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The Science of Sound

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780805385656

ISBN10:
0805385657
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/18/2001
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
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Summary

The Science of Soundis widely recognized as the leading textbook in the field. It provides an excellent introduction to acoustics for readers without college physics or a strong background in mathematics. In the Third Edition, Richard Moore and Paul Wheeler join Tom Rossing in updatingThe Science of Soundto include a wide range of important technological developments in the field of acoustics. New exercises and review questions have been added to the end of each chapter to help readers study the material.For college instructors and students.

Author Biography

Thomas D. Rossing completed his B.A. at Luther College in 1950, his M.S. and Ph.D. at Iowa State University in 1954. His dissertation was in the field of molecular physics. After graduating, he went into industrial research, and from there, he went to teaching. Currently, he is a professor at Northern Illinois University.

Professor Rossing has published more than 200 papers and ten books. He is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has held about a dozen research positions other than at his home institution—in national laboratories, in research universities, and in several other countries. The Acoustical Society of America awarded him the Silver Medal in Musical Acoustics.


Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Edition xv
I VIBRATIONS, WAVES, AND SOUND 1(76)
What Is Sound?
3(19)
What Is a Sound Wave?
3(1)
Sources of Sound
4(1)
Wanted and Unwanted Sound
5(1)
Distance, Speed, and Velocity
6(2)
Graphical Representation of Motion
8(2)
Force and Acceleration
10(2)
Pressure
12(2)
Graphical Representation of a Sound Wave
14(1)
Work and Energy
15(1)
Power
16(1)
Units
17(1)
Summary
18(4)
Vibrating Systems
22(17)
Simple Harmonic Motion
22(2)
Energy and Damping
24(1)
Simple Vibrating Systems
25(2)
Systems with Two or Three Masses
27(3)
Systems with Many Modes of Vibration
30(1)
Vibrations in Musical Instruments
31(3)
Complex Vibrations: Vibration Spectra
34(1)
Summary
35(4)
Waves
39(21)
What Is a Wave?
39(1)
Progressive Waves
40(2)
Impulsive Waves; Reflection
42(2)
Superposition and Interference
44(2)
Sound Waves
46(2)
Wave Propagation in Two and Three Dimensions
48(1)
The Doppler Effect
49(2)
Reflection
51(1)
Refraction
52(1)
Diffraction
53(1)
Interference
53(2)
Summary
55(5)
Resonance
60(17)
Resonance of a Mass-Spring Vibrator
60(1)
Phase of Driven Vibrations
61(1)
Standing Waves on a String
62(2)
Partials, Harmonics, and Overtones
64(1)
Open and Closed Pipes
65(2)
Acoustic Impedance
67(1)
Helmholtz Resonator
67(1)
Singing Rods
68(1)
More Examples of Resonance: Can a Singer Break a Wineglass?
69(1)
Sympathetic Vibrations: Soundboards
70(1)
Summary
71(6)
II PERCEPTION AND MEASUREMENT OF SOUND 77(114)
Hearing
79(20)
Range of Hearing
79(2)
Structure of the Ear
81(5)
Signal Processing in the Auditory System
86(2)
Critical Bands
88(1)
Binaural Hearing and Localization
89(1)
Measuring Sensations: Psychophysics
90(1)
Logarithms in Sound and Music
91(3)
Subjective Attributes of Sound
94(1)
Summary
95(4)
Sound Pressure, Power, and Loudness
99(22)
Decibels
99(1)
Sound Intensity Level
100(3)
Sound Pressure Level
103(2)
Multiple Sources
105(1)
Loudness Level
106(2)
Loudness of Pure Tones: Sones
108(1)
Loudness of Complex Tones: Critical Bands
109(1)
Loudness of Combined Sounds
110(2)
Musical Dynamics and Loudness
112(1)
Masking
113(2)
Loudness Reduction by Masking
115(1)
Loudness and Duration: Impulsive Sounds and Adaptation
115(1)
Summary
116(5)
Pitch and Timbre
121(29)
Pitch Scales
121(2)
Pitch Discrimination
123(1)
