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Secondary School Teaching : A Guide to Methods and Resources,9780130421494

Secondary School Teaching : A Guide to Methods and Resources

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130421494

ISBN10:
0130421499
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $85.33

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Summary

This popular standard is everything a methods book for grades 7-12 should be: practical, concise, research-based, and user-friendly. The authors' beliefs about what teaching should be and what good teachers should do form the bedrock upon which a full complement of effective methods is built. Basic to the book is the idea that teaching skills can be learned: content is organized around four developmental components involved in becoming a competent teacher--thewhy, what, how, and how well of teaching. Whatever one teaches, children will always need to know how to learn, how to read, and how to think productively, work cooperatively, and communicate effectively. This book shows future teachers how to teach precisely that. A four-part organization covers orientation to teaching and learning in today's secondary schools; planning for instruction; strategies, aids, media, and resources for effective instruction; and assessment and continuing professional development.

Table of Contents

PART I Orientation to Teaching and Learning in Today's Secondary Schools 1(68)
Teaching and Learning in Today's Secondary Schools
3(23)
Orientation
5(8)
Orientation Meetings: Start of the School Year
5(2)
The School Calendar Year: Conventional and Year-Round
7(1)
Teaching Teams
8(1)
The School-Within-a-School (SWAS)
8(1)
Teachers' Daily Schedules
9(1)
Nontraditional Scheduling
9(2)
Striving to Present Quality Education for all Students
11(1)
Middle Schools and Junior High Schools
11(1)
School Restructuring and Students at Risk
12(1)
Responsive School Practices for Helping all Students Succeed
13(1)
The Fundamental Characteristic of Exemplary Education
13(4)
Committed Teachers
13(1)
Reflective Decision Making
13(2)
Exercise 1.1 Conversation with a Classroom Teacher
15(2)
The Principal Can Make a Difference
17(1)
Telecommunications Networks, Members of the Community, and Parent Organizations: Vehicles for Obtaining and Sharing Ideas and Information
17(4)
Home and School Connections
17(1)
Service Learning
18(1)
Telecommunications Networks
18(3)
The Emergent Overall Picture
21(3)
Key Trends and Practices Today
21(1)
Problems and Issues That Plague the Nation's Schools
21(3)
Summary
24(1)
Additional Exercises
24(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
24(1)
For Further Reading
24(2)
Celebrating and Building upon the Diverse Characteristics and Needs of Secondary School Students
26(21)
Dimensions of the Challenge
27(1)
The Classroom in a Nation of Diversity and Shifting Demographics
27(1)
Styles of Learning and Implications for Teaching
28(4)
Learning Modalities
28(1)
Learning Styles
29(1)
The Three-Phase Learning Cycle
30(1)
Learning Capacities: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
31(1)
Meeting the Challenge: Recognizing and Providing for Student Differences
32(8)
Instructional Practices That Provide for Student Differences: General Guidelines
32(1)
Recognizing and Working with Students with Disabilities
33(2)
Recognizing and Working with Students of Diversity and Differences
35(2)
Recognizing and Working with Students Who Are Gifted
37(1)
Curriculum Tracking: Not a Viable Option
38(1)
Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Success
38(1)
Recognizing and Working with Students Who Take More Time but Are Willing to Try
39(1)
Recognizing and Working with Recalcitrant Learners
40(1)
Teaching toward Positive Character Development
40(5)
Exercise 2.1 Reflecting upon My Own School Experiences
43(2)
Summary
45(1)
Additional Exercise
45(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
