Preface | p. xv |

Epigram | p. xvii |

The Single Case in Basic and Applied Research: An Historical Perspective | p. 1 |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Beginnings in Experimental Physiology and Psychology | p. 2 |

Origins of the Group Comparison Approach | p. 4 |

The influence of inferential statistics | p. 6 |

Development of Applied Research: The Case Study Method | p. 8 |

Early reports of percentage of success in treated groups | p. 10 |

The development of the group comparison approach in applied research | p. 11 |

Limitations of Early Group Comparison Approaches | p. 13 |

Ethical objections and practical problems | p. 13 |

Averaging of results | p. 14 |

Generality of findings | p. 14 |

Intersubject variability | p. 15 |

Early Alternative Approaches to Applied Research | p. 15 |

Naturalistic studies | p. 16 |

Process research | p. 18 |

The Scientist-Practitioner Split | p. 19 |

A Return to the Individual | p. 20 |

The role of the case study | p. 22 |

The representative case | p. 22 |

Shapiro's methodology in the clinic | p. 23 |

Quasi-experimental designs | p. 24 |

Chassan and intensive designs | p. 25 |

The Experimental Analysis of Behavior | p. 26 |

General Issues in a Single-Case Approach | p. 31 |

Introduction | p. 31 |

Variability | p. 32 |

Variability in basic research | p. 32 |

Variability in applied research | p. 33 |

Clinical vs. statistical significance | p. 34 |

Highlighting variability in the individual | p. 35 |

Repeated measures | p. 35 |

Rapidly changing designs | p. 36 |

Experimental Analysis of Sources of Variability Through Improvised Designs | p. 37 |

Subject fails to improve | p. 37 |

Subject improves "spontaneously" | p. 38 |

Subject displays cyclical variability | p. 40 |

Searching for "hidden" sources of variability | p. 41 |

Behavior Trends and Intrasubject Averaging | p. 42 |

Relation of Variability to Generality of Findings | p. 45 |

Generality of Findings | p. 46 |

Types of generality | p. 46 |

Problems in generalizing from a single-case | p. 47 |

Some Limitations of Group Designs in Establishing Generality of Findings | p. 48 |

Random sampling and inference in applied research | p. 48 |

Problems in generalizing from the group to the individual | p. 49 |

Improving generality of findings to the individual through homogeneous groups: logical generalization | p. 51 |

Homogeneous Groups Versus Replication of a Single-Case Experiment | p. 52 |

Direct replication and treatment/no-treatment control group design | p. 52 |

Systematic and clinical replication and factorial designs | p. 55 |

Blurring the Distinction Between Design Options | p. 57 |

General Procedures in Single-Case Research | p. 61 |

Introduction | p. 61 |

Repeated Measurement | p. 62 |

Practical implications and limitations | p. 62 |

Choosing a Baseline | p. 65 |

Baseline stability | p. 65 |

Examples of baselines | p. 67 |

Changing One Variable at a Time | p. 73 |

Correct and incorrect applications | p. 73 |

Exceptions to the rule | p. 74 |

Issues in drug evaluation | p. 80 |

Reversal and Withdrawal | p. 81 |

The reversal design | p. 82 |

Reversal and withdrawal designs compared | p. 83 |

Withdrawal of treatment | p. 83 |

Limitations and problems | p. 87 |

Length of Phases | p. 88 |

Individual and relative length | p. 88 |

Carryover effects | p. 91 |

Cyclic variation | p. 93 |

Evaluation of Irreversible Procedures | p. 94 |

Exceptions | p. 95 |

Assessing Response Maintenance | p. 97 |

Behavior Assessment | p. 99 |

Selection of Behavior to Assess | p. 102 |

Social significance | p. 102 |

Clinical significance | p. 104 |

Organizational significance | p. 104 |

Personal significance | p. 104 |

Measurement of Behavior | p. 105 |

Primary measures: behavioral dimensionals of proximal, directly observed behavior | p. 105 |