Pitch of Pure Tones
123(3)
Pitch of Complex Tones: Virtual Pitch
126(1)
Seebeck's Siren and Ohm's Law: A Historical Note
127(1)
Theories of Pitch: Place Pitch versus Periodicity Pitch
128(5)
Absolute Pitch
133(1)
Pitch Standards
134(1)
Timbre or Tone Quality
135(1)
Fourier Analysis of Complex Tones
136(4)
Timbre and Dynamic Effects: Envelope and Duration
140(1)
Vibrato
141(1)
Blend of Complex Tones
142(2)
Summary
144(6)
Combination Tones and Harmony
150(24)
Linear Superposition
150(1)
Phase Angle
151(2)
Combination of Two Simple Harmonic Motions
153(1)
Pure Tones with Slightly Different Frequencies: Beats
154(2)
The Musical Staff: Musicians' Graph Paper
156(1)
Combination Tones
157(2)
Modulation of One Tone by Another
159(1)
Other Nonlinear Effects: Aural Harmonics and Summation Tones
160(1)
Origin of Difference Tones
160(1)
Consonance and Dissonance: Musical Intervals
161(4)
Effect of Phase on Timbre
165(2)
Beats of Mistuned Consonances
167(1)
The Central Nervous System: Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation
168(1)
Cerebral Dominance
169(1)
Summary
169(5)
Musical Scales and Temperament
174(17)
Scale, Tuning, Temperament, and Intonation
175(1)
The Pythagorean Scale
176(2)
Meantone Temperament
178(1)
The Scale of Just Intonation
178(3)
Equal Temperament
181(4)
Comparison of Scales
185(1)
Other Meantone Temperaments
186(1)
Intonation
187(1)
Summary
187(4)
III MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 191(144)
String Instruments
193(32)
Construction of the Violin
194(1)
Vibrations of a Plucked String
195(2)
Vibrations of a Bowed String
197(5)
Vibrations of the Violin Body
202(1)
Tuning the Top and Back Plates
202(4)
The Bridge
206(1)
Other Bowed String Instruments
206(1)
Music and Physics: A New Family of Fiddles
207(1)
Construction of the Guitar
208(2)
The Guitar as a Vibrating System
210(1)
Vibrations of the Top Plate, Back Plate, and Air Cavity
211(1)
Resonances of the Guitar Body
212(2)
Sound Radiation
214(2)
The Guitar: A Developing Instrument
216(1)
The Electric Guitar
217(2)
Strings, Frets, and Compensation
219(1)
Summary
220(5)
Brass Instruments
225(21)
Instruments of the Brass Family
225(2)
Oscillations in a Pipe
227(1)
Pressure-Controlled Valves
228(2)
The Bell and Mouthpiece
230(3)
Valves and Slides: Filling in Between the Modes
233(2)
The French Horn
235(1)
The Trombone
236(1)
Tuba, Baritone, and Fluegelhorn
236(1)
The Spectra of Brass Instruments
236(2)
Shock Waves
238(1)
Transients
238(1)
Mutes
238(1)
Wall Material
239(1)
Performance Technique
240(1)
Summary
241(5)
Woodwind Instruments
246(26)
How a Pipe-Reed System Vibrates
247(3)
Tone Holes
250(2)
Bore Types
252(1)
The Clarinet
252(3)
Registers and Register Holes
255(2)
Radiated Sound
257(1)
The Double Reeds
258(2)
The Saxophone
260(1)
Efficiency and Performance Technique
261(1)
Oscillating Air Streams and Whistles
262(2)
The Flute
264(1)
Other Flutes
265(1)
The Recorder
266(1)
Organ Pipes
267(1)
Summary
267(5)
Percussion Instruments
272(38)
Vibrations of Bars
273(2)
Rectangular Bars: The Glockenspiel
275(1)
The Marimba, Xylophone, and Vibes
276(3)
Mallets
279(1)
Chimes
280(2)
Triangles
282(1)
Vibrations of Membranes
283(1)
Timpani
284(3)
Bass Drum
287(1)
Snare Drum
288(2)
Other Drums
290(2)
Vibrations of Plates
292(1)
Cymbals
293(4)
Gongs and Tamtams
297(1)
Steelpans
297(3)
Sound Spectra
300(2)
Bells and Carillons
302(2)
Handbells
304(1)
Summary
305(5)
Keyboard Instruments
310(25)
Construction of the Piano
310(3)
Piano Strings
313(2)
The Tuning of Unisons
315(1)
Hammer-String Interaction
315(1)
The Soundboard
316(1)
Piano Sound
317(1)
The Clavichord
317(2)
The Harpsichord
319(1)
The Harp
320(2)
The Pipe Organ: Its Construction
322(1)
Organ Pipes
323(3)
Pipe Scaling
326(1)
Sound Radiation From Flue Pipes
327(1)
Reed Pipes
328(1)
Tuning and Voicing Organ Pipes
328(2)
Summary
330(5)
IV THE HUMAN VOICE 335(63)
Speech Production
