomatic Explicit Parallelization 209

Ritu Arora, Purushotham Bangalore, and Marjan Mernik

11.1 Introduction / 209

11.2 Explicit Parallelization Using MPI / 210

11.3 Building Blocks of FraSPA / 211

11.4 Evaluation of FraSPA through Case Studies / 215

11.5 Lessons Learned / 221

11.6 Related Work / 222

11.7 Summary / 224

References / 224

12. Fault Tolerance and Transmission Reliability in Wireless Networks 227

Wolfgang W. Bein and Doina Bein

12.1 Introduction: Reliability Issues in Wireless and

Sensor Networks / 227

12.2 Reliability and Fault Tolerance of Coverage Models for Sensor

Networks / 230

12.3 Fault-Tolerant k-Fold Pivot Routing in Wireless

Sensor Networks / 238

12.4 Impact of Variable Transmission Range in All-Wireless

Networks / 244

12.5 Conclusions and Open Problems / 250

References / 251

13. Optimizing and Tuning Scientifi c Codes 255

Qing Yi

13.1 Introduction / 255

13.2 An Abstract View of the Machine Architecture / 256

13.3 Optimizing Scientifi c Codes / 256

13.4 Empirical Tuning of Optimizations / 262

13.5 Related Work / 272

13.6 Summary and Future Work / 273

Acknowledgments / 273

References / 273

14. Privacy and Confi dentiality in Cloud Computing 277

Khaled M. Khan and Qutaibah Malluhi

14.1 Introduction / 277

14.2 Cloud Stakeholders and Computational Assets / 278

14.3 Data Privacy and Trust / 280

14.4 A Cloud Computing Example / 281

14.5 Conclusion / 288

Acknowledgments / 288

References / 288

15. Reputation Management Systems for Peer-to-Peer Networks 291

Fang Qi, Haiying Shen, Harrison Chandler, Guoxin Liu, and Ze Li

15.1 Introduction / 291

15.2 Reputation Management Systems / 292

15.3 Case Study of Reputation Systems / 307

15.4 Open Problems / 316

15.5 Conclusion / 316

Acknowledgments / 317

References / 317

16. Toward a Secure Fragment Allocation of Files in

Heterogeneous Distributed Systems 321

Yun Tian, Mohammed I. Alghamdi, Xiaojun Ruan, Jiong Xie, and Xiao Qin

16.1 Introduction / 321

16.2 Related Work / 323

16.3 System and Threat Models / 325

16.4 S-FAS: A Secure Fragment Allocation Scheme / 327

16.5 Assurance Models / 329

16.6 Sap Allocation Principles and Prototype / 332

16.7 Evaluation of System Assurance and Performance / 333

16.8 Conclusion / 339

Acknowledgments / 341

References / 341

17. Adopting Compression in Wireless Sensor Networks 343

Xi Deng and Yuanyuan Yang

17.1 Introduction / 343

17.2 Compression in Sensor Nodes / 345

17.3 Compression Effect on Packet Delay / 348

17.4 Online Adaptive Compression Algorithm / 350

17.5 Performance Evaluations / 360

17.6 Summary / 362

References / 363

18. GFOG: Green and Flexible Opportunistic Grids 365

Harold Castro, Mario Villamizar, German Sotelo, Cesar O. Diaz,

Johnatan Pecero, Pascal Bouvry, and Samee U. Khan

18.1 Introduction / 365

18.2 Related Work / 366

18.3 UnaGrid Infrastructure / 369

18.4 Energy Consumption Model / 372

18.5 Experimental Results / 374

18.6 Conclusions and Future Work / 382

References / 382

19. Maximizing Real-Time System Utilization by Adjusting Task

Computation Times 387

Nasro Min-Allah, Samee Ullah Khan, Yongji Wang, Joanna Kolodziej,

and Nasir Ghani

19.1 Introduction / 387

19.2 Expressing Task Schedulability in Polylinear Surfaces / 389

19.3 Task Execution Time Adjustment Based on the P-Bound / 391

19.4 Conclusions / 393

Acknowledgments / 393

References / 393

20. Multilevel Exploration of the Optimization Landscape

through Dynamical Fitness for Grid Scheduling 395

