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A learning and reading specialist with over 30 years of experience, Kathleen T. McWhorter applies her knowledge of how students read and understand texts toSeeing the Pattern, a unique new rhetorically arranged reader that offers more help for students than any other reader. Building on proven features from her widely adopted composition textSuccessful College Writing, McWhorter has developed innovative techniques to strengthen students' reading and writing skills and help them see the rhetorical patterns and then use them in their own writing. The result is a visually oriented rhetorical reader that improves upon the genre by offering underprepared students the extra help they need to achieve success in their college-level writing.
KATHLEEN T. MCWHORTER is professor of humanities and director of the Learning Skills Center at Niagara County Community College. She has also been on the faculty of the State University College at Buffalo. She is the author of a number of books on reading and writing skills, including The Writer's Selections, Fourth Edition (2005), Academic Reading, Fifth Edition (2004), Efficient and Flexible Reading, Seventh Edition (2005), Active Reading Skills (2005), Reading Across the Disciplines: College Reading and Beyond, Second Edition (2005), and Successful College Writing, Third Edition (Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006).
Table of Contents
Introduction: Using Seeing the Pattern to Improve Your Writing
PART ONE: SKILLS FOR SUCCESS IN READING AND WRITING 1. A Guide to Active Reading Changing Some Misconceptionsabout Reading How to Read Actively Strategies for Reading Etta Kralovec, No More Pep Rallies! Understanding Difficult Text and Visuals How to Use a Graphic Organizer Using a Summary to Check Your Understanding How to Read Visuals Expanding Your Vocabulary through Reading Four Ways to Improve Your Vocabulary Pay Attention to Allusions and Other Language Features
2. Planning Your Essay Prewriting to Start the Assignment How to Choose and Narrow a Topic Keeping a Journal What You Need to Know about Purpose, Audience, and Point of View Six Ways to Find Ideas to Write About Developing and Supporting Your Thesis Statement What Is a Thesis Statement? How to Develop Your Thesis Statement How to Support Your Thesis Statement with Evidence Students Write Julie Bohet, Sample Questioning and Freewriting
3. Drafting Your Essay The Structure of an Essay Organizing Your Supporting Details How to Select a Method of Organization How to Prepare an Outline or Graphic Organizer Writing Effective Paragraphs What Well-Focused Topic Sentences Must Do How to Achieve Unity and Provide Specific Supporting Details How to Connect Supporting Details with Transitions and Repetition Writing Your Introduction, Conclusion, and Title Writing a Strong Introduction Writing an Effective Conclusion How to Write a Good Title Students Write Julie Bohet, The Language of Music: First Draft
4. Revising and Editing Your Essay Revising Content and Organization Guidelines for Making Revision Easier Determining What to Revise How to Work with Classmates as You Revise Editing and Proofreading How to Improve Your Sentences and Word Choice Seven Common Errors to Avoid Proofreading Your Essay Students Write Julie Bohet, The Language of Music: Revised Essay
PART TWO: READINGS FOR WRITERS 5. Narration: Recounting Events What Is Narration? Alton Fitzgerald White, Right Place, Wrong Face Characteristics of Narrative Essays Visualizing a Narrative Essay Writing a Narrative Essay Planning a Narrative Essay Drafting a Narrative Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Aphonetip Vasavong, You Can Count on Miracles (student essay) Reading a Narrative Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Sherry Amatenstein, Talking a Stranger through the Night Amy Tan, Fish Cheeks Langston Hughes, Salvation Cherokee Paul McDonald, A View from the Bridge Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson (short story)
6. Description: Portraying People, Places, and Things What Is Description? Jeremy MacClancy, Eating Chilli Peppers Characteristics of Descriptive Essays Visualizing a Descriptive Essay Writing a Descriptive Essay Planning a Descriptive Essay Drafting a Descriptive Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Danielle Cruz, I Survived theBlackout of 2003 (student essay) Reading a Descriptive Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Richard Selzer, The Discus Thrower Mary Brave Bird, The Sweat Bath Ritual Eric Liu, Po-Po in Chinatown Gary Soto, Piedra Maya Angelou, Sister Flowers
7. Illustration: Explaining withExamples What Is Illustration? Bill Bryson, Snoopers at Work Characteristics of Illustration Essays Visualizing an Illustration Essay Writing an Illustration Essay Planning an Illustration Essay Drafting an Illustration Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Melissa Parker, Internet Hoaxes: A Multiplying Problem (student essay) Reading an Illustration Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Brent Staples, Just Walk On By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space Rita Kempley, Abs and the Adolescent Geeta Kothari, If You Are What You Eat, Then What Am I? Nell Bernstein, Goin' Gangsta, Choosin' Cholita: Claiming Identity Dorianne Laux, What I Wouldn't Do [poem]
8. Process Analysis: Explaining How Something Works or Is Done What Is Process Analysis? Melissa Russell-Ausley and Tom Harris, How the Oscars Work Characteristics of Process Analysis Essays Visualizing a Process Analysis Essay Writing a Process Analysis Essay Planning a Process Analysis Essay Drafting a Process Analysis Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Kyle Mares, Creating Your Own Web Site (student essay) Reading a Process Analysis Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Matthew Gilbert, You and Improved Nikki Giovanni, Campus Racism 101 Cindy Chupack, Dater's Remorse David Feige, How to Defend Someone You Know Is Guilty Tom and Ray Magliozzi, Inside the Engine
