9780306472923

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780306472923

  • ISBN10:

    0306472929

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 12/1/2002
  • Publisher: SPRINGER
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Summary

This text provides students as well as practitioners (engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers) with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis. The authors emphasize the practical aspects of the techniques described. Topics discussed include user-controlled functions of scanning electron microscopes and x-ray spectrometers, the characteristics of electron beam - specimen interactions, image formation and interpretation, the use of x-rays for qualitative and quantitative analysis and the methodology for structural analysis using electron back-scatter diffraction. SEM sample preparation methods for hard materials, polymers, and biological specimens are covered in separate chapters. In addition techniques for the elimination of charging in non-conducting specimens are detailed. A data base of useful parameters for SEM and X-ray micro-analysis calculations and enhancements to the text chapters are available on an accompanying CD.This is the third edition of this highly acclaimed text and has been extensively revised. The text has been used in educating over 3,000 students at the Lehigh SEM short course as well as thousands of undergraduate and graduate students at universities in every corner of the globe. The authors have made extensive changes to the text and figures in this edition as a result of their experience in teaching the various concepts of SEM and x-ray microanalysis.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(20)
Imaging Capabilities
2(8)
Structure Analysis
10(1)
Elemental Analysis
10(7)
Summary and Outline of This Book
17(4)
Appendix A. Overview of Scanning Electron Microscopy
18(1)
Appendix B. Overview of Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis
19(1)
References
20(1)
The SEM and Its Modes of Operation
21(40)
How the SEM Works
21(8)
Functions of the SEM Subsystems
21(1)
Electron Gun and Lenses Produce a Small Electron Beam
22(1)
Deflection System Controls Magnification
22(2)
Electron Detector Collects the Signal
24(1)
Camera or Computer Records the Image
25(1)
Operator Controls
25(1)
SEM Imaging Modes
25(2)
Resolution Mode
27(1)
High-Current Mode
27(1)
Depth-of-Focus Mode
28(1)
Low-Voltage Mode
29(1)
Why Learn about Electron Optics?
29(1)
Electron Guns
29(11)
Tungsten Hairpin Electron Guns
30(1)
Filament
30(1)
Grid Cap
31(1)
Anode
31(1)
Emission Current and Beam Current
32(1)
Operator Control of the Electron Gun
32(1)
Electron Gun Characteristics
33(1)
Electron Emission Current
33(1)
Brightness
33(1)
Lifetime
34(1)
Source Size, Energy Spread, Beam Stability
34(1)
Improved Electron Gun Characteristics
34(1)
Lanthanum Hexaboride (LaB6) Electron Guns
35(1)
Introduction
35(1)
Operation of the LaB6 Source
36(1)
Field Emission Electron Guns
37(3)
Electron Lenses
40(14)
Making the Beam Smaller
40(1)
Electron Focusing
40(1)
Demagnification of the Beam
41(1)
Lenses in SEMs
42(1)
Condenser Lenses
42(1)
Objective Lenses
42(2)
Real and Virtual Objective Apertures
44(1)
Operator Control of SEM Lenses
44(1)
Effect of Aperture Size
45(1)
Effect of Working Distance
45(1)
Effect of Condenser Lens Strength
46(1)
Gaussian Probe Diameter
47(1)
Lens Aberrations
48(1)
Spherical Aberration
48(1)
Aperture Diffraction
49(1)
Chromatic Aberration
50(1)
Astigmatism
51(2)
Aberrations in the Objective Lens
53(1)
Electron Probe Diameter versus Electron Probe Current
