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Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations covers all the areas of scientific communication that a scientist needs to know and to master to successfully promote his or her research and career. This unique "all-in-one" handbook begins with a discussion of the basics of scientific writing style and composition and then applies these principles to writing research papers, review articles, grant proposals, research statements, and resumés as well as to preparing academic presentations and posters. FEATURES : A practical presentation carefully introduces such basic writing mechanics as word choice and word location, sentence structure, and paragraph organization before moving into manuscript planning and organizational strategies. Extensive hands-on guidance for composing scientific documents and presentations then follows. Relevant and multi-disciplinary examples taken from real research papers and grant proposals by writers ranging from students to Nobel Laureates illustrate clear technical writing as well as common mistakes that one should avoid. Examples are drawn from a broad range of scientific disciplines including medicine, molecular biology, biochemistry, ecology, geology, chemistry, engineering, and physics. Extensive end-of-chapter exercise sets provide the opportunity to review style and composition principles and encourage readers to apply them to their own writing. Writing guidelines and revision checklists warn scientists against common pitfalls and equip them with the most successful techniques to revise a scientific paper, review article, or grant proposal. Annotated text passages bring the writing principles and guidelines to life by applying them to real-world, relevant, and multidisciplinary examples. Clear, easy-to-follow writing style is understandable to both native and non-native English speakers; special ESL features address problems faced by non-native English speakers. Eight chapters on grant writing demonstrate how to write successful grant applications and how to avoid the most common application mistakes. Covering all the facets of communication that scientists need to master, Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations is ideal for a wide range of readers--from upper-level undergraduates and graduate students to postdoctoral fellows, faculty, and professional researchers--in the life sciences, medicine, psychology, chemistry, and engineering.
Table of Contents
Chapters 2-15, 20-24, and 28 end with a Summary and Problems. Chapters 16-19, 25-27, and 29 end with a Summary. Foreword Preface Chapter 1. Prelude 1.1 Importance of Writing in Science 1.2 About Readers 1.3 About Writers 1.4 About This Book 1.5 Design of This Book PART I. SCIENTIFIC WRITING PRINCIPLES: Style and Composition Chapter 2. Individual Words 2.1 The Central Principle 2.2 Word Choice 2.3 Word Choice--Special Cases 2.4 Redundancies and Jargon 2.5 Abbreviations 2.6 Nomenclature and Terminology 2.7 Dictionaries Chapter 3. Word Location 3.1 Readers' Expectations 3.2 Competition for Emphasis 3.3 Placement of Words Chapter 4. Technical Sentences 4.1 Grammar and Technical Style 4.2 Person 4.3 Voice 4.4 Tense 4.5 Sentence Length 4.6 Verbs and Action 4.7 Noun Clusters 4.8 Pronouns 4.9 Lists and Comparisons 4.10 Faulty Comparisons 4.11 Common Errors Chapter 5. Special ESL Grammar Problems 5.1 Prepositions 5.2 Articles 5.3 Verbs 5.4 Adjectives and Adverbs 5.5 Nouns and Pronouns 5.6 Grammar References Chapter 6. From Sentences to Paragraphs 6.1 Paragraph Structure 6.2 Paragraph Organization 6.3 Paragraph Coherence 6.4 Condensing PART II. PLANNING AND LAYING THE FOUNDATION Chapter 7. The First Draft 7.1 The Writing Process 7.2 Prewriting 7.3 Authorship 7.4 Drafting a Manuscript 7.5 Outlining and Composing a Manuscript 7.6 Writer's Block? 7.7 For ESL Authors 7.8 Outside Help Chapter 8. References and Plagiarism 8.1 About References 8.2 Selecting References 8.3 Managing References 8.4 Text Citations 8.5 Plagiarism 8.6 Paraphrasing 8.7 References Within a Scientific Paper 8.8 The Reference List 8.9 Common Reference Styles 8.10 Citing the Internet 8.11 Footnotes and Endnotes 8.12 Acknowledgments Chapter 9. Figures and Tables 9.1 General Guidelines 9.2 Importance of Formatting and Placement of Information 9.3 Figure or Table? 