9781405135924

Sedimentology and Stratigraphy

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781405135924

  • ISBN10:

    1405135921

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 5/18/2009
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Summary

This fully revised and updated edition introduces the reader to sedimentology and stratigraphic principles, and provides tools for the interpretation of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The processes of formation, transport and deposition of sediment are considered and then applied to develop conceptual models for the full range of sedimentary environments, from deserts to deep seas and reefs to rivers.Different approaches to using stratigraphic principles to date and correlate strata are also considered, in order to provide a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of sedimentology and stratigraphy. The text and figures are designed to be accessible to anyone completely new to the subject, and all of the illustrative material is provided in an accompanying CD-ROM.

Author Biography

Gary Nichols teaches sedimentology and stratigraphy at Royal Holloway University of London, UK, and has also recently taught courses at the University Centre on Svalbard, Norway. His research interests in the analysis of facies and sedimentary basins have taken him to every continent, providing experience of a wide range of sedimentary rocks types of different ages in a variety of depositional settings.

Table of Contents

Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction: sedimentology and stratigraphy
Sedimentary processes
Sedimentary environments and facies
The spectrum of environments and facies
Stratigraphy
The structure of this book
Terrigenous clastic sediments: gravel, sand and mud
Classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks
Gravel and conglomerate
Sand and sandstone
Clay, silt and mudrock
Textures and analysis of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks
Terrigenous clastic sediments: summary
Biogenic, chemical and volcanogenic sediments
Limestone
Evaporite minerals
Cherts
Sedimentary phosphates
Sedimentary ironstone
Carbonaceous (organic) deposits
Volcaniclastic rocks
Processes of transport and sedimentary structures
Transport media
The behaviour of fluids and particles in fluids
Flows, sediment and bedforms
Waves
Mass flows
Mudcracks
Erosional sedimentary structures
Teminology for sedimentary structures and beds
Sedimentary structures and sedimentary environments
Field sedimentology, facies and environments
Field sedimentology
Graphic sedimentary logs
Palaeocurrents
Collection of rock samples
Description of core
Interpreting past depositional environments
Reconstructing palaeoenvironments in space and time
Summary: facies and environments
Continents: sources of sediment
From source of sediment to formation of strata
Mountain building processes
Global climate
Weathering processes
Erosion and transport
Denudation and landscape evolution
Tectonics and denudation
Measuring rates of denudation
Denudation and sediment supply: summary
Glacial environments
Distribution of glacial environments
Glacial ice
Glaciers
Continental glacial deposition
Marine glacial environments
Distribution of glacial deposits
Ice, climate and tectonics
Summary of glacial environments
Aeolian processes
Aeolian transport
Deserts and ergs
Characteristics of wind-blown particles
Aeolian bedforms
Desert environments
Aeolian deposits outside deserts
Summary
Rivers and alluvial fans
Fluvial and alluvial systems
River forms
Floodplain deposition
Architecture of fluvial deposits
Alluvial fans
Fossils in fluvial and alluvial environments
Soils and palaeosols
Fluvial and alluvial fan deposition: summary
Lakes
Lakes and lacustrine environments
Freshwater lakes
Saline Lakes
Ephemeral lakes
Controls on lacustrine deposition
Life in lakes and fossils in lacustrine deposits
Recognition of lacustrine facies
The marine realm: morphology and processes
Divisions of the marine realm
Tides
Wave and storm processes
Thermo-haline and geostrophic currents
Chemical and biochemical sedimentation in oceans
Marine fossils
Trace fossils
Marine environments: summary
Deltas
River mouths, deltas and estuaries
Types of delta
Delta environments and successions
Variations in delta morphology and facies
Deltaic cycles and stratigraphy
Syn-depositional deformation in deltas
Recognition of deltaic deposits
Clastic coasts and estuaries
Coasts
Beaches
Barrier and lagoon systems
Tides and coastal systems
Coastal successions
Estuaries
Fossils in coastal and estuarine environments
Shallow sandy seas
Shallow marine environments of terrigenous clastic deposition
Storm-dominated shallow clastic seas
Tide-dominated clastic shallow seas
Responses to change in sea level
Criteria for the recognition of sandy shallow marine sediments
Shallow marine carbonate and evaporite environments
Coastal environments
Shelf environments
Types of carbonate platform
Evaporitic basins
Deep marine environments
Ocean basins
Submarine Fans
Slope aprons
Contourites
5 Oceanic sediments
Fossils in deep ocean sediments
Recognition of deep ocean deposits: summary
Volcanic environments
Volcanic rocks and sediment
Transport and deposition of volcaniclastic material
Eruption styles
Facies associations in volcanic successions
Volcanic material in other environments
Volcanic rocks in Earth history
Recognition of volcanic deposits: summary
Post-depositional structures and diagenesis
Post-depositional modification of sedimentary layers
Diagenetic processes
Clastic diagenesis
Carbonate diagenesis
Post-depositional changes to evaporites
Diagenesis of volcaniclastic sediments
Formation of coal, oil and gas
Stratigraphy: concepts and lithostratigraphy
Geologic time
Stratigraphic units
Lithostratigraphy
Applications of lithostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
Fossils and stratigraphy
Classification of organisms
Evolutionary trends
Biozones and zone fossils
Taxa used in biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphic correlation
Biostratigraphy in relation to other stratigraphic techniques
Dating and correlation techniques
Dating and correlation techniques
Radiometric dating
Other isotopic and chemical techniques
Magnetostratigraphy
Dating in the Quaternary
Subsurface stratigraphy and sedimentology
Introduction to subsurface stratigraphy and sedimentology
Seismic reflection data
Borehole stratigraphy and sedimentology
Geophysical logging
Subsurface facies and basin analysis
Sequence stratigraphy and sea level changes
Sea level changes and sedimentation
Depositional sequences and systems tracts
Parasequences: components of systems tracts
Carbonate sequence stratigraphy
Sequence stratigraphy in non-marine basins
Alternative schemes in sequence stratigraphy
Applications of sequence stratigraphy
Causes of sea level fluctuations
Summary
Sedimentary basins
Controls on sediment accumulation
Basins related to lithospheric extension
Basins related to subduction
Basins related to crustal loading
Basins related to strike-slip plate boundaries
Complex and hybrid basins
The record of tectonics in stratigraphy
Sedimentary basin analysis
The sedimentary record
References
Index
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