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Sense and Nonsense about Crime and Drugs : A Policy Guide,9780534616540
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Sense and Nonsense about Crime and Drugs : A Policy Guide

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534616540

ISBN10:
0534616542
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/17/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $129.66

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Summary

Walker's SENSE AND NONSENSE was the first book to challenge common misconceptions about crime and remains the most effective at doing so. Described as a "masterful critique" of American policies ? on everything from crime control to guns to drugs ? Walker cuts through myths and political rhetoric and confronts both conservative and liberal propositions relative to current research and proven effectiveness. The result is a research-based, lucid work that stimulates critical thinking and enlivens class discussions. Walker captures the complexity of the administration of justice while providing students with a clear sense of the general patterns.

Table of Contents

Propositions xviii
Foreword xxi
Preface xxiii
I THINKING CLEARLY ABOUT CRIME
1(82)
Crime and Policy: A Complex Problem
3(28)
Crime at a 30-Year Low
3(4)
Is It Genuine?
4(1)
A Notable Exception
5(1)
Explaining the Crime Drop
6(1)
Contextual vs. Policy Factors
6(1)
The Purpose of This Book
7(1)
The New Standard: Evidence-Based Crime Policy
7(4)
Why the Need for Evidence-Based Crime Policy?
8(2)
The New Standards of Evidence-Based Crime Policy
10(1)
Our Approach to Evaluating Crime Policies
11(1)
Understanding the American Crime Problem
11(2)
America's Two Crime Problems
12(1)
The Bait and Switch Problem
13(1)
Waging War on Crime
13(5)
Race, Ethnicity, and the War on Crime
15(1)
The War on Crime and the Criminal Justice System
16(1)
The Futility of Waging ``War'' on Crime
16(2)
Crime Policy: A Plague of Nonsense
18(3)
The Ground Rules
18(1)
Thinking Clearly about Crime Prevention
19(1)
The Question of Reasonable Goals
19(1)
The New Focus on Communities and Crime
20(1)
Contextual Factors: Recent Social Trends
20(1)
Guilty: Liberals and Conservatives
21(1)
Crime Control Theology
21(6)
Conservative Theology
22(2)
Liberal Theology
24(1)
A Word about Rules
25(1)
Ideological Confusion: Switching Sides
26(1)
Conclusion
27(1)
Notes
27(4)
Models of Criminal Justice
31(16)
The Crime Commission's Model
33(1)
The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
34(10)
Celebrated Cases: The Top Layer
35(3)
Serious Felonies: The Second and Third Layers
38(1)
The Impact of Prior Record
39(1)
The Impact of the Victim/Offender Relationship
39(3)
Prior Relationship: A Policy Dilemma
42(1)
Hard or Soft on Crime? Unraveling the Paradox
42(1)
The Lower Depths: The Fourth Layer
43(1)
Conclusion
44(1)
Notes
45(2)
The Going Rate
47(21)
Evaluating the System
47(1)
The Funnel
48(9)
Rejections and Dismissals: Loophole?
51(2)
Punishing Offenders
53(3)
An International Perspective on the Going Rate
56(1)
The Courtroom Work Group
57(6)
An Administrative System of Justice
58(2)
The Limits of Reform
60(1)
The Dynamics of Reform
61(1)
Criminal Justice Thermodynamics
62(1)
Wrongful Convictions: How Many Mistakes?
63(2)
Conclusion
65(1)
Notes
65(3)
The Career Criminal
68(15)
Wolfgang's Birth Cohort
68(2)
Other Cohort Studies
70(1)
Defining Our Terms and Concepts
71(1)
From Research to Policy
72(1)
Application Problems
72(1)
The Prediction Problem
73(5)
The Work Study
74(1)
The Texas Death Row Inmate Study
75(1)
The Federal Sentencing Guidelines
76(1)
The Rand Selective Incapacitation Study
76(2)
How Much Crime Do They Commit?
78(2)
Conclusion
80(1)
Notes
80(3)
II ``GET TOUGH'': THE CONSERVATIVE ATTACK ON CRIME
83(94)
Unleash the Cops!
85(24)
More Cops on the Street
85(7)
The Police and Crime
86(2)
Hiring More Police: The COPS Program
88(1)
Cost-Effective?
89(1)
The Deterrent Effect of Patrol: Lessons of Kansas City
89(1)