Joanna Kolodziej

20.1 Introduction / 395

20.2 Statement of the Problem / 397

20.3 General Characteristics of the Optimization Landscape / 399

20.4 Multilevel Metaheuristic Schedulers / 402

20.5 Empirical Analysis / 408

20.6 Conclusions / 417

References / 417

21. Implementing Pointer Jumping for Exact Inference

on Many-Core Systems 419

Yinglong Xia, Nam Ma, and Viktor K. Prasanna

21.1 Introduction / 419

21.2 Background / 420

21.3 Related Work / 422

21.4 Pointer Jumping-Based Algorithms for Scheduling Exact

Inference / 423

21.5 Analysis with Respect to Many-Core Processors / 424

21.6 From Exact Inference to Generic Directed Acyclic Graph

(DAG)-Structured Computations / 427

21.7 Experiments / 428

21.8 Conclusions / 434

References / 435

22. Performance Optimization of Scientifi c Applications Using

an Autonomic Computing Approach 437

Ioana Banicescu, Florina M. Ciorba, and Srishti Srivastava

22.1 Introduction / 437

22.2 Scientifi c Applications and Their Performance / 439

22.3 Load Balancing via DLS / 441

22.4 The Use of Machine Learning in Improving the Performance of

Scientifi c Applications / 441

22.5 Design Strategies and an Integrated

Framework / 445

22.6 Experimental Results, Analysis, and

Evaluation / 455

22.7 Conclusions, Future Work, and Open Problems / 462

Acknowledgments / 463

References / 463

23. A Survey of Techniques for Improving Search Engine

Scalability through Profi ling, Prediction, and Prefetching

of Query Results 467

C. Shaun Wagner, Sahra Sedigh, Ali R. Hurson, and Behrooz Shirazi

23.1 Introduction / 467

23.2 Modeling User Behavior / 472

23.3 Grouping Users into Neighborhoods of

Similarity / 474

23.4 Similarity Metrics / 481

23.5 Conclusion and Future Work / 497

Appendix A Comparative Analysis of Comparison

Algorithms / 498

Appendix B Most Popular Searches / 501

References / 502

24. KNN Queries in Mobile Sensor Networks 507

Wei-Guang Teng and Kun-Ta Chuang

24.1 Introduction / 507

24.2 Preliminaries and Infrastructure-Based KNN Queries / 509

24.3 Infrastructure-Free KNN Queries / 511

24.4 Future Research Directions / 519

24.5 Conclusions / 519

References / 520

25. Data Partitioning for Designing and Simulating Effi cient

Huge Databases 523

Ladjel Bellatreche, Kamel Boukhalfa, Pascal Richard, and Soumia Benkrid

25.1 Introduction / 523

25.2 Background and Related Work / 527

25.3 Fragmentation Methodology / 532

25.4 Hardness Study / 535

25.5 Proposed Selection Algorithms / 538

25.6 Impact of HP on Data Warehouse Physical Design / 544

25.7 Experimental Studies / 549

25.8 Physical Design Simulator Tool / 553

25.9 Conclusion and Perspectives / 559

References / 560

26. Scalable Runtime Environments for Large-Scale Parallel Applications 563

Camille Coti and Franck Cappello

26.1 Introduction / 563

26.2 Goals of a Runtime Environment / 565

26.3 Communication Infrastructure / 567

26.4 Application Deployment / 571

26.5 Fault Tolerance and Robustness / 577

26.6 Case Studies / 582

26.7 Conclusion / 586

References / 587

27. Increasing Performance through Optimization on APU 591

Matthew Doerksen, Parimala Thulasiraman, and Ruppa Thulasiram

27.1 Introduction / 591

27.2 Heterogeneous Architectures / 591

27.3 Related Work / 597

27.4 OpenCL, CUDA of the Future / 600

27.5 Simple Introduction to OpenCL Programming / 604

27.6 Performance and Optimization Summary / 607

27.7 Application / 607

27.8 Summary / 609

Appendix / 609

