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Table of Contents
PART 1 Working as a Writer
Chapter 1: Writers at Work
1a Rhetorical Situations
1b Writing About Something
1c Writing to Somebody
1d Writing for Some Purpose
1e Writing in Some Genre
Chapter 2: Preparing to Write
2a Sizing up an Assignment
2b Scheduling a Project
Chapter 3: Finding and Focusing a Topic
3a Finding a Topic
3b Focusing a Topic
Chapter 4: Making a Commitment
4a Offering a Topic Proposal
4b Crafting a Thesis Sentence
Chapter 5: Creating a Structure
5a Understanding Patterns of Organization
5b Preparing an Outline
Chapter 6: Drafting
6a Gathering Materials
6b Getting Started
6c Pacing Yourself
6d Evaluating a Draft
Chapter 7: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
7a Revising Your Draft
7b Editing Your Draft
7c Proofreading Your Draft
7d Working Collaboratively
PART 2 Shaping Language
Chapter 8: Making Choices About Language
8a Language and Power
8b Levels of Language
8c Word Choice
8d Civil Language
Chapter 9: The Structure of Sentences
9a Sentence Types
9e Building Sentences: Coordination
9f Building Sentences: Subordination
Chapter 10: The Shape of Sentences
10a Using Agent/Action Sentences
10b Understanding Parallelism
10c Writing Balanced Sentences
10d Writing Cumulative Sentences
Chapter 11: Writing with Style
11a Reducing Wordiness
11b Using Specific Details
11c Varying Sentence Length
11d Using Punctuation for Emphasis
Chapter 12: Shaping Effective Paragraphs
12a Focusing Paragraphs With Topic Sentences
12b Writing Well-Structured Paragraphs
12c Creating Effective Transitions
12d Writing Paragraphs That Look Good
12e Writing Opening Paragraphs
12f Writing Closing Paragraphs
PART 3 Presenting Your Writing
Chapter 13: Designing Effective Documents
13a Designing Documents with a Computer
13b Laying Out Pages
13c Choosing Type
13d Adding Charts, Graphs, and Images
13e Working with Color
Chapter 14: Writing for the Web
14a Using Social Media at School
14b Participating on Class Web sites
14c Writing for Wikis, Blogs, and Web 2.0
14d Establishing your Online Ethos
Chapter 15: Giving Oral Presentations
15a Planning Oral Presentations
15b Scripting What You’ll Say
15c Preparing Audio and Visual Aids
15d Speaking before an Audience
Chapter 16: Model Documents
16a Formal Letters
16b Formal Emails
16c Letters of Application
16e Job Interviews
16f Professional Memos
PART 4 Writing Arguments
Chapter 17: Reading and Responding Critically
17a Reading Critically
17b Reacting to What You Read: The Response Paper
Chapter 18: Strategies of Argument
18a Making A Claim
18b Presenting Evidence
18c Finding Logical Arguments
18d Structuring an Argument
18e Arguing Fairly
18f Avoiding Fallacies of Argument
18g An Annotated Argument
Chapter 19: Visual Arguments
19a Understanding Visual Arguments
19b Creating Visual Arguments
19c Using Charts, Tables, and Graphs
Chapter 20: Writing an Analysis of Literature or Popular Culture
20a Approaching Textual Analysis
20b Using Sources in Arguments about Literature or Popular Culture
20c Developing Arguments on Literature or Popular Culture
PART 5 Research
Chapter 21: Doing Research
21a Claiming a Topic
1 Size up an assignment carefully.
2 Browse the library in your topic area.
3 Browse electronic resources.
4 Review your writing process.
21b Planning a Project
1 Write a research prospectus.
2 Decide how you will handle your research materials.
3 Prepare a working bibliography.
4 Make copies of printed sources.
5 Print or download electronic sources.
21c Checking Organization
1 Narrow or qualify your claim.
2 Test your organization.
21d Checking Format
1 Pay attention to the format of work you submit.
2 Insert tables and figures as needed.
3 Be consistent with headings.
4 Include all the components your project requires.
5 Submit your project professionally.
Chapter 22: Finding Information
22a Using Information Sources
1 Learn about your library.
2 Use library catalogs efficiently.
3 Locate suitable bibliographies.
4 Locate suitable indexes to search the periodical literature.
5 Check the Web.
6 Consult biographical resources.
7 Locate statistics.
8 Check news sources.
9 Check book, film, and product reviews.
10 Consult experts and conduct interviews.
22b Searching With Keywords
1 Understand how a simple keyword search works.
2 Understand the principles of Boolean searching.
3 Search by exact phrase.
Chapter 23: Evaluating Sources
23a Understanding Types of Sources
23b Assessing the Quality of Sources
1 Consider the authority and reputation of a source.
2 Consider timeliness and stability.
3 Consider significance and thoroughness.
4 Consider bias.
5 Consider the integrity of online information.