45(1)
For Further Reading
45(2)
The Expectations, Responsibilities, and Facilitating Behaviors of a Classroom Teacher
47(22)
The Teacher as a Reflective Decision Maker
48(1)
Decision-Making Phases of Instruction
48(1)
Reflection, Locus of Control, and Teacher Responsibility
48(1)
Teaching Style
49(8)
Multilevel Instruction
49(1)
The Theoretical Origins of Teaching Styles and Their Relation to Constructivism
50(1)
Exercise 3.1 My Perceptions of How I Learn: Sources of Motivation
51(2)
Exercise 3.2 My Perceptions of How I Learn: Techniques Used
53(2)
Exercise 3.3 Using Observation of Classroom Interaction to Analyze One Teacher's Style
55(2)
Commitment and Professionalism
57(1)
Noninstructional Responsibilities
57(1)
Instructional Responsibilities
57(1)
Identifying and Building Your Instructional Competencies
58(3)
Characteristics of the Competent Classroom Teacher: An Annotated List
58(3)
Teacher Behaviors Necessary to Facilitate Student Learning
61(5)
Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarification
62(1)
Structuring the Learning Environment
62(1)
Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountability
62(1)
Demonstrating Withitness and Overlapping
63(1)
Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activities
63(1)
Modeling Appropriate Behaviors
63(1)
Facilitating Student Acquisition of Data
63(1)
Creating a Psychologically Safe Environment
64(1)
Clarifying Whenever Necessary
65(1)
Using Periods of Silence
65(1)
Questioning Thoughtfully
65(1)
Summary
66(1)
Additional Exercises
67(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
67(1)
For Further Reading
67(2)
PART II Planning for Instruction 69(150)
Planning the Classroom Learning Environment
71(49)
Perceptions and Their Importance
72(1)
Classroom Control-Its Meaning-Past and Present
72(6)
Historical Meaning of Classroom Control
73(1)
Today's Meaning of Classroom Control and the Concept of Classroom Management
73(1)
Classroom Management: Contributions of Some Leading Authorities
73(4)
Developing Your Own Effective Approach to Classroom Management
77(1)
Providing a Supportive Learning Environment
78(2)
Consider the Physical Layout
78(1)
Create a Positive Classroom Atmosphere
78(1)
Get to Know the Students as People
78(2)
Preparation Provides Confidence and Success
80(1)
Effective Organization and Administration of Activities and Materials
80(1)
Natural Interruptions and Disruptions to Routine
81(1)
Classroom Procedures and Guidelines for Acceptable Behavior
81(14)
Starting the School Term Well
81(1)
Procedures Rather Than Rules; Consequences Rather Than Punishment
82(1)
The First Day
82(2)
Establishing Classroom Expectations, Procedures, and Consequences
84(1)
What Students Need to Understand from the Start
84(3)
Exercise 4.1 Observing a Classroom for Frequency of External Interruptions
87(4)
Exercise 4.2 Teachers' Classroom Management Systems
91(2)
Exercise 4.3 Beginning the Development of My Classroom Management System
93(2)
Using Positive Rewards
95(1)
Managing Class Meetings
95(4)
Opening Activities
95(2)
Exercise 4.4 Observation and Analysis of How Experienced Teachers Open Class Meetings
97(2)
Smooth Implementation of the Lesson
99(1)
Transitions: A Difficult Skill for Beginning Teachers
99(1)
Selected Legal Guidelines
99(2)
Title IX: Student Rights
100(1)
Teacher Liability and Insurance
100(1)
Child Abuse and Neglect
101(1)
First Aid and Medication
101(1)
Student Misbehavior
101(3)
Categories of Student Misbehavior
101(2)
There Are Success Stories
103(1)
Teacher Response to Student Misbehavior: Direct and Indirect Intervention
103(1)
Teacher-Caused Student Misbehavior
104(11)
Scenarios for Case Study Review
104(2)
Preventing a Ship from Sinking is Much Easier Than Is Saving a Sinking One: Fifty Mistakes to Avoid
106(5)
Exercise 4.5 Identifying Teacher Behaviors That Cause Student Misbehavior-A Self-Check Exercise
111(4)
Situational Case Studies for Additional Review
