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Doug Hesse, Professor of English and Director of Writing at the University of Denver, previously held several positions at Illinois State University, including Director of the Honors and Writing Programs, and Director of the Center for the Advancement of Teaching. Dr. Hesse earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. He has also taught at the University of Findlay, Miami University (as Wiepking Distinguished Visiting Professor), and Michigan Tech. Dr. Hesse is a past chair of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC), the nation’s largest professional association of college writing instructors. A past president, as well, of the Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA), Dr. Hesse edited that organization’s journal, Writing Program Administration. He has been a member of the executive committee of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) and chaired the Modern Language Association (MLA) Division on Teaching as a Profession. He is the author of over fifty articles and book chapters, in such journals as College Composition and Communication, College English, JAC, Rhetoric Review, and the Journal of Teaching Writing and in such books as Essays on the Essay; Writing Theory and Critical Theory; The Writing Program Administrator’s Sourcebook; Literary Nonfiction; The Private, the Public, and the Published; and Passions, Pedagogies, and 21st Century Technologies. The writing program he directs at the University of Denver is only one of twenty five internationally to receive the CCCC Certificate of Excellence.
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE Writing Situations and Processes
Chapter 1 Understanding College and Other Writing Situations
1a What is the current scene for writers in college and beyond?
1b What is a writing situation?
1c What does “purpose” mean for writing?
1d What does “audience” mean for writing?
1e What should I know about writing in a digital age?
1f What forms of writing do computers enable?
1g What resources can help me with writing?
Chapter 2 Essential Processes for Academic Writing
2a What processes do academic writers use?
2b How do I begin a college writing project?
2c How do I come up with ideas and information?
2d What is a thesis statement?
2e How do I plan and organize my ideas?
2f What is outlining?
2g What can help me write a first draft?
2h How can I overcome writer’s block?
2i How do I revise?
2j How do I edit?
2k How do I proofread?
2l A student essay in three drafts
Chapter 3 Developing and Shaping Writing
3a How do I shape essays?
3b How do paragraphs work?
3c How do I write effective introductory paragraphs?
3d What are body paragraphs?
3e What are topic sentences?
3f How do I develop my body paragraphs?
3g How do I create unity and coherence in paragraphs?
3h How can I arrange a paragraph?
3i How do rhetorical patterns help me write paragraphs?
3j What is a transitional paragraph?
3k What are effective concluding paragraphs?
Chapter 4 Critically Analyzing Images
4a What is critical thinking?
4b What are the elements of critical thinking?
4c How do I read to comprehend?
4d How do I analyze a reading?
4e How do I draw inferences?
4f How do I synthesize?
4g How do I evaluate?
4h How do I assess reasoning processes critically?
4i How do I recognize and avoid writing logical fallacies?
4j How do I view images with a critical eye?
4k How do images persuade?
4l How do I analyze words combined with images?
4m What do images add to my writing?
Chapter 5 Writing Arguments
5a What is a written argument?
5b What are common types of arguments?
5c How do I choose a topic for an argument?
5d How do I develop a claim and a thesis statement for my argument?
5e What is the structure of a classical argument?
5f How do I support my argument?
5g What types of appeals can provide support?
5h What is the Toulmin model for argument?
5i What part does audience play in my argument?
5j How does Rogerian argument help me reach opposing audiences?
5k What is a reasonable tone in an argument?
5l How do I handle opposing arguments?
5m How did one student draft and revise his argument essay?
5n Final draft of a student’s argument essay in MLA style
Chapter 6 Writing with Others
6a What is writing with others?
6b How do I collaborate with other writers?
6c How do I give useful feedback to others?
6d How can I benefit from others’ help?
6e How do I participate effectively in online discussions?
Chapter 7 Strategies for Writing Typical Kinds of Papers
7a What are typical kinds of papers I’ll write in college?
7b What sources will I use in college writing?
7c How do I write about experiences?
7d How do I write about observations?
7e How do I write about quantitative data or information?
7f How do I write about readings?
PART TWO Understanding Grammar and Writing Correct Sentences
Chapter 8 Style, Tone, and Voice
8a What do style and tone in writing involve?
8b How do style and tone operate in writing?
8c How do I write with style?
8d How do I write with appropriate tone?
Chapter 9 Sentence Variety and Style
9a How do sentences affect style?
9b What are variety and emphasis in writing?
9c How do different sentence lengths create variety and emphasis?
9d What are coordination and subordination?
9e What is coordination of sentences?
9f What is the structure of a coordinate sentence?