54(7)
Calculation of dmin and imax
54(1)
Minimum Probe Size
54(1)
Minimum Probe Size at 10--30 kV
54(1)
Maximum Probe Current at 10--30 kV
55(1)
Low-Voltage Operation
55(1)
Graphical Summary
56(1)
Performance in the SEM Modes
56(1)
Resolution Mode
56(2)
High-Current Mode
58(1)
Depth-of-Focus Mode
59(1)
Low-Voltage SEM
59(1)
Environmental Barriers to High-Resolution Imaging
59(1)
References
60(1)
Electron Beam-Specimen Interactions
61(38)
The Story So Far
61(1)
The Beam Enters the Specimen
61(4)
The Interaction Volume
65(10)
Visualizing the Interaction Volume
65(2)
Simulating the Interaction Volume
67(1)
Influence of Beam and Specimen Parameters on the Interaction Volume
68(1)
Influence of Beam Energy on the Interaction Volume
68(1)
Influence of Atomic Number on the Interaction Volume
69(2)
Influence of Specimen Surface Tilt on the Interaction Volume
71(1)
Electron Range: A Simple Measure of the Interaction Volume
72(1)
Introduction
72(1)
The Electron Range at Low Beam Energy
73(2)
Imaging Signals from the Interaction Volume
75(24)
Backscattered Electrons
75(1)
Atomic Number Dependence of BSE
75(2)
Beam Energy Dependence of BSE
77(2)
Tilt Dependence of BSE
79(1)
Angular Distribution of BSE
80(2)
Energy Distribution of BSE
82(2)
Lateral Spatial Distribution of BSE
84(2)
Sampling Depth of BSE
86(2)
Secondary Electrons
88(1)
Definition and Origin of SE
88(1)
SE Yield with Primary Beam Energy
89(2)
SE Energy Distribution
91(1)
Range and Escape Depth of SE
91(2)
Relative Contributions of SE1 and SE2
93(2)
Specimen Composition Dependence of SE
95(1)
Specimen Tilt Dependence of SE
96(1)
Angular Distribution of SE
97(1)
References
97(2)
Image Formation and Interpretation
99(96)
The Story So Far
99(1)
The Basic SEM Imaging Process
99(26)
Scanning Action
101(2)
Image Construction (Mapping)
103(1)
Line Scans
103(1)
Image (Area) Scanning
104(3)
Digital Imaging: Collection and Display
107(1)
Magnification
108(2)
Picture Element (Pixel) Size
110(4)
Low-Magnification Operation
114(1)
Depth of Field (Focus)
114(4)
Image Distortion
118(1)
Projection Distortion: Gnomonic Projection
118(1)
Projection Distortion: Image Foreshortening
119(4)
Scan Distortion: Pathological Defects
123(2)
Moire Effects
125(1)
Detectors
125(14)
Introduction
125(2)
Electron Detectors
127(1)
Everhart--Thornley Detector
128(4)
``Through-the-Lens'' (TTL) Detector
132(1)
Dedicated Backscattered Electron Detectors
133(6)
The Roles of the Specimen and Detector in Contrast Formation
139(34)
Contrast
139(2)
Compositional (Atomic Number) Contrast
141(1)
Introduction
141(1)
Compositional Contrast with Backscattered Electrons
141(4)
Topographic Contrast
145(1)
Origins of Topographic Contrast
146(1)
Topographic Contrast with the Everhart--Thornley Detector
147(4)
Light-Optical Analogy
151(7)
Interpreting Topographic Contrast with Other Detectors
158(15)
Image Quality
173(5)
Image Processing for the Display of Contrast Information
178(17)
The Signal Chain
178(2)
The Visibility Problem
180(2)
Analog and Digital Image Processing
182(2)
Basic Digital Image Processing
184(3)
Digital Image Enhancement
187(5)
Digital Image Measurements
192(1)
References
192(3)
Special Topics in Scanning Electron Microscopy
195(76)
High-Resolution Imaging
195(8)
The Resolution Problem
195(2)
Achieving High Resolution at High Beam Energy
197(4)
High-Resolution Imaging at Low Voltage
201(2)
STEM-in-SEM: High Resolution for the Special Case of Thin Specimens
203(4)
Surface Imaging at Low Voltage
207(2)
Making Dimensional Measurements in the SEM
209(3)
Recovering the Third Dimension: Stereomicroscopy
212(8)
