9780190278540

Scientific Writing and Communication Papers, Proposals, and Presentations

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190278540

  • ISBN10:

    0190278544

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 11/17/2016
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations, Third Edition, covers all the areas of scientific communication that a scientist needs to know and master in order to successfully promote his or her research and career. This unique "all-in-one" handbook begins with a discussion of the basic principles of scientific writing style and composition and then applies these principles to writing research papers, review articles, grant proposals, research statements, and résumés, as well as to preparing academic presentations and posters.

FEATURES

A practical presentation carefully introduces basic writing mechanics before moving into manuscript planning and organizational strategies. Extensive hands-on guidance for composing scientific documents and presentations then follows.

Relevant and multidisciplinary examples selected from real research papers and grant proposals by writers ranging from students to Nobel Laureates illustrate clear technical writing and common mistakes that one should avoid.

Annotated text passages bring the writing principles and guidelines to life by applying them to real-world, relevant, and multidisciplinary examples.

Extensive end-of-chapter exercise sets provide the opportunity to review style and composition principles and encourage readers to apply them to their own writing.

Writing guidelines and revision checklists warn scientists against common pitfalls and equip them with the most successful techniques to revise a scientific paper, review article, or grant proposal.

The book's clear, easy-to-follow writing style appeals to both native and non-native English speakers; special ESL features also point out difficulties experienced primarily by non-native speakers.

Tables and lists of sample sentences and phrases aid in composing different sections of a scientific paper, review article, or grant proposal.

Thorough attention to research articles advises readers on composing successful manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed journals from initial drafting to the response to reviewers.

Comprehensive coverage of grant writing guides scientists through the entire process of applying for a grant, from the initial letter of inquiry to proposal revision and submission.

Author Biography


Angelika H. Hofmann is Instructor for Scientific Writing and Communication at Yale University, where she also heads a successful team of grant writers. Renowned in the world of scientific communication, she is the founder of "SciWri Services," a venture that provides consulting and editing services as well as workshops at universities around the world.