References / 612

28. Toward Optimizing Cloud Computing: An Example of

Optimization under Uncertainty 613

Vladik Kreinovich

28.1 Cloud Computing: Why We Need It and How We Can

Make It Most Effi cient / 613

28.2 Optimal Server Placement Problem: First Approximation / 614

28.3 Server Placement in Cloud Computing: Toward a More

Realistic Model / 618

28.4 Predicting Cloud Growth: Formulation of the Problem

and Our Approach to Solving This Problem / 620

28.5 Predicting Cloud Growth: First Approximation / 621

28.6 Predicting Cloud Growth: Second Approximation / 622

28.7 Predicting Cloud Growth: Third Approximation / 623

28.8 Conclusions and Future Work / 625

Acknowledgments / 625

Appendix: Description of Expenses Related to Cloud Computing / 626

References / 626

29. Modeling of Scalable Embedded Systems 629

Arslan Munir, Sanjay Ranka, and Ann Gordon-Ross

29.1 Introduction / 629

29.2 Embedded System Applications / 631

29.3 Embedded Systems: Hardware and Software / 634

29.4 Modeling: An Integral Part of the Embedded System Design

Flow / 638

29.5 Single- and Multiunit Embedded System Modeling / 644

29.6 Conclusions / 654

Acknowledgments / 655

References / 655

30. Scalable Service Composition in Pervasive Computing 659

Joanna Siebert and Jiannong Cao

30.1 Introduction / 659

30.2 Service Composition Framework / 660

30.3 Approaches and Techniques for Scalable Service

Composition in PvCE / 664

30.4 Conclusions / 671

References / 671

31. Virtualization Techniques for Graphics Processing Units 675

Pavan Balaji, Qian Zhu, and Wu-Chun Feng

31.1 Introduction / 675

31.2 Background / 677

31.3 VOCL Framework / 677

31.4 VOCL Optimizations / 682

31.5 Experimental Evaluation / 687

31.6 Related Work / 696

31.7 Concluding Remarks / 696

References / 697

32. Dense Linear Algebra on Distributed Heterogeneous Hardware

with a Symbolic DAG Approach 699

George Bosilca, Aurelien Bouteiller, Anthony Danalis, Thomas Herault,

Piotr Luszczek, and Jack J. Dongara

32.1 Introduction and Motivation / 699

32.2 Distributed Datafl ow by Symbolic Evaluation / 701

32.3 The DAGuE Datafl ow Runtime / 705

32.4 Datafl ow Representation / 709

32.5 Programming Linear Algebra with DAGuE / 716

32.6 Performance Evaluation / 728

32.7 Conclusion / 731

32.8 Summary / 732

References / 733

33. Fault-Tolerance Techniques for Scalable Computing 737

Pavan Balaji, Darius Buntinas, and Dries Kimpe

33.1 Introduction and Trends in Large-Scale Computing

Systems / 737

33.2 Hardware Features for Resilience / 738

33.3 Systems Software Features for Resilience / 743

33.4 Application or Domain-Specifi c Fault-Tolerance Techniques / 748

33.5 Summary / 753

References / 753

34. Parallel Programming Models for Scalable Computing 759

James Dinan and Pavan Balaji

34.1 Introduction to Parallel Programming Models / 759

34.2 The Message-Passing Interface (MPI) / 761

34.3 Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) Models / 765

34.4 Task-Parallel Programming Models / 769

34.5 High-Productivity Parallel Programming Models / 772

34.6 Summary and Concluding Remarks / 775

Acknowledgment / 775

References / 775

35. Grid Simulation Tools for Job Scheduling and Data File Replication 777

Javid Taheri, Albert Y. Zomaya, and Samee U. Khan

35.1 Introduction / 777

35.2 Simulation Platforms / 779

35.3 Problem Statement: Data-Aware Job Scheduling (DAJS) / 792

References / 795

Index 799



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