Temporality dimensions | p. 106 |

Repeatability dimensions | p. 107 |

Products of behavior | p. 110 |

Behavior rating scales | p. 111 |

Self-reports | p. 113 |

Physiological measures | p. 115 |

Settings for Assessment | p. 120 |

Contrived versus naturalistic settings and observations | p. 120 |

A continuum of contrivance | p. 121 |

Defining the behaviors to be observed | p. 124 |

Selecting observers | p. 125 |

Technically enhanced observation | p. 127 |

Training observers | p. 128 |

Reliability and validity | p. 129 |

The Assessment of Function | p. 131 |

Summary and Conclusions | p. 134 |

Basic A-B-A Withdrawal Designs | p. 135 |

Introduction | p. 135 |

Limitations of the case study approach | p. 135 |

A-B Design | p. 136 |

A-B with follow-up | p. 138 |

A-B with multiple target measures and follow-up | p. 140 |

A-B with follow-up and booster treatment | p. 142 |

A-B-A Design | p. 145 |

A-B-A from the adult literature | p. 146 |

A-B-A from child literature | p. 147 |

A-B-A-B Design | p. 149 |

A-B-A-B from child literature | p. 149 |

A-B-A-B when phase change is not under complete experimental control | p. 151 |

A-B-A-B with unexpected improvement in baseline | p. 153 |

A-B-A-B with monitoring of concurrent behaviors | p. 155 |

A-B-A-B with no feedback to experimenter | p. 156 |

B-A-B Design | p. 158 |

B-A-B with group data | p. 159 |

B-A-B from rogerian framework | p. 161 |

A-B-C-B Design | p. 162 |

A-B-C-B from the child literature | p. 163 |

A-B-C-B in a group application and follow-up | p. 164 |

Extensions of the A-B-A Design, Uses in Drug Evaluation and Interaction Design Strategies | p. 167 |

Extensions and Variations of the A-B-A Withdrawal Design | p. 167 |

A-B-A-B-A-B Design | p. 168 |

Comparing Separate Treatment Variables/Components | p. 169 |

A-B-A-C-A-C'-A design | p. 169 |

Parametric Variations of the Same Treatment Variable/Component | p. 172 |

A-B-A-B-B[subscript 1]-B[subscript 2]-B[subscript 3]-B[subscript N] design | p. 172 |

A-B- B[subscript 1]-B[subscript 2]-A-B[subscript 1] design | p. 173 |

Drug Evaluations | p. 175 |

Issues specific to drug evaluations | p. 176 |

Design options | p. 178 |

Strategies for Studying Interaction Effects | p. 185 |

Changing Criterion Designs | p. 198 |

Multiple Baseline Designs | p. 201 |

Introduction | p. 201 |

Multiple Baseline Designs | p. 202 |

Types of multiple baseline designs | p. 204 |

Multiple baseline design across behaviors | p. 205 |

Multiple baseline design across subjects | p. 218 |

Multiple baseline across settings | p. 228 |

Variations of Multiple Baseline Designs | p. 234 |

Nonconcurrent multiple baseline design | p. 234 |

Multiple-probe technique | p. 235 |

Issues in Drug Evaluations | p. 239 |

Alternating Treatments Design | p. 243 |

Introduction | p. 243 |

History and terminology | p. 245 |

Procedural Considerations | p. 246 |

Multiple-treatment interference | p. 247 |

Counterbalancing relevant experimental factors | p. 252 |

Number and sequencing of alternations | p. 253 |

Examples of Alternating Treatments Designs | p. 254 |

Comparing treatment and no treatment conditions | p. 254 |

Comparing multiple treatments | p. 258 |

Advantages of the Alternating Treatments Design | p. 266 |

Visual Analysis of the Alternating Treatments Designs | p. 267 |

Simultaneous Treatment Design | p. 268 |

Statistical Analyses for Single-Case Experimental Designs | p. 271 |

Introduction and Overview | p. 271 |

Single-Subject Experiments and Time-Series Data | p. 273 |

The nature of time-series data | p. 273 |

Mathematical and graphical description of a time series | p. 274 |

The problem of autocorrelation | p. 275 |

Autocorrelation and human behavior | p. 278 |

General comments | p. 279 |

Specific Statistical Tests | p. 279 |

Conventional t and F tests | p. 279 |

Randomization tests | p. 281 |

Interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) | p. 287 |

Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Models | p. 288 |

Model building process | p. 291 |

Intervention (impact) analysis | p. 294 |

ITSA modeling strategies | p. 296 |

Box-Jenkins-Tiao strategy (Box & Tiao, 1965) | p. 296 |

Full series modeling strategy | p. 296 |

Interrupted time-series experiment (ITSE) | p. 297 |

Example | p. 298 |

Intervention analysis | p. 299 |

Other statistical tests | p. 301 |

Revusky's R[subscript n] (test of ranks) | p. 302 |

Split-middle technique | p. 302 |

Double bootstrap method | p. 303 |

Evaluation of statistical tests: which test to choose? | p. 303 |

Summary and Conclusion | p. 304 |

Beyond the Individual: Direct, Systematic, and Clinical Replication Procedures | p. 307 |

Introduction | p. 307 |

Direct Replication | p. 308 |

Definition of direct replication | p. 308 |

two successful replications | p. 309 |

four successful replications with design alterations during replications | p. 312 |

mixed results in a multiple baseline design | p. 316 |

simultaneous replication in a group | p. 319 |

Guidelines for direct replication | p. 321 |

Systematic Replication | p. 322 |

Definition of systematic replication | p. 322 |

Example: differential attention in children | p. 323 |

Comment on replication | p. 333 |

Guidelines for systematic replication | p. 333 |

Clinical Replication | p. 336 |

Definition of clinical replication | p. 337 |

Example: clinical replication with autistic children | p. 337 |

Benchmarking | p. 339 |

Practice Research Networks | p. 340 |

Advantages of Replication of Single-Case Experiments | p. 341 |

Hiawatha Designs an Experiment | p. 343 |

References | p. 347 |

Subject Index | p. 375 |

Name Index | p. 383 |

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