Qualitative Stereo Imaging and Presentation
212(5)
Quantitative Stereo Microscopy
217(3)
Variable-Pressure and Environmental SEM
220(22)
Current Instruments
221(1)
Gas in the Specimen Chamber
222(1)
Units of Gas Pressure
222(1)
The Vacuum System
222(3)
Electron Interactions with Gases
225(6)
The Effect of the Gas on Charging
231(5)
Imaging in the ESEM and the VPSEM
236(5)
X-Ray Microanalysis in the Presence of a Gas
241(1)
Special Contrast Mechanisms
242(14)
Electric Fields
243(2)
Magnetic Fields
245(1)
Type 1 Magnetic Contrast
245(2)
Type 2 Magnetic Contrast
247(1)
Crystallographic Contrast
247(9)
Electron Backscatter Patterns
256(15)
Origin of EBSD Patterns
260(2)
Hardware for EBSD
262(2)
Resolution of EBSD
264(1)
Lateral Spatial Resolution
264(2)
Depth Resolution
266(1)
Applications
267(1)
Orientation Mapping
267(1)
Phase Identification
267(2)
References
269(2)
Generation of X-Rays in the SEM Specimen
271(26)
Continuum X-Ray Production (Bremsstrahlung)
271(3)
Characteristic X-Ray Production
274(12)
Origin
274(1)
Fluorescence Yield
275(1)
Electron Shells
276(1)
Energy-Level Diagram
277(1)
Electron Transitions
277(1)
Critical Ionization Energy
278(1)
Moseley's Law
279(1)
Families of Characteristic Lines
279(2)
Natural Width of Characteristic X-Ray Lines
281(1)
Weights of Lines
282(1)
Cross Section for Inner Shell Ionization
283(1)
X-Ray Production in Thin Foils
284(1)
X-Ray Production in Thick Targets
284(1)
X-Ray Peak-to-Background Ratio
285(1)
Depth of X-Ray Production (X-Ray Range)
286(3)
Anderson--Hasler X-Ray Range
286(1)
X-Ray Spatial Resolution
286(2)
Sampling Volume and Specimen Homogeneity
288(1)
Depth Distribution of X-Ray Production, φ(pz)
288(1)
X-Ray Absorption
289(3)
Mass Absorption Coefficient for an Element
290(1)
Effect of Absorption Edge on Spectrum
291(1)
Absorption Coefficient for Mixed-Element Absorbers
291(1)
X-Ray Fluorescence
292(5)
Characteristic Fluorescence
293(1)
Continuum Fluorescence
294(1)
Range of Fluorescence Radiation
295(1)
References
295(2)
X-Ray Spectral Measurement: EDS and WDS
297(58)
Introduction
297(1)
Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer
297(26)
Operating Principles
297(4)
The Detection Process
301(1)
Charge-to-Voltage Conversion
302(1)
Pulse-Shaping Linear Amplifier and Pileup Rejection Circuitry
303(5)
The Computer X-Ray Analyzer
308(3)
Digital Pulse Processing
311(1)
Spectral Modification Resulting from the Detection Process
312(1)
Peak Broadening
312(4)
Peak Distortion
316(1)
Silicon X-Ray Escape Peaks
317(1)
Absorption Edges
318(2)
Silicon Internal Fluorescence Peak
320(1)
Artifacts from the Detector Environment
321(1)
Summary of EDS Operation and Artifacts
322(1)
Wavelength-Dispersive Spectrometer
323(17)
Introduction
323(1)
Basic Description
324(1)
Diffraction Conditions
325(2)
Diffracting Crystals
327(3)
The X-Ray Proportional Counter
330(3)
Detector Electronics
333(7)
Comparison of Wavelength-Dispersive Spectrometers with Conventional Energy-Dispersive Spectrometers
340(7)
Geometric Collection Efficiency
340(1)
Quantum Efficiency
341(1)
Resolution
342(2)
Spectral Acceptance Range
344(1)
Maximum Count Rate
344(1)
Minimum Probe Size
344(2)
Speed of Analysis
346(1)
Spectral Artifacts
346(1)
Emerging Detector Technologies
347(8)
X-Ray Microcalorimetery
347(2)
Silicon Drift Detectors
349(1)
Parallel Optic Diffraction-Based Spectrometers
350(3)
References
353(2)
Qualitative X-Ray Analysis
355(36)
Introduction
355(2)
EDS Qualitative Analysis
357(25)
X-Ray Peaks
357(9)
Guidelines for EDS Qualitative Analysis
366(2)
General Guidelines for EDS Qualitative Analysis
368(4)
Examples of Manual EDS Qualitative Analysis