115(2)
Summary
117(1)
Additional Exercises
118(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
118(1)
For Further Reading
118(2)
Planning the Curriculum and Its Content
120(54)
Providing Successful Transitions
121(1)
Curriculum and Instruction: Clarification of Terms
122(1)
Planning for Instruction
122(1)
Teacher-Student Collaborative Team Planning
122(1)
Reasons for Planning
122(1)
Components of an Instructional plan
123(1)
Planning the Scope of the Curriculum: Documents That Provide Guidance for Content Selection
123(1)
Curriculum Standards
123(12)
National Standards by Content Area
124(3)
Exercise 5.1 Examining National Curriculum Standards
127(2)
Exercise 5.2 Examining State Curriculum Standards
129(2)
Exercise 5.3 Examining State Curriculum Frameworks
131(2)
Exercise 5.4 Examining Local Curriculum Documents
133(2)
Student Textbooks
135(6)
Benefit of Student Textbooks to Student Learning
135(1)
Problems with Reliance on a Single Textbook
135(2)
Exercise 5.5 Examining Student Textbooks and Teacher's Editions
137(2)
Guidelines for Textbook Use
139(1)
Multitext and Multireadings Approach
139(2)
Beginning to Think about the Sequencing of Content
141(4)
Exercise 5.6 Preparing a Full Semester Content Outline
143(2)
Preparing for and Dealing with Controversy
145(4)
Exercise 5.7A Dealing with Controversial Content and Issues
147(1)
Exercise 5.7B Censorship: Books That are Sometimes Challenged
148(1)
Aims, Goals, and Objectives: The Anticipated Learning Outcome
149(2)
Instructional Objectives and Their Relationship to Aligned Curriculum and Authentic Assessment
149(1)
Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivism
150(1)
Teaching toward Multiple Objectives, Understandings, and Appreciations
151(1)
Preparing Instructional Objectives
151(12)
Key Components: The ABCDs
151(1)
Exercise 5.8 Recognizing Verbs that are Acceptable for Overt Objectives-A Self-Check Exercise
152(1)
Exercise 5.9 Recognizing the Parts of Criterion-Referenced Instructional Objectives-A Self-Check Exercise
153(1)
Exercise 5.10 Recognizing Objectives that are Measurable-A Self-Check Exercise
154(1)
Classifying Instructional Objectives
155(1)
The Domains of Learning and the Developmental Needs of Secondary School Students
155(1)
Cognitive Domain Hierarchy
155(2)
Affective Domain Hierarchy
157(1)
Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy
158(1)
Exercise 5.11 Recognition of Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Objectives-A Self-Check Exercise
159(2)
Exercise 5.12 Preparing My Own Instructional Objectives
161(2)
Using the Taxonomies
163(2)
Observing for Connected (Meaningful) Learning: Logs, Portfolios, and Journals
164(1)
Character Education
164(1)
Learning That Is Not Immediately Observable
164(1)
Integrated Curriculum
165(2)
Definition of Integrated Curriculum
165(1)
Integrated Curricula: Past and Present
165(1)
The Spectrum of Integrated Curriculum
165(2)
Planning for Instruction: A Three-Level and Seven-Step Process
167(1)
The Syllabus
168(3)
Use and Development of a Syllabus
170(1)
Content of a Syllabus
171(1)
Summary
171(1)
Additional Exercise
172(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
172(1)
For Further Reading
172(2)
Planning the Instructional Unit with Lessons
174(45)
The Instructional Unit
175(1)
Planning and Developing Any Unit of Instruction
175(1)
Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Time Duration
176(1)
Theoretical Considerations for the Selection of Instructional Strategies
176(3)
Decision Making and Strategy Selection
176(1)
Direct and Indirect Instruction: A Clarification of Terms
176(2)
Principles of Classroom Instruction and Learning: A Synopsis
178(1)
Direct vs. Indirect Instructional Modes: Strengths and Weaknesses of Each
178(1)
Selecting Learning Activities That Are Developmentally Appropriate
179(8)
The Learning Experiences Ladder
180(1)
Direct, Simulated, and Vicarious Experiences Help Connect Student Learning