Table of Contents


Preface
PART I. SCIENTIFIC WRITING BASICS: Style and Composition
Chapter 1. Science and Communication
1.1 The Scientific Method
1.2 Communication and Ethics
1.3 About Readers
1.4 About Writers
1.5 Different Writing Genres
1.6 Mastering Scientific Writing
Chapter 2. Individual Words
2.1 The Central Principle
2.2 Word Choices
2.3 Word Choice--Special Cases
2.4 Redundancies and Jargon
2.5 Abbreviations
2.6 Nomenclature and Terminology
2.7 Dictionaries
Chapter 3. Word Location
3.1 Readers' Expectations
3.2 Competition for Emphasis
3.3 Placement of Words
Chapter 4. Technical Sentences
4.1 Grammar and Technical Style
4.2 Person
4.3 Voice
4.4 Tense
4.5 Sentence Length
4.6 Verbs and Action
4.7 Clusters of Nouns
4.8 Pronouns
4.9 Lists and Comparisons
4.10 Faulty Comparisons
4.11 Common Errors
Chapter 5. Special ESL Grammar Problems
5.1 Prepositions
5.2 Articles
5.3 Verbs
5.4 Adjectives and Adverbs
5.5 Nouns and Pronouns
5.6 Grammar References
Chapter 6. From Sentences to Paragraphs
6.1 Paragraph Structure
6.2 Paragraph Organization
6.3 Paragraph Coherence
6.4 Condensing
PART II. PLANNING AND LAYING THE FOUNDATION
Chapter 7. The First Draft
7.1 The Writing Process
7.2 Prewriting
7.3 Authorship
7.4 Drafting a Manuscript
7.5 Outlining and Composing a Manuscript
7.6 Writer's Block?
7.7 For ESL Authors
7.8 Outside Help
Chapter 8. References and Plagiarism
8.1 About References
8.2 Source Material
8.3 Managing References
8.4 Text Citations
8.5 Plagiarism
8.6 Paraphrasing
8.7 References within a Scientific Paper
8.8 The Reference List
8.9 Common Reference Styles
8.10 Citing the Internet
8.11 Footnotes and Endnotes
8.12 Acknowledgments
Chapter 9. Figures and Tables
9.1 General Guidelines
9.2 Importance of Formatting and Placement of Information
9.3 Figure or Table?
9.4 General Information on Figures
9.5 Types of Figures
9.6 Formatting Graphs
9.7 Examples of Graphs
9.8 Figure Legends
9.9 General Information on Tables
9.10 Formatting Tables
9.11 Formulas, Equations, Proofs, and Algorithms
Chapter 10. Basics of Statistical Analysis
10.1 General Guidelines
10.2 Basic Statistical Terminology
10.3 Distribution Curves
10.4 Statistical Analysis of Data
10.5 Reporting Statistics
10.6 Graphical Representation
10.7 Useful Resources for Statistical Analysis
10.8 Checklist
PART III. MANUSCRIPTS: Research Papers and Review Articles
A. Research Papers
Chapter 11. The Introduction
11.1 Overall
11.2 Components and Format
11.3 Elements of the Introduction
11.4 Special Case: Introductions for Descriptive Papers
11.5 Important Writing Guidelines for the Introduction
11.6 Signals for the Reader
11.7 Common Problems of Introductions
11.8 Sample Introductions
11.9 Revising the Introduction
Chapter 12. Materials and Methods Section
12.1 Overall
12.2 Components
12.3 Format
12.4 Important Writing Guidelines for Materials and Methods
12.5 Ethical Conduct
12.6 Common Problems of Materials and Methods Section
12.7 Sample Materials and Methods Sections
12.8 Revising the Materials and Methods Section
Chapter 13. Results
13.1 Overall
13.2 Components
13.3 Format
13.4 Important Writing Guidelines for the Results
13.5 Signals for the Reader
13.6 Common Problems of the Results Section
13.7 Sample Results Sections
13.8 Revising the Results Section
Chapter 14. Discussion
14.1 Overall
14.2 Components
14.3 Format
14.4 First Paragraph
14.5 Middle Paragraphs
14.6 Last Paragraph
14.7 Important Writing Guidelines for the Discussion
14.8 Signals for the Reader
14.9 An Alternative: Results and Discussion
14.10 Common Problems of the Discussion
14.11 Sample Discussions
14.12 Revising the Discussion
Chapter 15. Abstract
15.1 Overall
15.2 Components
15.3 Format
15.4 Applying Basic Writing Rules
15.5 Signals for the Reader
15.6 Common Problems of the Abstract
15.7 Reasons for Rejection
15.8 Revising the Abstract
Chapter 16. Titles, Title Pages, and Key Words
16.1 Overall
16.2 Strong Titles
16.3 The Title Page
16.4 Running Title
16.5 Key Words
16.6 Revising the Title
Chapter 17. Revising and Reviewing a Manuscript
17.1 Revising the First Draft
17.2 Subsequent Drafts
17.3 Reviewing a Manuscript
Chapter 18. Final Version, Submission, and Peer Review
18.1 General Advice on the Final Version
18.2 Submitting the Manuscript
18.3 Writing a Cover Letter
18.4 The Review Process
B. Review Articles