9g What meaning does each coordinating conjunction convey?
9h How do I use coordination effectively?
9i What is subordination in sentences?
9j What is the structure of a subordinate sentence?
9k What meaning does each subordinating conjunction convey?
9l How do I use subordination effectively?
9m How do I effectively use subordination and coordination together?
9n How do questions, commands, or exclamations create variety and emphasis?
9o What are cumulative and periodic sentences?
9p How do modifiers create variety and emphasis?
9q How does repetition affect style?
9r How else can I create variety and emphasis?
Chapter 10 Parallelism
10a What is parallelism?
10b How do words, phrases, and clauses work in parallel form?
10c How does parallelism deliver impact?
10d How do I avoid faulty parallelism?
10e How does parallelism work in outlines and lists?
Chapter 11 Conciseness
11a What is conciseness?
11b What common expressions are not concise?
11c What sentence structures usually work against conciseness?
11d How else can I revise for conciseness?
11e How do verbs affect conciseness?
Chapter 12 The Impact of Words
12a What is American English?
12b What is edited American English?
12c What is figurative language?
12d How does using exact diction enhance my writing?
12e How does using specific words enhance my writing?
12f What is gender-neutral language?
12g What other types of language do I want to avoid?
12h What is regional language?
12i What are clichés?
12j When is jargon unnecessary?
12k What are euphemisms?
12l What is bureaucratic language?
Chapter 13 Usage Glossary
PART THREE Writing Effectively, Writing with Style
Chapter 14 Parts of Speech and Sentence Structures
14a Why learn the parts of speech?
14b What is a noun?
14c What is a pronoun?
14d What is a verb?
14e What is a verbal?
14f What is an adjective?
14g What is an adverb?
14h What is a preposition?
14i What is a conjunction?
14j What is an interjection?
14k How is a sentence defined?
14l What are a subject and a predicate in a sentence?
14m What are direct and indirect objects?
14n What are complements, modifiers, and appositives?
14o What is a phrase?
14p What is a clause?
14q What are the four sentence types?
Chapter 15 Verbs
15a What do verbs do?
15b What are the forms of main verbs?
15c What is the -s, or -es, form of a verb?
15d What is the difference between regular and irregular verbs?
15e What are auxiliary verbs?
15f What are intransitive and transitive verbs?
15g What is verb tense?
15h How do I use the simple present tense?
15i How do I form and use the perfect tenses?
15j How do I form and use progressive forms?
15k How do I use tense sequences accurately?
15l What is “mood” in verbs?
15m What are subjunctive forms?
15n What is “voice” in verbs?
15o How do I write in the active, not passive, voice?
Chapter 16 Pronouns: Case and Reference
16a What does “case” mean?
16b What are personal pronouns?
16c How do pronouns work in case?
16d Which case is correct when and connects pronouns?
16e How do I match cases with appositives?
16f How does case work after linking verbs?
16g When should I use who, whoever, whom, and whomever?
16h What pronoun case comes after than or as?
16i How do pronouns work before infinitives?
16j How do pronouns work with -ing words?
16k What case should I use for -self pronouns?
16l What is pronoun reference?
16n How do I avoid unclear pronoun reference?
16o How do pronouns work with it, that, this, and which?
16p How do I use they and it precisely?
16q How do I use it to suit the situation?
16r When do I use you for direct address?
16s When do I use that, which, and who?
Chapter 17 Agreement
17a What is agreement?
17b What is subject-verb agreement?
17c Why is a final -s or -es in a subject or verb so important?
17d Do I ignore words between a subject and its verb?
17e How do verbs work when subjects are connected by and?
17f How do verbs work with each and every?
17g How do verbs work when subjects are connected by or?
17h How do verbs work with inverted word order?
17i How do verbs work with indefinite pronouns?
17j How do verbs work with collective nouns?
17k Why does the linking verb agree with the subject, not the subject complement?
17l What verbs agree with who, which, and that?
17m How do verbs work with amounts, fields of study, and other special nouns?
17n How do verbs work with titles, company names, and words as themselves?
17o What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?
17p How do pronouns work when and connects antecedents?
17q How do pronouns work when or connects antecedents?
17r How do pronouns work when antecedents are indefinite pronouns?
17s How do I use nonsexist pronouns?
17t How do pronouns work when antecedents are collective nouns?
Chapter 18 Adjectives and Adverbs
18a What are the differences between adjectives and adverbs?
18b When do I use adverbs—not adjectives— as modifiers?
18c What is wrong with double negatives?