181(2)
Exercise 6.1 Recalling My Own Learning Experiences in School
183(2)
Exercise 6.2 Conversion of an Abstract Learning Experience to a Direct One
185(2)
Planning and Developing an Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit
187(2)
Steps for Developing an Interdisciplinary Thematic Unit
187(1)
Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of the ITU
188(1)
Preparing Lesson Plans: Rationale and Assumptions
189(4)
Rationale for Preparing Written Plans
189(1)
Assumptions about Lesson Planning
190(1)
A Continual Process
190(1)
Well Planned but Open to Last-Minute Change
191(1)
The Problem of Time
191(2)
A Caution about ``The Daily Planning Book''
193(1)
Constructing a Lesson Plan: Format, Components, and Samples
193(8)
For Guidance, Reflection, and Reference
197(1)
Basic Elements of a Lesson Plan
197(4)
Descriptive Data
201(1)
Goals and Objectives
201(1)
Setting the Learning Objectives
201(15)
A Common Error and How to Avoid it
201(1)
No Need to Include All Domains and Hierarchies in Every Lesson
202(1)
Rationale
202(1)
Procedure
202(2)
Assignments
204(1)
Special Notes and Reminders
204(1)
Materials and Equipment to Be Used
204(1)
Assessment, Reflection, and Revision
205(6)
Exercise 6.3 Analysis of a Lesson That Failed
211(2)
Exercise 6.4A Preparing a Lesson Plan
213(1)
Exercise 6.4B Self and Peer Assessment of My Lesson Plan
213(2)
Exercise 6.5 Preparing an Instructional Unit: Bringing It All Together
215(1)
Summary
216(1)
Additional Exercises
216(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
216(1)
For Further Reading
216(3)
PART III Strategies, Aids, Media, and Resources for Effective Instruction 219(120)
Questioning for Teaching and Learning
221(25)
Purposes for Using Questioning
222(1)
Questions to Avoid Asking
223(1)
Types of Cognitive Questions: A Glossary
223(2)
Clarifying Question
223(1)
Convergent-Thinking Question
223(1)
Cueing Question
223(1)
Divergent-Thinking Question
224(1)
Evaluative Question
224(1)
Focus Question
224(1)
Probing Question
224(1)
Socratic Questioning
224(1)
Levels of Cognitive Questions and Student Thinking
225(3)
Exercise 7.1 Identifying the Cognitive Levels of Questions-A Self-Check Exercise
227(1)
Guidelines for Using Questioning
228(4)
Preparing Questions
228(1)
Implementing Questioning
229(1)
Exercise 7.2 Think Time and the Art of Questioning: An In-Class Exercise
230(2)
Questions from Students: The Question-Driven Classroom and Curriculum
232(13)
Questioning: The Cornerstone of Critical Thinking, Real-World Problem Solving, and Meaningful Learning
232(3)
Exercise 7.3 Examining Course Materials for Level of Questioning
235(2)
Exercise 7.4 Observing the Cognitive Levels of Classroom Verbal Interactions
237(2)
Exercise 7.5 Practice in Raising Questions to Higher Levels
239(2)
Exercise 7.6 Creating Cognitive Questions
241(2)
Exercise 7.7 A Cooperative Learning and Micro Peer Teaching Exercise in the Use of Questioning-Micro Peer Teaching I
243(2)
Summary
245(1)
Additional Exercise
245(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
245(1)
For Further Reading
245(1)
Grouping and Assignments for Positive Interaction and Quality Learning
246(48)
Mastery Learning and Personalized Instruction
247(1)
Today's Emphasis: Quality Learning for All Students
247(1)
Assumptions about Mastery, or Quality, Learning
248(1)
Components of Any Mastery Learning Model
248(1)
Strategies for Personalizing the Instruction
248(1)
Learning Alone
248(15)
The Self-Instructional Module
248(1)
Exercise 8.1 Preparing a Self-Instructional Module
249(14)
Learning in Pairs
263(1)
The Learning Center
263(1)
Learning in Small Groups
264(1)
Purposes for Using Small Groups
264(1)
Cooperative Learning
264(2)
The Cooperative Learning Group (CLG)
265(1)
Learning in Large Groups
266(9)
Student Presentations
266(2)
Whole-Class Discussion
268(1)
Exercise 8.2 Whole-Class Discussion as a Teaching Strategy: What Do I Already Know?