Chapter 19. Review Articles
19.1 Overall
19.2 Types of Reviews and General Content
19.3 Format
19.4 Title
19.5 Abstract of a Review Article
19.6 Introduction of a Review Article
19.7 Main Analysis Section of a Review Article
19.8 Conclusion of a Review Article
19.9 References
19.10 Signals for the Reader
19.11 Coherence
19.12 Common Problems of Review Articles
19.13 Revising the Review Article
PART IV. GRANT PROPOSALS
Chapter 20. Proposal Writing
20.1 General
20.2 Types of Proposals
20.3 Choosing a Sponsoring Agency
20.4 Federal Agencies
20.5 Private Foundations
20.6 Corporations and Other Funders
20.7 Preliminary Steps to Writing a Proposal
20.8 Online Resources
20.9 Starting to Write a Grant
20.10 Interacting with the Funder
Chapter 21. Letters of Inquiry and Preproposals
21.1 General
21.2 Components and Format
21.3 Abstract/Overview
21.4 Introduction/Background
21.5 Statement of Need
21.6 Objective and Specific Aims
21.7 Strategy and Goals
21.8 Leadership and Organization
21.9 Budget
21.10 Impact and Significance
21.11 Cover Letter
21.12 Verbal Proposals
21.13 LOI Outlines
21.14 Revising an LOI/Preproposal
Chapter 22. Proposal Abstracts and Specific Aims
22.1 Overall
22.2 Proposal Abstracts
22.3 Specific Aims
22.4 Significance and Impact
22.5 Applying Basic Writing Rules
22.6 Signals for the Reader
22.7 Common Problems
22.8 Reasons for Rejection
22.9 Revising the Abstract and Specific Aims
Chapter 23. Background and Significance
23.1 Overall
23.2 Emphasis, Format, and Length
23.3 References
23.4 Elements of the Section
23.5 Sample Significance Section for Federal Grants
23.6 Signals for the Reader
23.7 Coherence
23.8 Common Problems
23.9 Revising the Background and Significance Section
Chapter 24. Innovation
24.1 General remarks on proposal sections
24.2 Components
24.3 Format
24.4 Signals for the Reader
24.5 Common Problems
24.6 Revising the Innovation Section
Chapter 25. Preliminary Results
25.1 Function
25.2 Content
25.3 Format
25.4 Important Writing Principles
25.5 Signals for Preliminary Results
25.6 Common Problems of Preliminary Results
25.7 Revising the Preliminary Results
Chapter 26. Approach/Research Design
26.1 Overall
26.2 Components
26.3 Format
26.4 Closing Paragraph
26.5 Signals for the Reader
26.6 Common Problems
26.7 Revising the Research Design and Methods Section
Chapter 27. Budget and Other Special Proposal Sections
27.1 Budget
27.2 Other Special Proposal Sections
Chapter 28. Revising and Submitting a Proposal
28.1 General
28.2 Before Sending Out the Proposal
28.3 Revising the Proposal
28.4 Submitting the Proposal
28.5 Being Reviewed
28.6 Site Visits
28.7 Reasons for Rejection
28.8 If Your Proposal Is Rejected
28.9 Resubmission of a Proposal
28.10 If Your Proposal Is Funded
PART V. POSTERS AND PRESENTATIONS
Chapter 29. Posters and Conference Abstracts
29.1 Function and General Overview
29.2 Conference Abstracts
29.3 Poster Components
29.4 Poster Format
29.5 Sections of a Poster
29.6 Photos, Figures, and Tables for Posters
29.7 Resources for Preparing and Presenting a Poster
29.8 Revising a Poster
29.9 Presenting the Poster
29.10 Sample Posters
29.11 Checklist for a Poster
Chapter 30. Oral Presentations
30.1 Before the Talk
30.2 Components and Format of a Scientific Talk
30.3 Visual Aids
30.4 Planning and Preparing for a Talk
30.5 Giving the Talk
30.6 Voice and Delivery
30.7 Vocabulary and Style
30.8 Body Actions and Motions
30.9 At the End of the Presentation
30.10 Questions and Answers
30.11 Other Speech Forms
30.12 Resources
30.13 Checklist for an Oral Presentation
PART VI. JOB APPLICATIONS
Chapter 31. Job Applications and Interviews
31.1 Overall
31.2 Curricula Vitae (CVs) and Résumés
31.3 Cover Letters
31.4 Accompanying Documents
31.5 Research Statements
31.6 Teaching Statements
31.7 Most Common Interview Questions
31.8 Resources
31.9 Letters of Recommendation
31.10 Checklist for the Job Application
Appendix A: Commonly Confused and Misused Words
Appendix B: MS Word Basics and Top 20 MS Word Tips
Appendix C: Excel Basics and Top 20 Excel Tips
Appendix D: PowerPoint Basics and Top 20 PowerPoint Tips
Appendix E: MS Office Cheat Sheet
Answer Key
Glossary of English Grammar Terms
Glossary of Scientific and Technical Terms
Bibliography
Credits
Index

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