18d Do adjectives or adverbs come after linking verbs?
18e What are comparative and superlative forms?
18f Why avoid a long string of nouns as modifiers?
Chapter 19 Sentence Fragments
19a What is a sentence fragment?
19b How do I recognize a sentence fragment?
19c What are major ways of correcting fragments?
19d how do I fix a fragment that is part of a compound
19e What are the two special fragment problems?
19f How do I recognize intentional fragments?
Chapter 20 Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences
20a What are comma splices and run-on sentences?
20b How do I recognize comma splices and run-on sentences?
20c How do I correct comma splices and run-on sentences?
20d How do I correctly use a conjunctive adverb or other transitional expression between independent clauses?
Chapter 21 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
21a What is a misplaced modifier?
21b How do I avoid split infinitives?
21c How do I avoid other splits in my sentences?
21d How do I avoid dangling modifiers?
21e How do I proofread successfully for misplaced and dangling modifiers?
Chapter 22 Shifting and Mixed Sentences
22a What is a shifting sentence?
22b How do I avoid shifts in person and number?
22c How do I avoid shifts in subject and voice?
22d How do I avoid shifts in tense and mood?
22e How do I avoid shifts between indirect and direct discourse?
22f What is a mixed sentence?
22g How do I correct a mixed sentence due to faulty predication?
22h What are correct elliptical constructions?
22i What are correct comparisons?
22j How do I proofread successfully for little words I forget to use?
PART FOUR Using Punctuation and Mechanics
Chapter 23 Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points
23a When does a period end a sentence?
23b How do I use periods with abbreviations?
23c When do I use a question mark?
23d When do I use a question mark in parentheses?
23e When do I use an exclamation point?
23f What is considered overuse of exclamation points?
Chapter 24 Commas
24a What is the role of the comma?
24b How do commas work with coordinating conjunctions?
24c How do commas work with introductory clauses, phrases, and words?
24d How do commas work with items in a series?
24e How do commas work with coordinate adjectives?
24f How do commas work with nonrestrictive elements?
24g How do commas set off parentheticals, contrasts, words of address, and tag sentences?
24h How do commas work with quoted words?
24i How do commas work in dates, names, addresses, correspondence, and numbers?
24j How do commas clarify meaning?
24k How do I avoid misusing commas?
24l How do I avoid comma errors?
Chapter 25 Semicolons
25a What are the uses of a semicolon?
25b When do I use a semicolon, instead of a period, between independent clauses?
25c When else do I use a semicolon between independent clauses?
25d How do semicolons work with coordinating conjunctions?
25e When do I use semicolons between items in a series?
25f How do I avoid misusing the semicolon?
Chapter 26 Colons
26a What are the uses of a colon?
26b When does a colon introduce a list, an appositive, or a quotation?
26c When do I use a colon between two independent clauses?
26d What standard formats require a colon?
26e When is a colon wrong?
Chapter 27 Apostrophes
27a What is the role of the apostrophe?
27b How do I use an apostrophe to show a possessive noun?
27c How do I use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns?
27d How do I use an apostrophe with contractions?
27e How do I use an apostrophe with possessive indefinite pronouns?
27f How do I form the plural of miscellaneous elements?
27g When is an apostrophe wrong?
Chapter 28 Quotation Marks
28a What is the role of quotation marks?
28b How do I use quotation marks with short direct quotations?
28c Are quotation marks used with long quotations?
28d How do I use quotation marks for quotations within quotations?
28e How do I use quotation marks for quotations of poetry and dialogue?
28f How do I use quotation marks with titles of short works?
28g How do I use quotation marks for words used as words?
28h How do I use quotation marks with other punctuation?
28i When are quotation marks wrong?
Chapter 29 Other Punctuation Marks
29a When can I use a dash in my writing?
29b When can I use parentheses in my writing?
29c When do I need to use brackets in my writing?
29d How do I use ellipsis points in my writing?
29e When can I use a slash in my writing?
29f When do I need a hyphen in my writing?
29g When do I use a hyphen at the end of a line?
29h How do I use a hyphen with prefixes and suffixes?
29i How do I use hyphens with compound words?
Chapter 30 Capitals, Italics, Abbreviations, and Numbers
30a When do I capitalize a “first” word?
30b When do I use capitals with listed items?
30c When do I use capitals with sentences in parentheses?
30d When do I use capitals with quotations?
30e When do I capitalize nouns and adjectives?
30f What are italics?
30g How do I choose between using italics and quotation marks?