9. Comparison and Contrast: Showing Similarities andDifferences What Are Comparison and Contrast? Joseph Sobran, Patriotism or Nationalism? Characteristics of Comparison and Contrast Essays Visualizing a Comparison and Contrast Essay Writing a Comparison and Contrast Essay Planning a Comparison and Contrast Essay Drafting a Comparison and Contrast Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Heather Gianakos, Border Bites (student essay) Reading a Comparison and Contrast Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Dave Barry, We've Got the Dirt on Guy Brains Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, A Taste of Snow Sharon Begley, East vs. West: One Sees the Big Picture, the Other Is Focused Patricia Raybon, A Case of "Severe Bias" Deborah Tannen, Sex, Lies, and Conversation
10. Classification and Division: Explaining Categories and Parts What Are Classification and Division? Judith Viorst, Friends, Good Friends – Such Good Friends Characteristics of Classification and Division Essays Visualizing a Classification or Division Essay Writing a Classification or Division Essay Planning a Classification or Division Essay Drafting a Classification or Division Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Ryan Porter, Motor Heads (student essay) Reading a Classification or Division Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings David Bodanis, A Brush with Reality: Surprises in the Tube Elizabeth Wray, The Seven Ages of Walking Scott Russell Sanders, The Men We Carry in Our Minds Martin Luther King Jr., The Ways of Meeting Oppression Cindy C. Combs, Profile of a Terrorist
11. Definition: Explaining What You Mean What Is Definition? Mary Pipher, Cultural Brokers Characteristics of Definition Essays Visualizing a Definition Essay Writing a Definition Essay Planning a Definition Essay Drafting a Definition Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Geneva Lamberth, Eating Disorders: Serious and Legitimate Illnesses (student essay) Reading a Definition Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Janice Castro, Dan Cook, Christina Garcia, Spanglish Shelly Branch, One Term Says It All: "Shut Up!" William Plasencia, Web Logs Get Personal Gloria Naylor, The Meanings of a Word Gina Kolata, Spinning
12. Cause and Effect: Using Reasons and Results to Explain What Are Causes and Effects? Deb Aronson, How Nature Heals Us Characteristics of Cause and Effect Essays Visualizing a Cause and Effect Essay Writing a Cause and Effect Essay Planning a Cause and Effect Essay Drafting a Cause and Effect Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Nathan Nugyen, Gambling on Our Future (student essay) Reading a Cause and Effect Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Clive Thompson, The Honesty Virus Susan Warren and Melanie Trottman, When Plug Is Pulled on the Digital Age, the Basics Black Out Ruth Russell, The Wounds That Can't Be Stitched Up Tom Rosenberg, Changing My Name after Sixty Years Terry Tempest Williams, The Clan of One-Breasted Women
13. Argumentation: Supporting a Claim What Is an Argument? Wilbert Rideau, Why Prisons Don't Work Characteristics of Argument Essays Visualizing an Argument Essay Writing an Argument Essay Planning an Argument Essay Drafting an Argument Essay Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Rudy De La Torre, Ethnic Definitions Hinder Society's Enlightenment (student essay) Reading an Argument Essay What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Carol Bernstein Ferry, A Good Death Frank DeFord, Athletics 101: A Change in Eligibility Rules Is Long Overdue Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream Organ Donation: Should People Be Allowed to Sell Their Organs? Bruce Gottlieb, How Much Is That Kidney in the Window? Gilbert Meilaender, "Strip-Mining" the Dead: When Human Organs Are for Sale The Effect of Media on Children: Is Violent Media Harmful? Dave Grossman and Gloria DeGaetano, It's Important to Feel Something When You Kill Gerard Jones, Violent Media Is Good for Kids Civil Liberties: Does the Patriot Act Go Too Far? Zara Gelsey, Who's Reading over Your Shoulder? Ramesh Ponnuru, Fears about the Patriot Act Are Misguided
14. Combining Patterns: Using Variety to Achieve Your Purposes What Is Combining Patterns? Anna Quindlen, We Are Here for Andrea Characteristics of Essays That Combine Patterns Visualizing an Essay That Combines Patterns Writing an Essay That Combines Patterns Planning an Essay That Combines Patterns Drafting an Essay That Combines Patterns Analyzing and Revising Editing Tips and Troublespots Students Write Robin Ferguson, The Value of Volunteering (student essay) Reading an Essay That Combines Patterns What to Look for, Highlight, and Annotate How to Find Ideas to Write About Readings Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving John Leo, The Good-News Generation Chitra Divakaruni, Houseguest Hell Jeffrey Rosen, Naked Terror Shirley Jackson, The Lottery (short story)
PART THREE: STUDENT RESOURCE GUIDE 15. Finding and Using Sources When Should You Use Sources? How to Locate Sources Locating Useful Library Sources Conducting Research on the Internet How to Choose and Evaluate Sources Choosing Relevant Sources Choosing Reliable Sources Evaluating Internet Sources Taking Notes and Avoiding Plagiarism Extracting Information through Note-Taking Avoiding Plagiarism Documenting Your Sources: MLA Style In-Text Citations Works Cited List Students Write Nicholas Destino, Do Animals Have Emotions? (student essay)
16. Keys to Academic Success Developing Skills for Success Plan Your Valuable Time Use Your Course Syllabus Discover College Services Present Yourself as a Successful Student Participate in Class Communicate with Your Instructors Take Effective Class Notes and Use Them Well Organizing and Managing Your Life Organize a Writing-Study Area Stay Focused and "Study Smarter" Manage Stress