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Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations, Third Edition, covers all the areas of scientific communication that a scientist needs to know and master in order to successfully promote his or her research and career. This unique "all-in-one" handbook begins with a discussion of the basic principles of scientific writing style and composition and then applies these principles to writing research papers, review articles, grant proposals, research statements, and résumés, as well as to preparing academic presentations and posters.
A practical presentation carefully introduces basic writing mechanics before moving into manuscript planning and organizational strategies. Extensive hands-on guidance for composing scientific documents and presentations then follows.
Relevant and multidisciplinary examples selected from real research papers and grant proposals by writers ranging from students to Nobel Laureates illustrate clear technical writing and common mistakes that one should avoid.
Annotated text passages bring the writing principles and guidelines to life by applying them to real-world, relevant, and multidisciplinary examples.
Extensive end-of-chapter exercise sets provide the opportunity to review style and composition principles and encourage readers to apply them to their own writing.
Writing guidelines and revision checklists warn scientists against common pitfalls and equip them with the most successful techniques to revise a scientific paper, review article, or grant proposal.
The book's clear, easy-to-follow writing style appeals to both native and non-native English speakers; special ESL features also point out difficulties experienced primarily by non-native speakers.
Tables and lists of sample sentences and phrases aid in composing different sections of a scientific paper, review article, or grant proposal.
Thorough attention to research articles advises readers on composing successful manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed journals from initial drafting to the response to reviewers.
Comprehensive coverage of grant writing guides scientists through the entire process of applying for a grant, from the initial letter of inquiry to proposal revision and submission.
Angelika H. Hofmann is Instructor for Scientific Writing and Communication at Yale University, where she also heads a successful team of grant writers. Renowned in the world of scientific communication, she is the founder of "SciWri Services," a venture that provides consulting and editing services as well as workshops at universities around the world.
Table of Contents
Preface PART I. SCIENTIFIC WRITING BASICS: Style and Composition Chapter 1. Science and Communication 1.1 The Scientific Method 1.2 Communication and Ethics 1.3 About Readers 1.4 About Writers 1.5 Different Writing Genres 1.6 Mastering Scientific Writing Chapter 2. Individual Words 2.1 The Central Principle 2.2 Word Choices 2.3 Word Choice--Special Cases 2.4 Redundancies and Jargon 2.5 Abbreviations 2.6 Nomenclature and Terminology 2.7 Dictionaries Chapter 3. Word Location 3.1 Readers' Expectations 3.2 Competition for Emphasis 3.3 Placement of Words Chapter 4. Technical Sentences 4.1 Grammar and Technical Style 4.2 Person 4.3 Voice 4.4 Tense 4.5 Sentence Length 4.6 Verbs and Action 4.7 Clusters of Nouns 4.8 Pronouns 4.9 Lists and Comparisons 4.10 Faulty Comparisons 4.11 Common Errors Chapter 5. Special ESL Grammar Problems 5.1 Prepositions 5.2 Articles 5.3 Verbs 5.4 Adjectives and Adverbs 5.5 Nouns and Pronouns 5.6 Grammar References Chapter 6. From Sentences to Paragraphs 6.1 Paragraph Structure 6.2 Paragraph Organization 6.3 Paragraph Coherence 6.4 Condensing PART II. PLANNING AND LAYING THE FOUNDATION Chapter 7. The First Draft 7.1 The Writing Process 7.2 Prewriting 7.3 Authorship 7.4 Drafting a Manuscript 7.5 Outlining and Composing a Manuscript 7.6 Writer's Block? 