30h Can I use italics for special emphasis?
30i What are standard practices for using abbreviations?
30j How do I use abbreviations with months, time, eras, and symbols?
30k How do I use abbreviations for other elements?
30l When do I use etc.?
30m When do I use spelled-out numbers?
30n What are standard practices for writing numbers?
30o How do I use hyphens with spelled-out numbers?
Chapter 31 Spelling
31a What makes a good speller?
31b How do I proofread for errors in spelling and hyphen use?
31c How are plurals spelled?
31d How are suffixes spelled?
31e What is the ie, ei rule?
31f How are homonyms and other frequently confused words spelled?
31g What are compound words?
PART FIVE Research and Writing
Chapter 32 Types and Uses of Research in Writing
32a What is the role of research in writing?
32b What are reasons for doing research?
32c What is the process of doing research?
32d What kinds of sources do writers use?
32e What is field research?
Chapter 33 Writing Research Papers
33a What is a research paper?
33b How do I plan a research project?
33c What is a research log?
33d How do I choose and narrow a research topic?
33e What is a research question?
33f How does the writing situation shape my research paper?
33g What practical steps can help me work efficiently?
33h What documentation style should I use?
33i What is a working bibliography?
33j What is an annotated bibliography?
33k How do I take content notes?
31l How do I draft a thesis statement for a research paper?
33m How do I outline a research paper?
33n How do I draft a research paper?
33o How do I revise a research paper?
Chapter 34 Finding and Evaluating Published Sources
34a What is a published source?
34b What is a search strategy?
34c What are library-based sources?
34d How do I use catalogs and databases?
34e How do I find books?
34f How do I find periodicals?
34g How do I use reference works?
34h How do I find government publications?
34i What if my library doesn’t have a source I need?
34j How do I evaluate sources?
34k What should I know about searching the web?
34l How do I search the web?
34m How do I evaluate web sources?
Chapter 35 Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
35a How do I use sources well?
35b What is plagiarism?
35c How do I avoid plagiarism?
35d How do I work with internet sources to avoid plagiarism?
35e What don’t I have to document?
35f What must I document?
35g How do I effectively integrate sources into my writing?
35h How do I use quotations effectively?
35i How do I write good paraphrases?
35j How do I write good summaries?
35k Which verbs can help me weave source material into my sentences?
Chapter 36 MLA Documentation with Case Study
36a What is MLA style?
36b What is MLA in-text parenthetical documentation?
36c What are MLA guidelines for parenthetical documentation?
36d What are MLA guidelines for a works cited list?
36e A student’s MLA -style research paper
Chapter 37 APA Documentation with Case Study
37a What is APA documentation style?
37b What are APA parenthetical in-text citations?
37c What are APA guidelines for in-text citations?
37d What are APA guidelines for writing an abstract?
37e What are APA guidelines for content notes?
37f What are APA guidelines for a references list?
37g What are APA format guidelines for research papers?
37h a student’s APA-style research paper
Chapter 38 Chicago Manual (CM) and Council of Science Editors (CSE) Documentation
38a What is CM-style documentation?
38b What are CM guidelines for bibliographic notes?
38c What is CSE-style documentation?
38d What are CSE guidelines for sources on a list of references?
PART SIX Writing Across the Curriculum - and Beyond
Chapter 39 Comparing the Disciplines
39a What is writing across the curriculum?
39b What are primary research and secondary research in the disciplines?
39c What can help me write assignments in various disciplines?
39d How do I use documentation in the disciplines?
Chapter 40 Writing About the Humanities and Literature
40a What are the humanities?
40b What types of sources do I use in the humanities?
40c What types of papers do I write in the humanities?
40d Which documentation style do I use to write about the humanities?
40e What is literature and why write about it?
40f What general strategies can help me write about literature?
40g How do I write different types of papers about literature?
40h What special rules apply to writing about literature?
40i sample student essays
Chapter 41 Writing in the Social Sciences and Natural Sciences
41a What are the social sciences?
41b What kinds of sources do I use in the social sciences?
41c What are writing purposes and practices in the social sciences?
41d What are different types of papers in the social sciences?
41e What documentation style should I use in the social sciences?
41f What are the natural sciences?
41g What are writing purposes and practices in the natural sciences?
41h What documentation style should I use in the natural sciences?
41i How do I write different types of papers in the natural sciences?
Chapter 42 Making Presentations and Using Multimedia
42a What are presentations?
42b How does my situation focus my presentation?
42c How do I adapt my message to my audience?
