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A Short Guide to Writing About Biology,9780673525031

A Short Guide to Writing About Biology

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780673525031

ISBN10:
0673525031
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/1/1996
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $27.60
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Summary

Provides students with the tools needed to be successful writers in college and their profession, while emphasizing writing as a way of examining, evaluating, and sharing ideas. Students are taught how to read critically, study, evaluate and report data, and how to communicate information clearly and logically. Teaches students to think as biologists and to express ideas clearly and concisely through their writing. Courses preparing students for a profession in the field of biology.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction and General Rules
1(18)
What Do Biologists Write About, and Why?
1(3)
The Keys to Success
4(11)
On Using Computers in Writing
15(2)
On Using Computers for Data Storage, Analysis, and Presentation
17(1)
Summary
17(2)
General Advice on Reading and Note-Taking
19(33)
Effective Reading
19(2)
Reading Data
21(5)
Reading Text
26(2)
Plagiarism and Note-Taking
28(8)
Locating Useful Sources
36(1)
Using Science Citation Index
37(1)
Using Zoological Record
38(4)
Using Biological Abstracts
42(3)
Searching Computer Databases
45(4)
Prowling the Internet
49(1)
Using Current Contents
50(1)
Closing Thoughts
51(1)
Summary
51(1)
Writing Laboratory Reports
52(89)
Why Are You Doing This?
52(1)
Organizing a Laboratory or Field Notebook
53(5)
Components of The Laboratory Report
58(2)
Where To Start
60(1)
Writing The Materials and Methods Section
60(1)
Determining the Correct Level of Detail
61(4)
A Model Materials and Methods Section
65(1)
Writing The Results Section
66(1)
Summarizing Data Using Tables and Graphs
67(2)
Constructing a Summary Table
69(1)
To Graph or Not to Graph
69(7)
Preparing Graphs
76(2)
Connecting The Dots
78(5)
Bar Graphs and Histograms
83(2)
Preparing Tables
85(2)
Self-Sufficient Graphs and Tables
87(1)
Verbalizing Results
87(4)
Writing About Numbers
91(2)
Writing about Negative Results
93(1)
In Anticipation
93(2)
Citing Sources
95(3)
Writing The Discussion Section
98(1)
Expectations
99(1)
Explaining Unexpected Results
100(2)
Analysis of Specific Examples
102(1)
Example 1
102(1)
Student Presentation
102(1)
Analysis
103(1)
Example 2
104(1)
Example 3
105(1)
Student Presentation
105(1)
Analysis
106(1)
Example 4
106(1)
Student Presentation
107(1)
Analysis
108(1)
Writing The Introduction Section
108(1)
Stating the Question
109(1)
An Aside: Studies Versus Experiments
110(1)
Providing the Background
111(5)
Deciding On a Title
116(2)
Writing An Abstract
118(1)
Preparing An Acknowledgments Section
119(1)
Preparing The Literature Cited Section
120(1)
Listing the References
120(2)
Listing Journal References
122(1)
Listing Items From The World Wide Web
122(1)
Listing Book References
122(1)
Listing an Article from a Book
122(1)
Listing a Laboratory Manual or Handout
122(2)
A Brief Discourse on Statistical Analysis
124(1)
What You Need to Know about Tomatoes, Coins, and Random Events
124(3)
Establishing a Null Hypothesis
127(1)
Conducting the Analysis and Interpreting the Results
128(5)
Summary
133(1)
Incorporating Statistics into Your Laboratory Report
134(1)
Example 1
134(1)
Example 2
135(1)
Preparing Papers For Formal Publication
136(2)
Checklist For The Final Draft Of Your Laboratory Report
138(3)
Writing Summaries and Critiques
141(11)
Writing the First Draft
142(1)
Writing the Summary
143(1)
Sample Student Summary
144(2)
Analysis of Student Summary
146(1)
The Critique
147(3)
Analysis of Student Critique
150(1)
Concluding Thoughts
151(1)
Writing Essays and Term Papers
152(12)
Why Bother?
153(1)
Getting Started
154(1)
Researching your Topic
155(1)
Writing the Paper
155(5)
Example 1
160(1)
Example 2
160(1)
Citing Sources
161(2)
Creating a Title
163(1)
Revising
163(1)
Writing Research Proposals
164(10)
Researching your Topic
165(2)
Writing the Proposal
167(1)
Introduction
167(2)
Background
169(1)
Example 1
169(2)
Example 2
171(1)
Proposed Research
172(1)
Citing References and Preparing the Literature Cited Section
173(1)
The Life of a Real Research Proposal
173(1)
Writing for a General Audience: Science Journalism
174(9)
Science Journalism Based on Published Research
174(5)
Journalism Based on an Interview
179(4)
Preparing Oral Presentations
183(12)
Talking About Published Research Papers
184(1)
Preparing the Talk
184(3)
Giving the Talk
187(2)
Talking about Original Research
189(1)
Talking about Proposed Research
190(1)
The Listener's Responsibility
190(1)
Preparing Effective Slides and Overheads
191(4)
Writing Letters of Application
195(14)
Before you Start
196(1)
Preparing the Resume
196(3)
Preparing the Cover Letter
199(8)
Recruiting Effective Letters of Recommendation
207(2)
Revising
209(42)
Revising for Content
210(3)
Revising for Clarity
213(4)
The Dangers of ``It''
217(3)
Revising for Completeness
220(1)
Original Version
221(1)
Revision 1
222(1)
Revision 2
222(1)
Revising For Conciseness
222(2)
First Commandment: Eliminate Unnecessary Prepositions
224(1)
Second Commandment: Avoid Weak Verbs
225(1)
Third Commandment: Do Not Overuse the Passive Voice
226(2)
Fourth Commandment: Make the Organism the Agent of the Action
228(1)
Revising for Flow
229(4)
Revising for Teleology And Anthropomorphism
233(1)
Revising for Spelling Errors
234(1)
Revising for Grammar and Proper word Usage
235(6)
Becoming a Good Editor
241(1)
Giving Criticism
242(3)
Receiving Criticism
245(1)
Fine-Tuning
245(1)
Example
246(1)
Sentences in Need of Revision
246(5)
Answering Essay Questions
251(7)
Writing a Poster Presentation
258(9)
Layout of The Poster
261(2)
Making The Poster
263(4)
Appendix A Means, Variances, Standard Deviations, Standard Errors, and 95% Confidence Intervals 267(3)
Appendix B Commonly Used Abbreviations 270(2)
Appendix C Suggested References for Further Reading 272(2)
Appendix D Revised Sample Sentences 274(2)
Appendix E The Revised Sample Sentences in Final Form 276(2)
Appendix F Some Computer Software for the Biological Sciences 278(3)
Index 281


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