269(4)
Exercise 8.3 Whole-Class Discussion as a Teaching Strategy: Building upon What I Already Know
273(2)
Equality in the Classroom
275(4)
Ensuring Equity
275(2)
Exercise 8.4 Teacher Interaction with Students According to Student Gender
277(2)
Learning from Assignments and Homework
279(3)
Purposes for Assignments
279(1)
Guidelines for Using Assignments
279(1)
Opportunities for Recovery
280(1)
How to Avoid Having So Many Papers to Grade That Time for Effective Planning Is Restricted
281(1)
Project-Centered Learning: Guiding Learning from Independent and Group Investigations, Papers, and Oral Reports
282(2)
Values and Purposes of Project-Centered Learning
282(2)
Writing Across the Curriculum
284(1)
Kinds of Writing
284(1)
Student Journal
284(1)
Purpose and Assessment of Student Journal Writing
284(1)
A Collection of More Than 100 Annotated Motivational Teaching Strategies with Ideas for Lessons, Interdisciplinary Teaching, Transcultural Studies, and Student Projects
284(7)
The Visual and Performing Arts
285(1)
Family and Consumer Economics, Foods, and Textiles
286(1)
English, Languages, and the Language Arts
286(1)
Mathematics
287(1)
Physical Education
288(1)
Science
288(1)
Social Sciences
289(1)
Vocational-Career Education
290(1)
Summary
291(1)
Additional Exercises
291(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
292(1)
For Further Reading
292(2)
Using Teacher Talk, Demonstrations, Thinking, Inquiry, and Games
294(27)
Teacher Talk: Formal and Informal
295(10)
Cautions in Using Teacher Talk
295(1)
Teacher Talk: General Guidelines
295(1)
Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelines
296(7)
Exercise 9.1 The Lecture-Summary Review and Practice
303(2)
Demonstration
305(1)
Purposes of Demonstrations
305(1)
Guidelines for Using Demonstrations
305(1)
Teaching Thinking for Intelligent Behavior
305(3)
Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior
305(2)
Direct Teaching for Thinking and Intelligent Behavior
307(1)
Inquiry Teaching and Discovery Learning
308(3)
Problem Solving
308(1)
Inquiry vs. Discovery
308(1)
True Inquiry
309(1)
The Critical Thinking Skills of Discovery and Inquiry
309(2)
Integrating Strategies for Integrated Learning
311(3)
Learning by Educational Games
314(5)
Classification of Educational Games
315(1)
Purposes of Educational Games
315(1)
Sources of Educational Games
315(2)
Exercise 9.2 Developing a Lesson Using Level II Inquiry, Thinking Skill Development, a Demonstration, or an Interactive Lecture-Micro Peer Teaching II
317(2)
Summary
319(1)
Additional Exercises
319(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
319(1)
For Further Reading
319(2)
Using Media and Other Instructional Aids and Resources
321(18)
Printed Materials, Visual Displays, and the Internet
322(5)
Sources of Free and Inexpensive Printed Materials
322(1)
The Internet
322(2)
Professional Journals and Periodicals
324(1)
The ERIC Information Network
324(1)
Copying Printed Materials
324(2)
The Classroom Writing Board
326(1)
The Classroom Bulletin Board
327(1)
The Community as a Resource
327(2)
Guest Speakers
328(1)
Field Trips
328(1)
Media Tools
329(4)
When Equipment Malfunctions
330(1)
The Overhead Projector
330(2)
Multimedia Program
332(1)
Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Tools
333(2)
The Placement and Use of Computers: The On-line Classroom
333(1)
Sources of Free and Inexpensive Audiovisual Materials
334(1)
Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programs
334(1)
Distance Learning
335(1)
Summary
336(1)
Additional Exercises
336(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
336(1)
For Further Reading
337(2)
PART IV Assessment and Continuing Professional Development 339(68)
Assessing and Reporting Student Achievement
341(40)
Purposes and Principles of Assessment
343(1)
Terms Used in Assessment
344(1)
Assessment and Evaluation
344(1)
