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Signal Processing and Integrated Circuits

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780470710265

ISBN10:
0470710268
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
4/23/2012
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $96.00

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This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 4/23/2012.
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Summary

This book provides a balanced account of analog, digital and mixed-mode signal processing with applications in telecommunications. Part I Perspective gives an overview of the areas of Systems on a Chip (Soc) and mobile communication which are used to demonstrate the complementary relationship between analog and digital systems. Part II Analog (continuous-time) and Digital Signal Processing contains both fundamental and advanced analysis, and design techniques, of analog and digital systems. This includes analog and digital filter design; fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms; stochastic signals; linear estimation and adaptive filters. Part III Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal Processing covers basic MOS transistor operation and fabrication through to the design of complex integrated circuits such as high performance Op Amps, Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTA's) and Gm-C circuits. Part IV Switched-capacitor and Mixed-mode Signal Processing outlines the design of switched-capacitor filters, and concludes with sigma-delta data converters as an extensive application of analog and digital signal processing · Contains the fundamentals and advanced techniques of continuous-time and discrete-time signal processing. · Presents in detail the design of analog MOS integrated circuits for signal processing, with application to the design of switched-capacitor filters. · Uses the comprehensive design of integrated sigma-delta data converters to illustrate and unify the techniques of signal processing. · Includes solved examples, end of chapter problems and MATLABŪ throughout the book, to help readers understand the mathematical complexities of signal processing. The treatment of the topic is at the senior undergraduate to graduate and professional levels, with sufficient introductory material for the book to be used as a self-contained reference.

Table of Contents

About the Author xv

Preface xvii

Part I PERSPECTIVE

1 Analog, Digital and Mixed-mode Signal Processing 3

1.1 Digital Signal Processing 3

1.2 Moore’s Law and the “Cleverness” Factor 3

1.3 System on a Chip 3

1.4 Analog and Mixed-mode Signal Processing 4

1.5 Scope 5

Part II ANALOG (CONTINUOUS-TIME) AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

2 Analog Continuous-time Signals and Systems 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 The Fourier Series in Signal Analysis and Function Approximation 9

2.2.1 Definitions 9

2.2.2 The Time and Discrete Frequency Domains 10

2.2.3 Convolution 12

2.2.4 Parseval’s Theorem and Power Spectrum 12

2.2.5 The Gibbs’ Phenomenon 12

2.2.6 Window Functions 13

2.3 The Fourier Transformation and Generalized Signals 14

2.3.1 Definitions and Properties 14

2.3.2 Parseval’s Theorem and Energy Spectra 16

2.3.3 Correlation Functions 17

2.3.4 The Unit Impulse and Generalized Signals 17

2.3.5 The Impulse Response and System Function 18

2.3.6 Periodic Signals 19

2.3.7 The Uncertainty Principle 19

2.4 The Laplace Transform and Analog Systems 19

2.4.1 The Complex Frequency 19

2.4.2 Properties of the Laplace Transform 21

2.4.3 The System Function 22

2.5 Elementary Signal Processing Building Blocks 24

2.5.1 Realization of the Elementary Building Blocks using Operational Amplifier Circuits 24

2.6 Realization of Analog System Functions 29

2.6.1 General Principles and the Use of Op Amp Circuits 29

2.6.2 Realization Using OTAs and GmC Circuits 32

2.7 Conclusion 34

Problems 34

3 Design of Analog Filters 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Ideal Filters 39

3.3 Amplitude-oriented Design 43

3.3.1 Maximally Flat Response in both Pass-band and Stop-band 44

3.3.2 Chebyshev Response 46

3.3.3 Elliptic Function Response 48

3.4 Frequency Transformations 49

3.4.1 Low-pass to Low-pass Transformation 50

3.4.2 Low-pass to High-pass Transformation 50

3.4.3 Low-pass to Band-pass Transformation 50

3.4.4 Low-pass to Band-stop Transformation 51

3.5 Examples 52

3.6 Phase-oriented Design 54

3.6.1 Phase and Delay Functions 54

3.6.2 Maximally Flat Delay Response 56

3.7 Passive Filters 58

3.8 Active Filters 59

3.9 Use of MATLAB® for the Design of Analog Filters 62

3.9.1 Butterworth Filters 62

3.9.2 Chebyshev Filters 63

3.9.3 Elliptic Filters 63

3.9.4 Bessel Filters 64

3.10 Examples of the use of MATLAB® 65

3.11 A Comprehensive Application: Pulse Shaping for Data Transmission 67

3.12 Conclusion 70

Problems 72

4 Discrete Signals and Systems 75

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Digitization of Analog Signals 75