337(19)
The Vocal Organs
337(1)
The Larynx and the Vocal Folds
338(3)
The Vocal Tract
341(2)
Articulation of Speech
343(2)
Resonances of the Vocal Tract: Formants
345(2)
Models of the Vocal Tract
347(3)
Studies of the Vocal Tract
350(1)
Prosodic Features of Speech
351(1)
Summary
351(5)
Speech Recognition, Analysis, and Synthesis
356(17)
The Analysis of Speech
356(1)
The Recognition of Vowels
357(2)
The Recognition of Consonants
359(4)
Filtered Speech and Noisy Environments
363(2)
The Synthesis of Speech
365(1)
Speech Coding and Compression
366(1)
Speech Recognition by Computers
367(1)
Speaker Identification by Speech Spectrograms: Voiceprints
368(1)
Summary
369(4)
Singing
373(25)
Formants and Pitch
373(1)
Differences Between Spoken and Sung Vowels
374(4)
Formant Tuning by Sopranos
378(2)
Breathing and Air Flow
380(2)
Subglottal Pressures in Singing
382(2)
Registers, Voices, and Muscles
384(4)
Other Factors Influencing the Spectra of Sung Notes
388(2)
Choir Singing
390(1)
Popular Singing and Other Styles
391(2)
Summary
393(5)
V ELECTROACOUSTICS 398(125)
Electronic Circuits
399(24)
Direct Current
399(4)
Electrical Energy and Power
403(1)
Alternating Current
404(2)
Transformers
406(1)
Electrical Resonance
407(2)
Filters
409(3)
Active Devices
412(2)
Amplifiers
414(2)
Operational Amplifiers
416(1)
Oscillators and Function Generators
416(1)
Power Supplies
417(1)
Summary
418(5)
Loudspeakers
423(26)
Loudspeakers as Transducers
424(1)
Structure of Dynamic Loudspeakers
424(2)
Electromagnetic Drivers
426(3)
Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics
429(1)
Baffles and Enclosures
430(1)
Air Suspension Low-Frequency Loudspeakers
431(1)
Equivalent Electrical Circuit for a Loudspeaker
432(1)
Vented Boxes: Bass-Reflex Enclosures
433(4)
Horn Loudspeakers
437(1)
Multispeaker Systems
438(2)
Other Loudspeaker Types
440(1)
Recent Trends in Loudspeakers
441(1)
Loudspeaker Efficiency
441(1)
Loudspeaker Distortion
442(1)
Earphones (Headphones)
443(1)
Summary
444(5)
Microphones, Amplifiers, and Tuners
449(21)
Microphones as Transducers
449(4)
Microphone Pickup Patterns
453(2)
Microphone Impedance
455(1)
Microphone Sensitivity
455(1)
Amplifiers
456(2)
Distortion
458(1)
Amplifier Power and Distortion
459(2)
AM/FM Tuners
461(2)
Stereo Broadcasting
463(1)
AV Receivers: Surround Sound
463(3)
Summary
466(4)
Digital Computers and Techniques
470(26)
What Is a Computer?
470(1)
Binary Data
470(2)
Number Representations
472(2)
Organization of a Computer
474(1)
The CPU
475(1)
Memory
476(1)
Input and Output (I/O)
477(1)
Computer Buses
478(1)
Computer Programming
479(1)
Digital Signals
480(1)
Pulse-Code Modulation
481(1)
The Sampling Theorem
482(1)
Quantization
483(1)
Quantization Error
483(1)
Aliasing
484(3)
Phase Distortion
487(1)
Oversampling
487(1)
Dithering
488(1)
Companding
489(2)
Summary
491(5)
Sound Recording
496(27)
The Origins of Sound Recording
496(1)
Stereophonic Disk Recording
497(1)
Magnetic Tape Recording
498(2)
Tape Speed and Frequency Response
500(2)
Bias and Equalization
502(1)
Tape Noise
503(1)
Digital Tape Recording
504(2)
Digital Audiotape Recorders for Home Use
506(1)
Digital Multitrack Recording
507(1)
Hard-Disk Recording
508(1)
Compact Disc Digital Audio
509(4)
Recordable CDS
513(1)
MiniDiscs
514(2)
DVD
516(1)
DVD-Audio
517(1)
Solid-State Memory Recording
517(1)
Summary
518(5)
VI THE ACOUSTICS OF ROOMS 523(68)
Auditorium Acoustics
525(21)
Sound Propagation Outdoors and Indoors
525(1)
Direct, Early, and Reverberant Sound
526(2)
Direct and Early Sound: The Precedence Effect
528(1)
Reverberant Sound
529(2)
Calculation of the Reverberation Time
531(1)
Air Absorption
532(2)
Criteria for Good Acoustics
534(1)
Concert Halls
535(3)
Background Noise
538(1)
Avery Fisher Hall: A Case Study
539(1)
Variable Acoustics
540(1)
Churches
541(1)
Classrooms
541(1)
Summary
542(4)
Electronic Reinforcement of Sound
546(19)
Sound Sources in a Room