Measurement and Assessment
344(1)
Validity and Reliability
344(1)
Authentic Assessment: Advantages and Disadvantages
344(1)
Assessing Student Achievement: Diagnostic, Formative, and Summative
345(1)
Assessing Student Learning: Three Avenues
345(3)
Importance and Weight of Each Avenue
345(1)
Assessing What a Student Says and Does
345(2)
Assessing What a Student Writes
347(1)
Assessment for Affective and Psychomotor Domain Learning
348(1)
Student Involvement in Assessment
348(3)
Using Student Portfolios
348(1)
Using Checklists
349(2)
Maintaining Records of Student Achievement
351(2)
Recording Teacher Observations and Judgments
351(1)
Exercise 11.1 An Evaluation of Written Teacher Comments about Students-A Self-Check Exercise
352(1)
Grading and Marking Student Achievement
353(3)
Criterion-Referenced vs. Norm-Referenced Grading
353(1)
Determining Grades
354(2)
Testing for Achievement
356(2)
Standardized and Nonstandardized Tests
356(1)
Purposes for Testing
356(1)
Frequency of Testing
356(1)
Test Construction
356(1)
Administering Tests
357(1)
Controlling Cheating
357(1)
Determining the Time Needed to Take a Test
358(1)
Preparing Assessment Items
358(2)
Classification of Assessment Items
358(1)
Performance Testing Can Be Expensive and Time-Intensive
359(1)
General Guidelines for Preparing for Assessment
359(1)
Attaining Content Validity
359(1)
Twelve Types of Assessment Items: Descriptions, Examples, and Guidelines for Preparing and Using
360(13)
Arrangement
361(1)
Completion Drawing
361(1)
Completion Statement
361(1)
Correction
361(1)
Essay
362(1)
Grouping
363(1)
Identification
363(1)
Matching
364(1)
Multiple-Choice
364(2)
Performance
366(1)
Short Explanation
366(3)
True-False
369(2)
Exercise 11.2 Preparing Assessment Items
371(2)
Reporting Student Achievement
373(1)
The Grade Report
373(1)
More about Parental/Guardian Involvement and Home-School Connections
373(5)
Contacting Parents/Guardians
373(2)
Progress Reporting to Parents/Guardians
375(1)
Meeting Parents/Guardians
375(1)
Conferences with Parent/Guardian
376(2)
Dealing with an Angry Parent or Guardian
378(1)
Summary
378(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
379(1)
For Further Reading
379(2)
Assessing Teaching Effectiveness and Continued Professional Development
381(26)
Professional Development through Student Teaching
382(3)
Student Teaching Is the Real Thing
382(1)
Getting Ready for Student Teaching
382(1)
First Impressions
382(1)
Continuing to Get Ready for Student Teaching
382(1)
Student Teaching from the Cooperating Teacher's Point of View
383(1)
Comments from the University Supervisor
383(1)
What to Do Before an Observation
384(1)
What to Do During an Observation
384(1)
What to do During an Observation Conference
385(1)
What to Do After the Supervisor Leaves
385(1)
Finding a Teaching Position
385(5)
Guidelines for Locating a Teaching Position
385(1)
The Professional Career Portfolio (or How to Get Hired by Really Trying)
386(1)
Exercise 12.1 Development of My Professional Portfolio
386(1)
Resources for Locating Teaching Vacancies
387(1)
The Professional Resume
388(1)
The In-Person Interview
388(2)
Professional Development through Reflection and Self-Assessment
390(1)
Professional Development through Mentoring
391(1)
Professional Development through Inservice and Graduate Study
391(1)
Professional Development through Participation in Professional Organizations
391(1)
Professional Development through Communications with Other Teachers
392(1)
Professional Development through Summer and Off-Teaching Work Experience
392(1)
Professional Development through Micro Peer Teaching
393(12)
Exercise 12.2 Pulling it All Together-Micro Peer Teaching III
395(10)
Summary
405(1)
Additional Exercise
405(1)
Questions for Class Discussion
405(1)
For Further Reading
405(2)
Glossary 407(6)
Name Index 413(6)
Subject Index 419

Excerpts