4.2.1 Sampling 76

4.2.2 Quantization and Encoding 84

4.3 Discrete Signals and Systems 85

4.4 Digital Filters 87

4.5 Conclusion 92

Problems 93

5 Design of Digital Filters 95

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 General Considerations 95

5.3 Amplitude-oriented Design of IIR Filters 98

5.3.1 Low-pass Filters 98

5.3.2 High-pass Filters 105

5.3.3 Band-pass Filters 107

5.3.4 Band-stop Filters 108

5.4 Phase-oriented Design of IIR Filters 108

5.4.1 General Considerations 108

5.4.2 Maximally Flat Group-delay Response 109

5.5 FIR Filters 111

5.5.1 The Exact Linear Phase Property 111

5.5.2 Fourier-coefficient Filter Design 118

5.5.3 Monotonic Amplitude Response with the Optimum Number of Constraints 128

5.5.4 Optimum Equiripple Response in both Passband and Stopband 128

5.6 Comparison Between IIR and FIR Filters 133

5.7 Use of MATLAB® for the Design of Digital Filters 133

5.7.1 Butterworth IIR Filters 134

5.7.2 Chebyshev IIR Filters 136

5.7.3 Elliptic IIR Filters 138

5.7.4 Realization of the Filter 140

5.7.5 Linear Phase FIR Filters 140

5.8 A Comprehensive Application: Pulse Shaping for Data Transmission 142

5.8.1 Optimal Design 142

5.8.2 Use of MATLAB® for the Design of Data Transmission Filters 144

5.9 Conclusion 146

Problems 146

6 The Fast Fourier Transform and its Applications 149

6.1 Introduction 149

6.2 Periodic Signals 150

6.3 Non-periodic Signals 153

6.4 The Discrete Fourier Transform 157

6.5 The Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms 160

6.5.1 Decimation-in-time Fast Fourier Transform 161

6.5.2 Decimation-in-frequency Fast Fourier Transform 166

6.5.3 Radix 4 Fast Fourier Transform 168

6.6 Properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform 170

6.6.1 Linearity 170

6.6.2 Circular Convolution 170

6.6.3 Shifting 171

6.6.4 Symmetry and Conjugate Pairs 172

6.6.5 Parseval’s Relation and Power Spectrum 173

6.6.6 Circular Correlation 174

6.6.7 Relation to the z -transform 175

6.7 Spectral Analysis Using the FFT 176

6.7.1 Evaluation of the Fourier Integral 176

6.7.2 Evaluation of the Fourier Coefficients 178

6.8 Spectral Windows 180

6.8.1 Continuous-time Signals 180

6.8.2 Discrete-time Signals 184

6.9 Fast Convolution, Filtering and Correlation Using the FFT 184

6.9.1 Circular (Periodic) Convolution 184

6.9.2 Non-periodic Convolution 185

6.9.3 Filtering and Sectioned Convolution 185

6.9.4 Fast Correlation 188

6.10 Use of MATLAB® 190

6.11 Conclusion 190

Problems 190

7 Stochastic Signals and Power Spectra 193

7.1 Introduction 193

7.2 Random Variables 193

7.2.1 Probability Distribution Function 193

7.2.2 Probability Density Function 194

7.2.3 Joint Distributions 195

7.2.4 Statistical Parameters 195

7.3 Analog Stochastic Processes 198

7.3.1 Statistics of Stochastic Processes 198

7.3.2 Stationary Processes 200

7.3.3 Time Averages 201

7.3.4 Ergodicity 201

7.3.5 Power Spectra of Stochastic Signals 203

7.3.6 Signals through Linear Systems 207

7.4 Discrete-time Stochastic Processes 209

7.4.1 Statistical Parameters 209

7.4.2 Stationary Processes 209

7.5 Power Spectrum Estimation 213

7.5.1 Continuous-time Signals 213