546(1)
Sound Fields
547(2)
Power Considerations
549(2)
Loudspeaker Placement
551(1)
Loudspeaker Directivity
551(3)
Acoustic Feedback
554(1)
Equalization
555(2)
Time Delay
557(1)
Enhancement of Reverberation
557(2)
Microphone Placement and Mixing
559(1)
Reinforcement for the Hearing Impaired
560(1)
Outdoor Sound Systems
560(1)
Summary
561(4)
Small Rooms, Home Listening Rooms, and Recording Studios
565(26)
Acoustics of Small Rooms
565(3)
Room Proportions
568(1)
Sound Images From Multiple Sources
569(4)
What Is High-Fidelity Sound?
573(2)
Single- and Multichannel Sound-Reproducing Systems
575(1)
Stereophonic Sound
576(2)
The Sound Field in Listening Rooms
578(1)
Sound Diffusors
579(2)
Sound Absorption
581(1)
Home Theaters
582(1)
Sound-Recording Studios
583(2)
Control Rooms
585(1)
Summary
586(5)
VII ELECTRONIC MUSIC TECHNOLOGY 591(110)
Electronic Music Technology and its Origins
593(18)
Contemporary Music Technology
594(1)
Ancient Precursors
595(1)
Early Sound Recording
596(1)
Understanding Electricity
597(1)
The Age of Electronics
598(1)
Early Electronic Music
598(2)
Electrical Organs
600(3)
Modern Electronics
603(3)
Music Technology Today
606(1)
Summary
607(4)
Analog Electronic Music
611(23)
The Elements of Electronic Music
611(2)
Musique Concrete: The Conceptual Basis
613(1)
Musique Concrete: The Technological Basis
614(1)
Elektronische Musik: The Conceptual Basis
615(1)
Elektronische Musik: The Technological Basis
616(1)
Tape Music
617(1)
Early Electronic Music Synthesizers
617(1)
The Mark II Electronic Music Synthesizer
618(1)
Voltage Control
619(1)
Modules and Patches
620(5)
Control Voltage Characteristics
625(1)
Other Modules
626(2)
Other Controllers
628(1)
Digital Control and the Groove System
628(3)
Summary
631(3)
Digital Audio Signal Processing
634(20)
Digital Audio-Signal Processing
634(1)
Digital Signal Processing and Mathematics
634(1)
The Time Domain
635(1)
The Frequency Domain
636(3)
The Discrete Fourier Transform
639(2)
The Fast Fourier Transform
641(1)
Convolution
641(2)
Digital Filtering
643(1)
The z-Transform
644(2)
Filter Coefficients
646(1)
The Transfer Function
647(1)
Poles and Zeros
647(1)
FIR and IIR Filters
648(1)
Processing Audio Signals
649(2)
Summary
651(3)
Computer Music and Virtual Acoustics
654(47)
Computer Music
654(5)
Sound Synthesis Methods
659(1)
Additive Synthesis
659(3)
Subtractive Synthesis
662(2)
Nonlinear Synthesis
664(6)
Physical Modeling Synthesis
670(4)
Digital Music Synthesizers
674(3)
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
677(2)
Samplers
679(5)
Real-Time Software Synthesis
684(1)
Spatialization
685(6)
Digital Audio Compression
691(4)
Digital Audio and the Internet
695(1)
Summary
696(5)
VIII ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE 701(50)
Noise in the Environment
703(14)
Sound Power and Mechanical Power
703(1)
Noise Levels
704(1)
Sound Propagation Outdoors
705(3)
Flow Noise
708(1)
Machinery Noise
709(1)
Indoor Noise
710(1)
Motor Vehicles
711(2)
Railroads and Aircraft
713(1)
Summary
714(3)
The Effects of Noise on People
717(14)
Temporary Hearing Loss
717(3)
Permanent Hearing Loss
720(1)
Ear Damage
721(1)
Hearing Protectors
722(1)
Speech Interference
723(2)
Interference with Sleep
725(1)
Other Psychological Effects
726(1)
The Physiological Effects of Noise
727(1)
Summary
727(4)
The Control of Noise
731(20)
Analyzing a Noise Problem: Source-Path-Receiver
731(1)
Noise Regulations
732(1)
Exposure to Occupational Noise
733(1)
Product Labeling
734(1)
Walls and Floors
734(3)
Barriers---Indoors and Outdoors
737(2)
Enclosures
739(1)
Sound Absorbers
740(2)
Heating and Air Conditioning Noise
742(1)
Aircraft Noise
742(3)
Supersonic Aircraft
745(1)
Ultrasound and Infrasound
746(1)
Active Noise Control
746(1)
Summary
747(4)
Appendix A 751(21)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 772(3)
Index 775


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