Welcome to the second edition ofSecondary School Teaching: A Guide to Methods and Resources.The purpose of this book is to provide a practical and concise guide for college and university students who are preparing to become competent secondary school teachers. Others who may find it useful are experienced teachers who want to continue developing their teaching skills and curriculum specialists and school administrators who want a current, practical, and concise text of methods, guidelines, and resources for teaching grades 7-12. NEW TO THIS EDITION Chapter 1 is a better organized and more focused overview of secondary school teaching today. A new chapter, Chapter 2, is devoted to secondary school students, their diversity, and specific ways of working with them in the classroom. These topics were part of Chapter 1 in the previous editi6n. Although separated in this book for reasons of organizational clarity, "establishing and managing the learning environment" is an integral and ongoing component of planning and implementing curriculum and instruction. Chapter 4, about establishing a supportive classroom learning environment, is now titled Planning the Classroom Learning Environment, and has moved from Part I to Part II, where it is the first of three chapters about Planning for Instruction. The other two chapters of Part II are "Planning the Curriculum and Its Content" and "Planning the Instructional Unit with Lessons." Part III now includes four rather than five chapters. Other changes made for this edition are mentioned in the paragraphs that follow. OUR BELIEFS: HOW AND WHERE THEY ARE REFLECTED IN THIS BOOK In preparing this book, we saw our tasknotas making the teaching job easier for you--exemplary teaching is never easy--but as improving your teaching effectiveness and providing relevant guidelines and current resources. You may choose from these resources and build upon what works best for you. Nobody can tell you what will work with your students; you will know them best. We do share what we believe to be the best of practice, the most useful of recent research findings, and the richest of experiences. Preparing this new edition presented us with an opportunity to reexamine and share our own beliefs about secondary school teaching. The boldface italic statements present our beliefs and explain how they are embraced in this book. The best learning occurs when the learner actively participates in the process, which includes having ownership in both the process and the product of the learning.Consequently, this book is designed to engage you in hands-on and minds-on learning about effective teaching. For example, rather than simply reading a chapter devoted to the important topic of cooperative learning, in each chapter you will become involved in cooperative and collaborative learning. In essence, via the exercises found in every chapter and on the Companion Website, you will practice cooperative learning, talk about it, practice it some more, and finally, through the process of doing it, learn a great deal about it. This bookinvolvesyou in it. The best strategies for learning about secondary school teaching are those that model the strategies used in exemplary teaching of adolescents.As you will learn, integrated learning is the cornerstone of effective teaching for the twenty-first century, and that is a premise upon which this text is designed. To be most effective a teacher must use an eclectic style in teaching.Rather than focus your attention on particular models of teaching, we emphasize the importance of an eclectic model--that is, one in which you select and integrate the best from various instructional approaches. For example, sometimes you will want to use a direct, expository approach, perhaps by lecturing; more often you will want to use an indirect,


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