7.5.2 Discrete-time Signals 216

7.6 Conclusion 217

Problems 217

8 Finite Word-length Effects in Digital Signal Processors 219

8.1 Introduction 219

8.2 Input Signal Quantization Errors 221

8.3 Coefficient Quantization Effects 225

8.4 Effect of Round-off Accumulation 227

8.4.1 Round-off Accumulation without Coefficient Quantization 228

8.4.2 Round-off Accumulation with Coefficient Quantization 235

8.5 Auto-oscillations: Overflow and Limit Cycles 238

8.5.1 Overflow Oscillations 238

8.5.2 Limit Cycles and the Dead-band Effect 241

8.6 Conclusion 244

Problems 244

9 Linear Estimation, System Modelling and Adaptive Filters 245

9.1 Introduction 245

9.2 Mean-square Approximation 245

9.2.1 Analog Signals 245

9.2.2 Discrete Signals 247

9.3 Linear Estimation, Modelling and Optimum Filters 248

9.4 Optimum Minimum Mean-square Error Analog Estimation 250

9.4.1 Smoothing by Non-causal Wiener Filters 250

9.4.2 Causal Wiener Filters 253

9.5 The Matched Filter 253

9.6 Discrete-time Linear Estimation 255

9.6.1 Non-recursive Wiener Filtering 256

9.6.2 Adaptive Filtering Using the Minimum Mean Square Error Gradient Algorithm 260

9.6.3 The Least Mean Square Error Gradient Algorithm 263

9.7 Adaptive IIR Filtering and System Modelling 263

9.8 An Application of Adaptive Filters: Echo Cancellers for Satellite Transmission of Speech Signals 266

9.9 Conclusion 267

Part III ANALOG MOS INTEGRATED CIRCUITS FOR SIGNAL PROCESSING

10 MOS Transistor Operation and Integrated Circuit Fabrication 271

10.1 Introduction 271

10.2 The MOS Transistor 271

10.2.1 Operation 272

10.2.2 The Transconductance 276

10.2.3 Channel Length Modulation 278

10.2.4 PMOS Transistors and CMOS Circuits 279

10.2.5 The Depletion-type MOSFET 280

10.3 Integrated Circuit Fabrication 280

10.3.1 Wafer Preparation 281

10.3.2 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 281

10.3.3 Oxidation 283

10.3.4 Photolithography 285

10.3.5 Chemical Vapour Deposition 286

10.3.6 Metallization 287

10.3.7 MOSFET Processing Steps 287

10.4 Layout and Area Considerations for IC MOSFETs 288

10.5 Noise In MOSFETs 290

10.5.1 Shot Noise 290

10.5.2 Thermal Noise 290

10.5.3 Flicker (1/f) Noise 290

10.5.4 Modelling of Noise 290

Problems 291

11 Basic Integrated Circuits Building Blocks 293

11.1 Introduction 293

11.2 MOS Active Resistors and Load Devices 293

11.3 MOS Amplifiers 295

11.3.1 NMOS Amplifier with Enhancement Load 295

11.3.2 Effect of the Substrate 296

11.3.3 NMOS Amplifier with Depletion Load 297

11.3.4 The Source Follower 298

11.4 High Frequency Considerations 300

11.4.1 Parasitic Capacitances 300

11.4.2 The Cascode Amplifier 303

11.5 The Current Mirror 304

11.6 The CMOS Amplifier 305

11.7 Conclusion 308

Problems 308

12 Two-stage CMOS Operational Amplifiers 311

12.1 Introduction 311

12.2 Op Amp Performance Parameters 311

12.3 Feedback Amplifier Fundamentals 314

12.4 The CMOS Differential Amplifier 316

12.5 The Two-stage CMOS Op Amp 321

12.5.1 The dc Voltage Gain 322

12.5.2 The Frequency Response 322

12.5.3 The Nulling Resistor 323

12.5.4 The Slew Rate and Settling Time 325

12.5.5 The Input Common-mode Range and CMRR 325