7.7 For ESL Authors 7.8 Outside Help Chapter 8. References and Plagiarism 8.1 About References 8.2 Source Material 8.3 Managing References 8.4 Text Citations 8.5 Plagiarism 8.6 Paraphrasing 8.7 References within a Scientific Paper 8.8 The Reference List 8.9 Common Reference Styles 8.10 Citing the Internet 8.11 Footnotes and Endnotes 8.12 Acknowledgments Chapter 9. Figures and Tables 9.1 General Guidelines 9.2 Importance of Formatting and Placement of Information 9.3 Figure or Table? 9.4 General Information on Figures 9.5 Types of Figures 9.6 Formatting Graphs 9.7 Examples of Graphs 9.8 Figure Legends 9.9 General Information on Tables 9.10 Formatting Tables 9.11 Formulas, Equations, Proofs, and Algorithms Chapter 10. Basics of Statistical Analysis 10.1 General Guidelines 10.2 Basic Statistical Terminology 10.3 Distribution Curves 10.4 Statistical Analysis of Data 10.5 Reporting Statistics 10.6 Graphical Representation 10.7 Useful Resources for Statistical Analysis 10.8 Checklist PART III. MANUSCRIPTS: Research Papers and Review Articles A. Research Papers Chapter 11. The Introduction 11.1 Overall 11.2 Components and Format 11.3 Elements of the Introduction 11.4 Special Case: Introductions for Descriptive Papers 11.5 Important Writing Guidelines for the Introduction 11.6 Signals for the Reader 11.7 Common Problems of Introductions 11.8 Sample Introductions 11.9 Revising the Introduction Chapter 12. Materials and Methods Section 12.1 Overall 12.2 Components 12.3 Format 12.4 Important Writing Guidelines for Materials and Methods 12.5 Ethical Conduct 12.6 Common Problems of Materials and Methods Section 12.7 Sample Materials and Methods Sections 12.8 Revising the Materials and Methods Section Chapter 13. Results 13.1 Overall 13.2 Components 13.3 Format 13.4 Important Writing Guidelines for the Results 13.5 Signals for the Reader 13.6 Common Problems of the Results Section 13.7 Sample Results Sections 13.8 Revising the Results Section Chapter 14. Discussion 14.1 Overall 14.2 Components 14.3 Format 14.4 First Paragraph 14.5 Middle Paragraphs 14.6 Last Paragraph 14.7 Important Writing Guidelines for the Discussion 14.8 Signals for the Reader 14.9 An Alternative: Results and Discussion 14.10 Common Problems of the Discussion 14.11 Sample Discussions 14.12 Revising the Discussion Chapter 15. Abstract 15.1 Overall 15.2 Components 15.3 Format 15.4 Applying Basic Writing Rules 15.5 Signals for the Reader 15.6 Common Problems of the Abstract 15.7 Reasons for Rejection 15.8 Revising the Abstract Chapter 16. Titles, Title Pages, and Key Words 16.1 Overall 16.2 Strong Titles 16.3 The Title Page 16.4 Running Title 16.5 Key Words 16.6 Revising the Title Chapter 17. Revising and Reviewing a Manuscript 17.1 Revising the First Draft 17.2 Subsequent Drafts 17.3 Reviewing a Manuscript Chapter 18. Final Version, Submission, and Peer Review 18.1 General Advice on the Final Version 18.2 Submitting the Manuscript 18.3 Writing a Cover Letter 18.4 The Review Process B. Review Articles Chapter 19. Review Articles 19.1 Overall 19.2 Types of Reviews and General Content 19.3 Format 19.4 Title 19.5 Abstract of a Review Article 19.6 Introduction of a Review Article 19.7 Main Analysis Section of a Review Article 19.8 Conclusion of a Review Article 19.9 References 19.10 Signals for the Reader 19.11 Coherence 19.12 Common Problems of Review Articles 19.13 Revising the Review Article PART IV. GRANT PROPOSALS Chapter 20. Proposal Writing 20.1 General 20.2 Types of Proposals 20.3 Choosing a