372(2)
Pathological Overlaps in EDS Qualitative Analysis
374(5)
Advanced Qualitative Analysis: Peak Stripping
379(2)
Automatic Qualitative EDS Analysis
381(1)
WDS Qualitative Analysis
382(9)
Wavelength-Dispersive Spectrometry of X-Ray Peaks
382(6)
Guidelines for WDS Qualitative Analysis
388(2)
References
390(1)
Quantitative X-Ray Analysis: The Basics
391(62)
Introduction
391(1)
Advantages of Conventional Quantitative X-Ray Microanalysis in the SEM
392(1)
Quantitative Analysis Procedures: Flat-Polished Samples
393(9)
The Approach to X-Ray Quantitation: The Need for Matrix Corrections
402(1)
The Physical Origin of Matrix Effects
403(1)
ZAF Factors in Microanalysis
404(12)
Atomic number effect, Z
404(1)
Effect of Backscattering (R) and Energy Loss (S)
404(2)
X-Ray Generation with Depth, φ(pz)
406(5)
X-Ray Absorption Effect, A
411(4)
X-Ray Fluorescence, F
415(1)
Calculation of ZAF Factors
416(5)
Atomic Number Effect, Z
417(1)
Absorption correction, A
417(1)
Characteristic Fluorescence Correction, F
418(1)
Calculation of ZAF
418(2)
The Analytical Total
420(1)
Practical Analysis
421(32)
Examples of Quantitative Analysis
421(1)
Al-Cu Alloys
421(2)
Ni--10 wt% Fe Alloy
423(1)
Ni--38.5 wt% Cr-3.0 wt% Al Alloy
423(2)
Pyroxene: 53.5 wt% SiO2, 1.11 wt% Al2O3, 0.62 wt% Cr2O3, 9.5 wt% FeO, 14.1 wt% MgO, and 21.2 wt% CaO
425(2)
Standardless Analysis
427(2)
First-Principles Standardless Analysis
429(4)
``Fitted-Standards'' Standardless Analysis
433(3)
Special Procedures for Geological Analysis
436(1)
Introduction
436(1)
Formulation of the Bence--Albee Procedure
437(1)
Application of the Bence--Albee Procedure
438(1)
Specimen Conductivity
439(1)
Precision and Sensitivity in X-Ray Analysis
440(1)
Statistical Basis for Calculating Precision and Sensitivity
440(2)
Precision of Composition
442(2)
Sample Homogeneity
444(1)
Analytical Sensitivity
445(1)
Trace Element Analysis
446(2)
Trace Element Analysis Geochronologic Applications
448(1)
Biological and Organic Specimens
449(1)
References
449(4)
Special Topics in Electron Beam X-Ray Microanalysis
453(84)
Introduction
453(1)
Thin Film on a Substrate
454(8)
Particle Analysis
462(14)
Particle Mass Effect
463(1)
Particle Absorption Effect
463(1)
Particle Fluorescence Effect
464(1)
Particle Geometric Effects
465(1)
Corrections for Particle Geometric Effects
466(1)
The Consequences of Ignoring Particle Effects
466(1)
Normalization
466(2)
Critical Measurement Issues for Particles
468(2)
Advanced Quantitative Methods for Particles
470(6)
Rough Surfaces
476(4)
Introduction
476(3)
Rough Specimen Analysis Strategy
479(1)
Reorientation
479(1)
Normalization
479(1)
Peak-to-Background Method
479(1)
Beam-Sensitive Specimens (Biological, Polymeric)
480(5)
Thin-Section Analysis
480(3)
Bulk Biological and Organic Specimens
483(2)
X-Ray Mapping
485(14)
Relative Merits of WDS and EDS for Mapping
486(1)
Digital Dot Mapping
487(1)
Gray-Scale Mapping
488(1)
The Need for Scaling in Gray-Scale Mapping
489(2)
Artifacts in X-Ray Mapping
491(1)
Compositional Mapping
492(1)
Principles of Compositional Mapping
492(2)
Advanced Spectrum Collection Strategies for Compositional Mapping
494(3)
The Use of Color in Analyzing and Presenting X-Ray Maps
497(1)
Primary Color Superposition
497(1)
Pseudocolor Scales
497(2)
Light Element Analysis
499(19)
Optimization of Light Element X-Ray Generation
499(4)
X-Ray Spectrometry of the Light Elements
503(1)
Si EDS
503(4)
WDS
507(4)
Special Measurement Problems for the Light Elements
511(1)
Contamination
511(1)
Overvoltage Effects
512(2)
Absorption Effects
514(1)
Light Element Quantification
515(3)