12.5.6 Summary of the Two-stage CMOS Op Amp Design Calculations 327

12.6 A Complete Design Example 329

12.7 Practical Considerations and Other Non-ideal Effects in Operational Amplifier Design 332

12.7.1 Power Supply Rejection 332

12.7.2 dc Offset Voltage 332

12.7.3 Noise Performance 332

12.8 Conclusion 334

Problems 334

13 High Performance CMOS Operational Amplifiers and Operational Transconductance Amplifiers 337

13.1 Introduction 337

13.2 Cascode CMOS Op Amps 337

13.3 The Folded Cascode Op Amp 338

13.4 Low-noise Operational Amplifiers 340

13.4.1 Low-noise Design by Control of Device Geometries 340

13.4.2 Noise Reduction by Correlated Double Sampling 342

13.4.3 Chopper-stabilized Operational Amplifiers 342

13.5 High-frequency Operational Amplifiers 344

13.5.1 Settling Time Considerations 345

13.6 Fully Differential Balanced Topology 346

13.7 Operational Transconductance Amplifiers 353

13.8 Conclusion 353

Problems 354

14 Capacitors, Switches and the Occasional Passive Resistor 357

14.1 Introduction 357

14.2 MOS Capacitors 357

14.2.1 Capacitor Structures 357

14.2.2 Parasitic Capacitances 358

14.2.3 Capacitor-ratio Errors 358

14.3 The MOS Switch 362

14.3.1 A Simple Switch 362

14.3.2 Clock Feed-through 362

14.3.3 The CMOS Switch: Transmission Gate 364

14.4 MOS Passive Resistors 366

14.5 Conclusion 366

Part IV SWITCHED-CAPACITOR AND MIXED-MODE SIGNAL PROCESSING

15 Design of Microelectronic Switched-capacitor Filters 369

15.1 Introduction 369

15.2 Sampled and Held Signals 371

15.3 Amplitude-oriented Filters of the Lossless Discrete Integrator Type 374

15.3.1 The State-variable Ladder Filter 374

15.3.2 Strays-insensitive LDI Ladders 381

15.3.3 An Approximate Design Technique 384

15.4 Filters Derived from Passive Lumped Prototypes 388

15.5 Cascade Design 396

15.6 Applications in Telecommunications: Speech Codecs and Data Modems 399

15.6.1 CODECs 399

15.6.2 Data Modems 399

15.7 Conclusion 400

Problems 400

16 Non-ideal Effects and Practical Considerations in Microelectronic Switched-capacitor Filters 403

16.1 Introduction 403

16.2 Effect of Finite Op Amp Gain 403

16.3 Effect of Finite Bandwidth and Slew Rate of Op Amps 405

16.4 Effect of Finite Op Amp Output Resistance 405

16.5 Scaling for Maximum Dynamic Range 405

16.6 Scaling for Minimum Capacitance 407

16.7 Fully Differential Balanced Designs 407

16.8 More on Parasitic Capacitances and Switch Noise 410

16.9 Pre-filtering and Post-filtering Requirements 412

16.10 Programmable Filters 413

16.11 Layout Considerations 415

16.12 Conclusion 416

17 Integrated Sigma-Delta Data Converters: Extension and Comprehensive Application of Analog and Digital Signal Processing 417

17.1 Motivation and General Considerations 417

17.2 The First-order Converter 419

17.3 The Second-order Converter 423

17.4 Decimation and Digital Filtering 426

17.4.1 Principles 426

17.4.2 Decimator Structures 429

17.5 Simulation and Performance Evaluation 433

17.6 A Case Study: Fourth-order Converter 435

17.7 Conclusion 438

Answers to Selected Problems 439

References 445

Index 447



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