Understanding Deterrence
90(1)
Traditional Police Crime-Fighting Strategies
91(1)
Faster Response Time
92(3)
Innovations in Policing
93(1)
Case Study: Smart in Oakland
94(1)
Zero-Tolerance in New York City
94(1)
More Detectives
95(4)
Myths and Realities of Detective Work
95(3)
Targeting Career Criminals
98(1)
Eliminate the ``Technicalities''
99(6)
Repeal the Exclusionary Rule
99(4)
Abolish Miranda
103(2)
Conclusion
105(1)
Notes
105(4)
Deter the Criminals
109(23)
Deterrence Theory
109(3)
Assumptions Underlying Deterrence
110(1)
From Theory to Practice: Four Problems
111(1)
Scare the *%!#@ Out of Them!
112(2)
A Famous but Failed Program
112(1)
The Risk of Arrest: Some Preliminary Evidence
113(1)
The Death Penalty
114(4)
Sorting Out the Issues
114(1)
Executions and Crime: Sellin's Studies
114(1)
Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet
115(2)
Delays and Deterrence
117(1)
``Brutalization'' and ``Resetting''
117(1)
Summary
118(1)
Deterring the Drunk Driver
118(8)
The ``Killer Drunk'' and Other Myths
118(1)
Deterrence and Drunk Driving
119(3)
Drunk Drivers in Court
122(1)
Crackdown Costs
123(1)
Alternative Strategies for Dealing with Traffic Fatalities
124(2)
Summary
126(1)
Deterring Burglars and Robbers
126(2)
The Rand Inmate Survey
127(1)
Deterring Domestic Violence
128(1)
Conclusion
129(1)
Notes
129(3)
Lock 'Em Up
132(26)
Getting Criminals Off the Street
132(1)
Preventive Detention
133(6)
A Short History of Bail Reform
133(1)
An Early Test: Preventive Detention in Washington, DC
134(1)
The 1984 Federal Bail Reform Act
135(1)
Crime on Bail: Myths and Reality
136(1)
The Prediction Problem Revisited
137(2)
Speedy Trial: A Better Way
139(1)
Incapacitation
139(7)
Selective Incapacitation: The Rand Formula
140(2)
Gross Incapacitation: Zedlewski's New Math
142(2)
Incapacitation: A Sober Estimate
144(1)
Let Them Out, but Keep Them Away from Us: Megan's Laws
145(1)
Mandatory Sentencing
146(5)
Two Case Studies
146(4)
Mandatory Sentencing and Crime
150(1)
Three Strikes---We Are All Out
151(3)
Implementation
152(1)
Impact on Crime
152(1)
Summary: Striking Out
153(1)
Conclusion
154(1)
Notes
155(3)
Close the Loopholes
158(19)
Prosecute the Career Criminal
158(3)
Getting Tough in San Diego
158(2)
Other Prosecution Programs
160(1)
Abolish the Insanity Defense
161(6)
Sorting Out the Issues
162(1)
The Reality of the Insanity Defense
162(1)
Aftermath of Acquittal
163(1)
Danger to the Community
164(1)
The Impact of Abolition
164(3)
Abolish Plea Bargaining
167(4)
Alaska Bans Plea Bargaining
168(2)
Other Experiments
170(1)
In Search of Plea Bargains
170(1)
Restrict Appeals
171(2)
Limiting Appeals
172(1)
The Reality of Postconviction Appeals
172(1)
Conclusion
173(1)
Notes
174(3)
III THE MIDDLE GROUND: GUNS AND VICTIMS
177(38)
Protect Crime Victims
179(14)
The Victims' Rights Movement
179(4)
New Laws and Programs
180(1)
Critics of the Movement
181(1)
Sorting Out the Issues
181(1)
Criteria for Evaluation
182(1)
Victim Assistance Programs
183(2)
Police/Victim Recontact
185(1)
Victim Compensation
185(1)
Expanding the Victim's Voice
186(3)
The Impact of Victims' Voice Laws
187(2)
Speedy Trials
189(1)
Getting Tough on Crime
189(2)
Mandatory Arrest for Domestic Violence
190(1)
Conclusion
191(1)
Notes
191(2)
Control Gun Crimes
193(22)
The Problem with Guns---and Gun Policy
193(2)
The Policy Questions
193(2)
Gun Ownership and Gun-Related Violence
195(1)
Types of Guns
195(1)
Gun Ownership
195(1)
Handgun-Related Violence
195(1)
Gun-Related Laws
196(1)
Policy Attitudes toward Gun Control
196(1)
Ban Handguns
197(4)
Ban Possession
197(1)
The Limits of Banning Handguns
198(1)
Ban Bullets
198(1)
Ban the Manufacture and Importation of Handguns
199(1)
Buy Back Handguns
199(1)
Ban Saturday Night Specials
200(1)
Ban Assault Weapons
200(1)
Summary
201(1)
Regulate the Sale and Possession of Handguns
201(2)
Regulate Gun Dealers
201(1)
Background Checks: The Brady Law
202(1)
Summary
203(1)
Restrict the Use of Handguns
203(5)
Restrict the Carrying of Handguns
204(1)