Low-Voltage Microanalysis
518(13)
``Low-Voltage'' versus ``Conventional'' Microanalysis
518(1)
X-Ray Production Range
519(1)
Contribution of the Beam Size to the X-Ray Analytical Resolution
520(3)
A Consequence of the X-Ray Range under Low-Voltage Conditions
523(2)
X-Ray Spectrometry in Low-Voltage Microanalysis
525(1)
The Oxygen and Carbon Problem
526(2)
Quantitative X-Ray Microanalysis at Low Voltage
528(3)
Report of Analysis
531(6)
References
535(2)
Specimen Preparation of Hard Materials: Metals, Ceramics, Rocks, Minerals, Microelectronic and Packaged Devices, Particles, and Fibers
537(28)
Metals
537(4)
Specimen Preparation for Surface Topography
537(1)
Specimen Preparation for Microstructural and Microchemical Analysis
538(1)
Initial Sample Selection and Specimen Preparation Steps
538(1)
Final Polishing Steps
539(1)
Preparation for Microanalysis
540(1)
Ceramics and Geological Samples
541(2)
Initial Specimen Preparation: Topography and Microstructure
542(1)
Mounting and Polishing for Microstructural and Microchemical Analysis
542(1)
Final Specimen Preparation for Microstructural and Microchemical Analysis
542(1)
Microelectronics and Packages
543(2)
Initial Specimen Preparation
543(1)
Polishing
544(1)
Final Preparation
545(1)
Imaging of Semiconductors
545(2)
Voltage Contrast
546(1)
Charge Collection
546(1)
Preparation for Electron Diffraction in the SEM
547(4)
Channeling Patterns and Channeling Contrast
547(1)
Electron Backscatter Diffraction
547(4)
Special Techniques
551(6)
Plasma Cleaning
551(2)
Focused-Ion-Beam Sample Preparation for SEM
553(1)
Application of FIB for Semiconductors
554(1)
Applications of FIB in Materials Science
555(2)
Particles and Fibers
557(8)
Particle Substrates and Supports
559(1)
Bulk Particle Substrates
559(1)
Thin Particle Supports
560(1)
Particle Mounting Techniques
560(2)
Particles Collected on Filters
562(1)
Particles in a Solid Matrix
563(1)
Transfer of Individual Particles
563(1)
References
564(1)
Specimen Preparation of Polymer Materials
565(26)
Introduction
565(1)
Microscopy of Polymers
565(5)
Radiation Effects
566(1)
Imaging Compromises
567(1)
Metal Coating Polymers for Imaging
567(3)
X-Ray Microanalysis of Polymers
570(1)
Specimen Preparation Methods for Polymers
570(11)
Simple Preparation Methods
571(1)
Polishing of Polymers
571(1)
Microtomy of Polymers
572(1)
Fracture of Polymer Materials
573(3)
Staining of Polymers
576(2)
Osmium Tetroxide and Ruthenium Tetroxide
578(1)
Ebonite
578(1)
Chlorosulfonic Acid and Phosphotungstic Acid
578(1)
Etching of Polymers
579(1)
Replication of Polymers
580(1)
Rapid Cooling and Drying Methods for Polymers
580(1)
Simple Cooling Methods
580(1)
Freeze-Drying
581(1)
Critical-Point Drying
581(1)
Choosing Specimen Preparation Methods
581(7)
Fibers
582(1)
Films and Membranes
582(1)
Engineering Resins and Plastics
583(4)
Emulsions and Adhesives
587(1)
Problem-Solving Protocol
588(1)
Image Interpretation and Artifacts
589(2)
References
590(1)
Ambient-Temperature Specimen Preparation of Biological Material
591(30)
Introduction
591(1)
Preparative Procedures for the Structural SEM of Single Cells, Biological Particles, and Fibers
592(4)
Particulate, Cellular, and Fibrous Organic Material
592(1)
Dry Organic Particles and Fibers
593(1)
Organic Particles and Fibers on a Filter
594(1)
Organic Particles and Fibers Entrained within a Filter
594(1)
Organic Particulate Matter Suspended in a Liquid
594(1)
Manipulating Individual Organic Particles
595(1)
Preparative Procedures for the Structural Observation of Large Soft Biological Specimens
596(11)
Introduction
596(1)
Sample Handling before Fixation