Chapter 24: Using Sources Responsibly
24a Summarizing and Paraphrasing a Source
24b Avoiding Plagiarism
1 Give yourself sufficient time to develop projects.
2 Have confidence in your own abilities.
3 Learn what you need to document.
4 Don’t take shortcuts with documentation.
5 Don’t copy and paste without giving credit.
6 Don’t get involved in collusion.
7 Don’t miss the opportunity to learn.
Chapter 25: Using Sources and Quotations Effectively
25a Selecting Quotations
25b Introducing Quotations and Source Materials
25c Modifying Quotations
1 Tailor your language so that direct quotations fit into the grammar of your sentences.
2 Use ellipses to show where you have cut material from direct quotations.
PART 6 Documentation
Chapter 26: Documenting a Research Paper
26a Recognizing Documentation Styles
26b Knowing What to Document
1 Provide a source for every direct quotation.
2 Document all ideas, opinions, facts, and information that cannot be considered common knowledge.
3 Document materials that readers might question or wish to explore further.
4 Furnish dates, credentials, and other information to assist readers.
5 Use links to document electronic sources.
6 Use computer programs to document your project.
26c Finding Documentation Information (Source Maps)
1 For books, check the title and copyright pages for documentation information.
2 For scholarly journals, check the cover or contents page for documentation information.
3 Check magazines articles for documentation information.
4 For newspapers, check the masthead and credits column for documentation information.
5 Expect full documentation from the Web sites you use.
Chapter 27: MLA Documentation
27a Insert in-text notes wherever you use sources in the body of your paper.
1 Identify outside sources clearly each time you use them.
2 Locate referenced material as precisely as possible.
3 Place and punctuate parenthetical citations correctly.
27b List all cited sources on a separate “Works Cited” page.
27c Sample Research Paper–MLA
Chapter 28: APA Documentation
28a In the body of your paper, place a note for each source you use.
1 Identify sources clearly each time you use them.
2 Provide page numbers to locate quotations and paraphrased passages.
3 Place and punctuate parenthetical notes appropriately.
28b On a separate page at the end of your project, list alphabetically every source you have cited.
28c Sample Empirical Research Paper–APA
Chapter 29: CMS Documentation
29a How CMS documentation works
29b Using CMS footnotes and endnotes
1 Insert a raised note number after each cited passage.
2 Document a source fully in the first note mentioning it.
3 Shorten subsequent notes for sources you’ve already fully documented.
4 Use in-text parenthetical notes for numerous citations of one source.
29c Formatting CMS footnotes and endnotes
29d Formating CMS bibliographies
29e Sample literary analysis–CMS
PART 7 Grammar
Chapter 30: Key Grammatical Terms
Chapter 31: Sentence Errors
31a Sentence Fragments
31b Intentional Fragments
31c Comma Splices
31d Run-On Sentences
Chapter 32: Modifiers
32a Misplaced and Dangling Modifying Phrases
32b Placement of Adjectives
32c Problems with Adjectives
32d Absolute Adjectives
32e Forms of Adverbs
32f Placement Of Adverbs
32g Double Negatives
32h Comparatives and Superlatives
Chapter 33: Subject-Verb Agreement
33a Agreement With Singular and Plural Subjects
33b Agreement With Indefinite Pronouns
33c Agreement With Collective Nouns
33d Agreement When the Subject is Hard to Identify
Chapter 34: Verb Tense, Voice, and Mood
34a Verb Tenses
34b Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
34c Verb Forms
34e Active and Passive Voice
34f Subjunctive Mood
Chapter 35: Pronouns
35a Pronoun Reference
35b Pronoun Agreement
35c Pronoun Case
35d That, Which, and Who
Chapter 36: Suggestions for ESOL Writers
36a Common ESOL problem areas
36d Gerunds and Infinitives
36e Prepositional Phrases
36f Nouns, Articles, and Quantifiers
PART 8 Punctuation and Mechanics
Chapter 37: End Punctuation
37b Question Marks
37c Exclamation Marks
Chapter 38: Commas
38a Commas to Separate
38b Commas To Enclose
38c Commas To Connect
38d Unnecessary Commas
Chapter 39: Semicolons and Colons
Chapter 40: Quotation Marks and Ellipses
40a Quotation Marks
Chapter 41: Parentheses and Brackets
Chapter 42: Dashes, Hyphens, and Slashes
42a Em Dashes
42b En Dashes
Chapter 43: Italics and Capitalization
Chapter 44: Apostrophes, Abbreviations, and Numbers
Chapter 45: Spelling
45a Spell Checkers
45b Spelling Problems
45c Dictionary and Thesaurus
Part 9: Exercises
Part 10: Glossary of Usage and Index
Glossary of Usage
Directories to MLA and