42d How do I organize my presentation?
42e How do I research and write a presentation?
42f How do I incorporate multimedia into my presentation?
42g How do I plan for multimedia in my presentation?
42h What presentation styles can I use?
42i How do I use my voice effectively?
42j How do I use nonverbal communication?
42k What can I do to practice for my oral presentation?
42l How can I overcome stage fright?
42m How do I make a collaborative presentation?
Chapter 43 Business and Professional Writing
43a Who writes in the workplace?
43b What are typical policies concerning business writing?
43c What are legal considerations concerning business writing?
43d What are special considerations concerning e-mail?
43e How do I format and write memos?
43f How do I write business letters?
43g How do I prepare a meeting agenda?
43h How do I write meeting minutes?
43i How do I write a business report?
43j How do I write a business proposal?
43k How do I write a resume?
43l How do I write a job application letter?
Chapter 44 Writing for the Public
44a What is public writing?
44b How can I understand public writing situations?
44c How do I write reports for the public?
44d How do I write arguments for my community or decision makers?
44e What other types of public writing exist?
Chapter 45 Document and Visual Design
45a What is visual design?
45b What are basic principles of design?
45c How do I design with text?
45d How do I use headings?
45e How do I use borders?
45f How do I incorporate graphics?
45g What is page layout?
Chapter 46 Multimodal Texts and Writing for the Web
46a What are multimodal texts?
46b What do I need to know about creating multimodal projects?
46c What is writing for the web?
46d How do I create a web site?
46e How do I write in a blog?
46f How do I write in a wiki?
46g How do I create podcasts or videos?
46h What do I need to know about writing in social networking sites?
Chapter 47 Creating a Writing Portfolio
47a What is a writing portfolio?
47b What do I need to collect for a portfolio?
47c How do I choose works to include in a portfolio?
47d How do I write a portfolio introduction, reflection, or analysis?
47e How do I present a paper portfolio?
47f How do I create a digital portfolio?
PART 7 Writing When English Is Not Your First Language
Chapter 48 Multilingual Students Writing in US Colleges and Universities
48a How is writing taught in us colleges?
48b How does my past writing experience affect my writing in English?
48c How do I know what my instructor expects in my writing?
48d How do I organize my writing?
48e How can I use other writers’ work to improve my writing?
48f What kind of dictionary do I use?
48g What do I do with my classmates’ and instructor’s comments?
48h Where do I find strategies for editing my work?
48i How can I set long-term goals for my writing?
Chapter 49 Handling Sentence-Level Issues in English
49a How can I improve the grammar and vocabulary in my writing?
49b How can I improve my sentence structure?
49c How can I improve my word choice (vocabulary)?
49d How can I find and correct errors in my own writing?
49e How can I correct verb form (tense) errors in my writing?
40f How can I correct my errors in subject-verb agreement?
49g How can I correct my singular/plural errors?
49h How can I correct my preposition errors?
49i What other kinds of errors might I make?
49j How can I keep track of my most common errors?
49k How can I improve my proofreading skills?
Chapter 50 Singulars and Plurals
50a What are count and noncount nouns?
50b How do I use determiners with singular and plural nouns?
50c How do I use one of, nouns as adjectives, and states in names or titles?
50d How do I use nouns with irregular plurals?
Chapter 51 Articles
51a How do I use a, an, or the with singular count nouns?
51b How do I use articles with plural nouns and with noncount nouns?
51c How do I use the with proper nouns and with gerunds?
Chapter 52 Word Order
52a How do I understand standard and inverted word order in sentences?
52b How do I understand the placement of adjectives?
52c How do I understand the placement of adverbs?
Chapter 53 Prepositions
53a How do I recognize prepositions?
53b How do I use prepositions with expressions of time and place?
53c How do I use prepositions in phrasal verbs?
53d How do I use prepositions with past participles?
53e How do I use prepositions in expressions?
Chapter 54Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles
54a How do I use gerunds and infinitives as subjects?
54b When do I use a gerund, not an infinitive, as an object?
54c When do I use an infinitive, not a gerund, as an object?
54d How does meaning change when certain verbs are followed by a gerund or an infinitive?
54e Why is the meaning unchanged whether a gerund or an infinitive follows sense verbs?
54f How do I choose between -ing and -ed forms for adjectives?
Chapter 55 Modal Auxiliary Verbs
55a How do I convey ability, necessity, advisability, possibility, and probability with modals?
55b How do I convey preferences, plans, and past habits with modals?
55c How do I recognize modals in the passive voice?
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