9.4 General Information on Figures 9.5 Types of Figures 9.6 Formatting Graphs 9.7 Examples of Graphs 9.8 Figure Legends 9.9 General Information on Tables 9.10 Formatting Tables 9.11 Other Kinds of Supplementary Information: Formulas, Equations, Proofs, and Algorithms PART III. MANUSCRIPTS: Research Papers and Review Articles A. Research Papers Chapter 10. The Introduction 10.1 Overall 10.2 Content and Organization 10.3 Elements of the Introduction 10.4 Special Case: Introductions for Descriptive Papers 10.5 Important Writing Principles for the Introduction 10.6 Signals for the Reader 10.7 Common Problems of Introductions 10.8 Sample Introductions 10.9 Revising the Introduction Chapter 11. Materials and Methods Section 11.1 Overall 11.2 Content 11.3 Organization 11.4 Important Writing Principles for Materials and Methods 11.5 Ethical Conduct 11.6 Common Problems of Materials and Methods Section 11.7 Sample Materials and Methods Sections 11.8 Revising the Materials and Methods Section Chapter 12. Results 12.1 Overall 12.2 Content 12.3 Organization 12.4 Important Writing Principles for the Results 12.5 Signals for the Reader 12.6 Common Problems of the Results Section 12.7 Sample Results Sections 12.8 Revising the Results Section Chapter 13. Discussion 13.1 Overall 13.2 Content 13.3 Organization 13.4 First Paragraph 13.5 Middle Paragraphs 13.6 Last Paragraph 13.7 Important Writing Principles for the Discussion 13.8 Signals for the Reader 13.9 An Alternative: Results and Discussion 13.10 Common Problems of the Discussion 13.11 Sample Discussions 13.12 Revising the Discussion Chapter 14. Abstract 14.1 Overall 14.2 Content 14.3 Organization 14.4 Applying Basic Writing Principles 14.5 Signals for the Reader 14.6 Common Problems of the Abstract 14.7 Reasons for Rejection 14.8 Revising the Abstract Chapter 15. Titles 15.1 Overall 15.2 Strong Titles 15.3 The Title Page 15.4 Running Title 15.5 Key Words 15.6 Revising the Title Chapter 16. Revising the Manuscript 16.1 Revising the First Draft 16.2 Subsequent Drafts 16.3 Reviewing a Manuscript Chapter 17. Final Version and Submission 17.1 General Advice on the Final Version 17.2 Submitting the Manuscript 17.3 Writing a Cover Letter 17.4 The Review Process 17.5 Letter from the Editor 17.6 Resubmission 17.7 Paper Accepted B. Review Articles Chapter 18. Review Articles 18.1 Overall 18.2 Content 18.3 Organization 18.4 Abstract of a Review Article 18.5 Introduction of a Review Article 18.6 Main Analysis Section of a Review Article 18.7 Conclusion of a Review Article 18.8 References 18.9 Signals for the Reader 18.10 Coherence 18.11 Common Problems of Review Articles 18.12 Revising the Review Article PART IV. GRANT PROPOSALS Chapter 19. Proposal Writing 19.1 General 19.2 Types of Proposals 19.3 Choosing a Sponsoring Agency 19.4 Federal Agencies 19.5 Private Foundations 19.6 Corporations and Other Funders 19.7 Preliminary Steps to Writing a Proposal 19.8 Online Resources 19.9 Starting to Write a Grant 19.10 Interacting With the Funder Chapter 20. Letters of Inquiry and Preproposals 20.1 General 20.2 Content and Organization 20.3 Abstract/Overview 20.4 Introduction/Background 20.5 Statement of Need 20.6 Objective and Specific Aims 20.7 Strategy and Goals 20.8 Leadership and Organization 20.9 Budget 20.10 Impact and Significance 20.11 Cover Letter 20.12 Verbal Proposals 20.13 LOI Outlines 20.14 Revising an LOI/Preproposal Chapter 21. Abstract and Specific Aims 21.1 Overall 21.2 Abstract 21.3 Specific Aims 21.4 Significance and Impact 21.5 Applying Basic Writing Principles 21.6 Signals for the Reader 21.7 Common Problems 21.8 Reasons for Rejection 21.9 Revising the Abstract and Specific Aims Chapter 22. Background and Significance 22.1 Overall 22.2 Content and Organization 22.3 Elements of the Section 22.4 Signals for the Reader 22.5 Coherence 22.6 Common Problems 22.7 Revising the Background and Significance Section Chapter 23. Preliminary Results 23.1 Overall 23.2 Content 23.3 Organization 23.4 Important Writing Principles 23.5 Signals for the Reader 23.6 Common Problems 23.7 Revising the Preliminary Results Chapter 24. Research Design and Methods 24.1 Overall 24.2 Content 24.3 Organization 24.4 Closing Paragraph 24.5 Signals for the Reader 24.6 Common Problems 24.7 Revising the Research Design and Methods Section Chapter 25. Budget and Other Special Proposal Sections 25.1 Budget 25.2 Other Special Proposal Sections Chapter 26. Revision and Submission 26.1 General 26.2 Before Sending Out the Proposal 26.3 Revising the Proposal 26.4 Submitting the Proposal 26.5 Being Reviewed 26.6 Site Visits 26.7 If Your Proposal Is Rejected 26.8 Resubmission of a Proposal 26.9 If Your Proposal Is Funded PART V. POSTERS AND PRESENTATIONS Chapter 27. Posters 27.1 Function 27.2 Content 27.3 Organization 27.4 Sections of a Poster 27.5 Photos, Figures, and Tables 27.6 Preparing a Poster 27.7 Presenting a Poster 27.8 Sample Poster 27.9 Checklist for a Poster Chapter 28. Oral Presentations 28.1 Before the Talk 28.2 Conference Talks and Abstracts 28.3 Content and Organization of a Scientific Talk 28.4 Visual Aids 28.5 Preparing for a Talk 28.6 Giving the Talk 28.7 Voice and Delivery 28.8 Vocabulary and Style 28.9 Body Actions and Motions 28.10 At the End of the Presentation 28.11 Questions and Answers 28.12 Other Speech Forms 28.13 Checklist for an Oral Presentation PART VI. JOB APPLICATIONS Chapter 29. Writing for Job Applications 29.1 Overall 29.2 Curricula Vitae (CVs) and Résumés 29.3 Cover Letters 29.4 Accompanying Documents 29.5 Research Statements 29.6 Teaching Statements 29.7 Resources 29.8 Letters of Recommendation 29.9 Checklist for the Job Application Appendix: Commonly Confused and Misused Words Answer Key Glossary References Credits Index