596(1)
Fixation
596(1)
Microwave Fixation
597(1)
Conductive Infiltration
597(1)
Dehydration
597(5)
Embedding
602(1)
Exposing the Internal Contents of Bulk Specimens
602(1)
Mechanical Dissection
602(1)
High-Energy-Beam Surface Erosion
602(1)
Chemical Dissection
603(1)
Surface Replicas and Corrosion Casts
604(1)
Specimen Supports and Methods of Sample Attachment
605(2)
Artifacts
607(1)
Preparative Procedures for the in Situ Chemical Analysis of Biological Specimens in the SEM
607(14)
Introduction
607(1)
Preparative Procedures for Elemental Analysis Using X-Ray Microanalysis
608(1)
The Nature and Extent of the Problem
608(1)
Types of Sample That May be Analyzed
609(1)
The General Strategy for Sample Preparation
609(1)
Criteria for Judging Satisfactory Sample Preparation
610(1)
Fixation and Stabilization
610(1)
Precipitation Techniques
611(1)
Procedures for Sample Dehydration, Embedding, and Staining
611(1)
Specimen Supports
611(1)
Preparative Procedures for Localizing Molecules Using Histochemistry
612(1)
Staining and Histochemical Methods
612(1)
Atomic Number Contrast with Backscattered Electrons
613(1)
Preparative Procedures for Localizing Macromolecues Using Immunocytochemistry
614(1)
Introduction
614(1)
The Antibody--Antigen Reaction
614(1)
General Features of Specimen Preparation for Immunocytochemistry
615(1)
Imaging Procedures in the SEM
616(2)
References
618(3)
Low-Temperature Specimen Preparation
621(26)
Introduction
621(1)
The Properties of Liquid Water and Ice
622(1)
Conversion of Liquid Water to Ice
623(1)
Specimen Pretreatment before Rapid (Quench) Cooling
624(3)
Minimizing Sample Size and Specimen Holders
624(2)
Maximizing Undercooling
626(1)
Altering the Nucleation Process
626(1)
Artificially Depressing the Sample Freezing Point
626(1)
Chemical Fixation
626(1)
Quench Cooling
627(4)
Liquid Cryogens
627(1)
Solid Cryogens
628(1)
Methods for Quench Cooling
629(1)
Comparison of Quench Cooling Rates
630(1)
Low-Temperature Storage and Sample Transfer
631(1)
Manipulation of Frozen Specimens: Cryosectioning, Cryofracturing, and Cryoplaning
631(4)
Cryosectioning
631(2)
Cryofracturing
633(1)
Cryopolishing or Cryoplaning
634(1)
Ways to Handle Frozen Liquids within the Specimen
635(5)
Frozen-Hydrated and Frozen Samples
636(1)
Freeze-Drying
637(1)
Physical Principles Involved in Freeze-Drying
637(1)
Equipment Needed for Freeze-Drying
638(1)
Artifacts Associated with Freeze-Drying
639(1)
Freeze Substitution and Low-Temperature Embedding
639(1)
Physical Principles Involved in Freeze Substitution and Low-Temperature Embedding
639(1)
Equipment Needed for Freeze Substitution and Low-Temperature Embedding
640(1)
Procedures for Hydrated Organic Systems
640(1)
Procedures for Hydrated Inorganic Systems
641(1)
Procedures for Nonaqueous Liquids
642(1)
Imaging and Analyzing Samples at Low Temperatures
643(4)
References
644(3)
Procedures for Elimination of Charging in Nonconducting Specimens
647(28)
Introduction
647(3)
Recognizing Charging Phenomena
650(6)
Procedures for Overcoming the Problems of Charging
656(1)
Vacuum Evaporation Coating
657(4)
High-Vacuum Evaporation Methods
658(3)
Low-Vacuum Evaporation Methods
661(1)
Sputter Coating
661(6)
Plasma Magnetron Sputter Coating
662(2)
Ion Beam and Penning Sputtering
664(3)
High-Resolution Coating Methods
667(2)
Coating for Analytical Studies
669(1)
Coating Procedures for Samples Maintained at Low Temperatures
669(1)
Coating Thickness
670(2)
Damage and Artifacts on Coated Samples
672(1)
Summary of Coating Guidelines
673(2)
References
673(2)
Index 675
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