Sponsoring Agency 20.4 Federal Agencies 20.5 Private Foundations 20.6 Corporations and Other Funders 20.7 Preliminary Steps to Writing a Proposal 20.8 Online Resources 20.9 Starting to Write a Grant 20.10 Interacting with the Funder Chapter 21. Letters of Inquiry and Preproposals 21.1 General 21.2 Components and Format 21.3 Abstract/Overview 21.4 Introduction/Background 21.5 Statement of Need 21.6 Objective and Specific Aims 21.7 Strategy and Goals 21.8 Leadership and Organization 21.9 Budget 21.10 Impact and Significance 21.11 Cover Letter 21.12 Verbal Proposals 21.13 LOI Outlines 21.14 Revising an LOI/Preproposal Chapter 22. Proposal Abstracts and Specific Aims 22.1 Overall 22.2 Proposal Abstracts 22.3 Specific Aims 22.4 Significance and Impact 22.5 Applying Basic Writing Rules 22.6 Signals for the Reader 22.7 Common Problems 22.8 Reasons for Rejection 22.9 Revising the Abstract and Specific Aims Chapter 23. Background and Significance 23.1 Overall 23.2 Emphasis, Format, and Length 23.3 References 23.4 Elements of the Section 23.5 Sample Significance Section for Federal Grants 23.6 Signals for the Reader 23.7 Coherence 23.8 Common Problems 23.9 Revising the Background and Significance Section Chapter 24. Innovation 24.1 General remarks on proposal sections 24.2 Components 24.3 Format 24.4 Signals for the Reader 24.5 Common Problems 24.6 Revising the Innovation Section Chapter 25. Preliminary Results 25.1 Function 25.2 Content 25.3 Format 25.4 Important Writing Principles 25.5 Signals for Preliminary Results 25.6 Common Problems of Preliminary Results 25.7 Revising the Preliminary Results Chapter 26. Approach/Research Design 26.1 Overall 26.2 Components 26.3 Format 26.4 Closing Paragraph 26.5 Signals for the Reader 26.6 Common Problems 26.7 Revising the Research Design and Methods Section Chapter 27. Budget and Other Special Proposal Sections 27.1 Budget 27.2 Other Special Proposal Sections Chapter 28. Revising and Submitting a Proposal 28.1 General 28.2 Before Sending Out the Proposal 28.3 Revising the Proposal 28.4 Submitting the Proposal 28.5 Being Reviewed 28.6 Site Visits 28.7 Reasons for Rejection 28.8 If Your Proposal Is Rejected 28.9 Resubmission of a Proposal 28.10 If Your Proposal Is Funded PART V. POSTERS AND PRESENTATIONS Chapter 29. Posters and Conference Abstracts 29.1 Function and General Overview 29.2 Conference Abstracts 29.3 Poster Components 29.4 Poster Format 29.5 Sections of a Poster 29.6 Photos, Figures, and Tables for Posters 29.7 Resources for Preparing and Presenting a Poster 29.8 Revising a Poster 29.9 Presenting the Poster 29.10 Sample Posters 29.11 Checklist for a Poster Chapter 30. Oral Presentations 30.1 Before the Talk 30.2 Components and Format of a Scientific Talk 30.3 Visual Aids 30.4 Planning and Preparing for a Talk 30.5 Giving the Talk 30.6 Voice and Delivery 30.7 Vocabulary and Style 30.8 Body Actions and Motions 30.9 At the End of the Presentation 30.10 Questions and Answers 30.11 Other Speech Forms 30.12 Resources 30.13 Checklist for an Oral Presentation PART VI. JOB APPLICATIONS Chapter 31. Job Applications and Interviews 31.1 Overall 31.2 Curricula Vitae (CVs) and Résumés 31.3 Cover Letters 31.4 Accompanying Documents 31.5 Research Statements 31.6 Teaching Statements 31.7 Most Common Interview Questions 31.8 Resources 31.9 Letters of Recommendation 31.10 Checklist for the Job Application Appendix A: Commonly Confused and Misused Words Appendix B: MS Word Basics and Top 20 MS Word Tips Appendix C: Excel Basics and Top 20 Excel Tips Appendix D: PowerPoint Basics and Top 20 PowerPoint Tips Appendix E: MS Office Cheat Sheet Answer Key Glossary of English Grammar Terms Glossary of Scientific and Technical Terms Bibliography Credits Index