This flexible and accessible text for the introductory critical thinking course uses current, relevant examples from a range of sources--including technology, advertising, film, TV, and the Internet--to address social issues, the law, politics, science, and more. Inviting and inclusive, the text features a wealth of examples and exercises that draw on the varied experiences of students from different ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds.Second Thoughts: Critical Thinking for a Diverse Societyprovides a refreshing and comprehensive study of critical thinking and logic tools for today's students.
Wanda Teays is currently a professor and chair of the Philosophy Department at Mount St. Maryn++s College in Los Angeles. She has a B.A. in Mathematics and Philosophy from CSU Fullerton, an M.A. in Philosophy of Mathematics from the University of Alberta, a Ph.D. in Humanities from Concordia University in Montreal, and an M.T.S. (Applied Ethics) from Harvard University. She teaches, writes, speaks, and edits books in the areas of critical thinking, bioethics, violence, human rights and the law. Having studied and taught in Canada over a span of twelve years, she knows the value of diverse perspectives. She draws on her work as a consultant in critical thinking to colleges, universities, and school districts (K-12) to promote quality education for all students. She lives in Los Angeles with her husband, pet cockatoo, and a small herd of cats. .
Table of Contents
Part One: Acquiring Critical Thinking Skills Chapter 1: Out of the Fog: The Pathway to Critical Thinking Introduction to the Territory Frame of Reference Overview of Critical Thinking Comparison of Ligic and Critical Thinking Descriptions versus Inferences Descriptions Versus Arguements Diverse Perspectives in Critical Thinking Obstacles to Clear Thinking Problem Solving Chapter 2: Nuts and Bolts: The Basics of Argument Argument Components Propositions Premise-Indicators and Conclusion-Indicators Constructing Arguments Good Arguments, Bad Arguments Facts, Opinions, and Ideas Speculation Ideas and Hypotheses Chapter 3: Analysis: The Heart of Critical Thinking Assessing Credibility Role of Assumptions Well Reasoned Arguments Developing Analytical Skills Types of Evidence Analysis of an Article or Argument Wrestling Down Arguments: Dismantling Longer Articles Chapter 4: Handling Claims, Drawing Inferences Propositions Rules of Replacement for Ordinary Language Formal Rules of Replacement Square of Opposition The Obverse, Converse, and Contrapositive Chapter 5: The Logic Machine: Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Key Terms in Arguments The Key to Distinguishing Propositions Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Truth Tables Part Two: Sharpening the Tools Chapter 6: The Persuasive Power of Analogies Arguments from Analogy The Fallacy of False Analogy The Persuasive Force of an Analogy Assessing an Analogy Structuring the Analysis Analogies and Hypothetical Reasoning in the Law Chapter 7: Fallacies, Fallacies: Steering Clear of Argumentative Quicksand Introduction to the Fallacies of Relevance Key Fallacies of Relevance Key Fallacies of Presumption Key Fallacies of Ambiguity Chapter 8: Roll the Dice: Causal and Statistical Reasoning Cause and Effect Reasoning Arguments Based on Statistical Studies Inductive Generalizations Chapter 9: Syllogisms Introduction to Syllogisms Validity and Soundness Universal versus Particular Propositions Categorical Syllogisms The Three Terms of the Syllogism The Mood of a Syllogism Figure of the Syllogism Checking for Validity Testing the Validity of a Syllogism: Two Methods CHapter 10: Patterns of Deductive Reasoning: Rules of Inference Advantages of Learning the Techniques of Logic Valid Argument Forms Rules of Inference Formal Fallacies PART THREE: Going Out Into the World Chapter 11: Out of the Silence: The Power of Language Descriptions Euphemisms Concepts and Definitions Jargon, Buzzwords, and Technical Terms Metaphors and Images The Passive Voice Propaganda Exclusive Language and Hate Speech The Liberatory Voice Chapter 12: Desire and Illusion: Analyzing Advertising Reading the Society from Ads Assumptions The Use of Fallacies to Persuade The Power of Advertising Product Placement Testimonials Analyzing Ads The Verbal Message The Visual Message Winners and Loser in Advertising Chapter 13: Web Sight: Critical Thinking and the Internet Imagine the Internet Web Hoaxes Web Research Web Analysis Blogs and More Blogs Wikis The Internet and Intellectual Freedom Chapter 14: Voices and Visions: The Media Tabloid-Style Journalism Analyzing the Newspaper The Distinct Role of Sports in News Media Analyzing Popular Culture Assessing Arguments Analyzing Reviews Chapter 15: Clearing the Path: Legal Reasoning The Range of Legal Reasoning Legal Precedent The Power of Assumptions Controversial Cases and the Law