Guns at Airports and Schools
205(1)
Get Guns off the Street: The Kansas City Experiment
206(1)
The Boston Gun Project
207(1)
Summary
207(1)
More Guns? Right-to-Carry Laws
207(1)
Handguns as Self-Protection
208(1)
Get Tough on Weapons Offenses
208(3)
Getting Tough in Detroit
209(1)
Project Exile in Richmond
210(1)
Conclusion
211(1)
Notes
211(4)
IV REFORM: THE LIBERAL PRESCRIPTION
215(44)
Treat 'Em!
217(27)
Rehabilitating Criminals
217(2)
The Philosophy of Rehabilitation
217(1)
Old and New Programs
218(1)
The Politics of Rehabilitation: The Willie Horton Furlough
218(1)
The ``Nothing Works'' Controversy
219(2)
Was Martinson Right?
220(1)
The Prediction Problem Revisited
220(1)
Traditional Rehabilitation Programs
221(10)
Diversion
221(5)
Probation
226(2)
Parole
228(3)
The New Intermediate Punishments
231(6)
Boot Camps
232(2)
Intensive Parole Supervision
234(1)
Home Confinement and Electronic Monitoring
235(1)
Lessons of the Intermediate Punishment Movement
236(1)
Confused Goals
236(1)
Innovative Roles for Probation and Parole
237(1)
Special Treatment Programs
237(1)
Treatment for Domestic Violence Batterers
237(1)
A Conservative Variation: Faith-Based Treatment
238(2)
Sorting Out the Issues
239(1)
Are Faith-Based Programs Effective?
239(1)
Offender Reentry
240(1)
Conclusion: Any Future for Rehabilitation?
240(1)
Notes
241(3)
Gain Compliance with the Law
244(15)
The Basis of an Orderly Society
244(3)
Compliance with the Law
244(1)
Legitimacy and Compliance
245(1)
Does Legitimacy Matter? The Evidence
245(2)
Building Legitimacy
247(2)
Building Outreach to Citizens and Communities
247(1)
Eliminating Bias and the Perception of Bias
248(1)
Decriminalization
249(7)
New Perspective on an Old Issue
249(1)
The Rationale for Decriminalization
250(2)
The Terms of the Debate
252(1)
The Potential Impact of Decriminalization
253(2)
Summary
255(1)
Conclusion
256(1)
Notes
256(3)
V THE DRUG PROBLEM
259(32)
Sense and Nonsense About Drugs
261(30)
The Drug Problem
261(5)
Hysteria over Drugs
261(1)
Myths and Realities about Drugs and Crime
262(1)
The Extent of Illegal Drug Use
262(2)
The Drug--Crime Connection
264(1)
The Drug Policy Choices
265(1)
The War on Drugs: Policy and Consequences
266(5)
The Impact of the War on Drugs
267(1)
Police Crackdowns
268(1)
Interdiction and Eradication
269(1)
Tougher Sentencing
270(1)
Limits of the Criminal Law: The Lessons of History
271(2)
The Lessons of History
272(1)
When Social Control Does Work
272(1)
Demand Reduction: Drug Education
273(4)
``Just Say No''
273(2)
Dare: Success or Failure?
275(1)
But Some Education Programs Do Work
276(1)
Drug Treatment
277(4)
Varieties of Treatment
277(1)
Does Treatment Work?
278(2)
But Something Positive Has Happened
280(1)
Legalize Drugs?
281(4)
Varieties of Legalization
281(4)
Conclusion
285(1)
Notes
286(5)
VI CONCLUSIONS
291(28)
Crime and Community: Putting It All Together
293(26)
The New Community Focus on Crime Control
293(5)
The Goals of This Chapter
294(1)
The Theoretical Background
295(1)
The Empirical Basis
296(1)
The Basic Paradigm: Operation Cease Fire in Boston
296(2)
Innovations in Policing
298(3)
Case Study: Problem-Oriented Policing in Jersey City
299(1)
Unanswered Questions about the Future
300(1)
Community Prosecution
301(3)
The Concept of Community Prosecution
301(1)
The New York Midtown Community Court
302(1)
Evaluation of the MCC
303(1)
A Critical Look at Community Prosecution
303(1)
Offender Reentry Programs
304(2)
The Importance of Offender Reentry
304(1)
A Closer Look at Returning Prisoners
305(1)
What's Really New? A Close Look at Joan Petersilia's Recommendations
306(5)
Investing in Prison-Based Rehabilitation Programs
306(1)
Restoring Discretionary Parole Release
307(1)
Front-Loading Postrelease Services
308(1)
Eliminate Restrictions on Convicted Offenders
309(1)
Summary
310(1)
Proactive Parole Supervision
311(1)
Restorative Justice
312(2)
Restorative Justice in Operation
312(2)
Conclusion
314(1)
Notes
314(5)
Index 319


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