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Single Case Experimental Designs Strategies for Studying Behavior Change,9780205474554
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Single Case Experimental Designs Strategies for Studying Behavior Change



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Single Case Experimental Designsprovides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the use of single case experimental designs. The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive sourcebook on single case experimental designs with practical guidelines for their use in a range of research and clinical settings. It is suitable for use as a textbook for a course on research methodology or clinical assessment and treatment, or as a desk reference for seasoned researchers and practicing clinicians.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Epigramp. xvii
The Single Case in Basic and Applied Research: An Historical Perspectivep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Beginnings in Experimental Physiology and Psychologyp. 2
Origins of the Group Comparison Approachp. 4
The influence of inferential statisticsp. 6
Development of Applied Research: The Case Study Methodp. 8
Early reports of percentage of success in treated groupsp. 10
The development of the group comparison approach in applied researchp. 11
Limitations of Early Group Comparison Approachesp. 13
Ethical objections and practical problemsp. 13
Averaging of resultsp. 14
Generality of findingsp. 14
Intersubject variabilityp. 15
Early Alternative Approaches to Applied Researchp. 15
Naturalistic studiesp. 16
Process researchp. 18
The Scientist-Practitioner Splitp. 19
A Return to the Individualp. 20
The role of the case studyp. 22
The representative casep. 22
Shapiro's methodology in the clinicp. 23
Quasi-experimental designsp. 24
Chassan and intensive designsp. 25
The Experimental Analysis of Behaviorp. 26
General Issues in a Single-Case Approachp. 31
Introductionp. 31
Variabilityp. 32
Variability in basic researchp. 32
Variability in applied researchp. 33
Clinical vs. statistical significancep. 34
Highlighting variability in the individualp. 35
Repeated measuresp. 35
Rapidly changing designsp. 36
Experimental Analysis of Sources of Variability Through Improvised Designsp. 37
Subject fails to improvep. 37
Subject improves "spontaneously"p. 38
Subject displays cyclical variabilityp. 40
Searching for "hidden" sources of variabilityp. 41
Behavior Trends and Intrasubject Averagingp. 42
Relation of Variability to Generality of Findingsp. 45
Generality of Findingsp. 46
Types of generalityp. 46
Problems in generalizing from a single-casep. 47
Some Limitations of Group Designs in Establishing Generality of Findingsp. 48
Random sampling and inference in applied researchp. 48
Problems in generalizing from the group to the individualp. 49
Improving generality of findings to the individual through homogeneous groups: logical generalizationp. 51
Homogeneous Groups Versus Replication of a Single-Case Experimentp. 52
Direct replication and treatment/no-treatment control group designp. 52
Systematic and clinical replication and factorial designsp. 55
Blurring the Distinction Between Design Optionsp. 57
General Procedures in Single-Case Researchp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Repeated Measurementp. 62
Practical implications and limitationsp. 62
Choosing a Baselinep. 65
Baseline stabilityp. 65
Examples of baselinesp. 67
Changing One Variable at a Timep. 73
Correct and incorrect applicationsp. 73
Exceptions to the rulep. 74
Issues in drug evaluationp. 80
Reversal and Withdrawalp. 81
The reversal designp. 82
Reversal and withdrawal designs comparedp. 83
Withdrawal of treatmentp. 83
Limitations and problemsp. 87
Length of Phasesp. 88
Individual and relative lengthp. 88
Carryover effectsp. 91
Cyclic variationp. 93
Evaluation of Irreversible Proceduresp. 94
Exceptionsp. 95
Assessing Response Maintenancep. 97
Behavior Assessmentp. 99
Selection of Behavior to Assessp. 102
Social significancep. 102
Clinical significancep. 104
Organizational significancep. 104
Personal significancep. 104
Measurement of Behaviorp. 105
Primary measures: behavioral dimensionals of proximal, directly observed behaviorp. 105
Temporality dimensionsp. 106
Repeatability dimensionsp. 107
Products of behaviorp. 110
Behavior rating scalesp. 111
Self-reportsp. 113
Physiological measuresp. 115
Settings for Assessmentp. 120
Contrived versus naturalistic settings and observationsp. 120
A continuum of contrivancep. 121
Defining the behaviors to be observedp. 124
Selecting observersp. 125
Technically enhanced observationp. 127
Training observersp. 128
Reliability and validityp. 129
The Assessment of Functionp. 131
Summary and Conclusionsp. 134
Basic A-B-A Withdrawal Designsp. 135
Introductionp. 135
Limitations of the case study approachp. 135
A-B Designp. 136
A-B with follow-upp. 138
A-B with multiple target measures and follow-upp. 140
A-B with follow-up and booster treatmentp. 142
A-B-A Designp. 145
A-B-A from the adult literaturep. 146
A-B-A from child literaturep. 147
A-B-A-B Designp. 149
A-B-A-B from child literaturep. 149
A-B-A-B when phase change is not under complete experimental controlp. 151
A-B-A-B with unexpected improvement in baselinep. 153
A-B-A-B with monitoring of concurrent behaviorsp. 155
A-B-A-B with no feedback to experimenterp. 156
B-A-B Designp. 158
B-A-B with group datap. 159
B-A-B from rogerian frameworkp. 161
A-B-C-B Designp. 162
A-B-C-B from the child literaturep. 163
A-B-C-B in a group application and follow-upp. 164
Extensions of the A-B-A Design, Uses in Drug Evaluation and Interaction Design Strategiesp. 167
Extensions and Variations of the A-B-A Withdrawal Designp. 167
A-B-A-B-A-B Designp. 168
Comparing Separate Treatment Variables/Componentsp. 169
A-B-A-C-A-C'-A designp. 169
Parametric Variations of the Same Treatment Variable/Componentp. 172
A-B-A-B-B[subscript 1]-B[subscript 2]-B[subscript 3]-B[subscript N] designp. 172
A-B- B[subscript 1]-B[subscript 2]-A-B[subscript 1] designp. 173
Drug Evaluationsp. 175
Issues specific to drug evaluationsp. 176
Design optionsp. 178
Strategies for Studying Interaction Effectsp. 185
Changing Criterion Designsp. 198
Multiple Baseline Designsp. 201
Introductionp. 201
Multiple Baseline Designsp. 202
Types of multiple baseline designsp. 204
Multiple baseline design across behaviorsp. 205
Multiple baseline design across subjectsp. 218
Multiple baseline across settingsp. 228
Variations of Multiple Baseline Designsp. 234
Nonconcurrent multiple baseline designp. 234
Multiple-probe techniquep. 235
Issues in Drug Evaluationsp. 239
Alternating Treatments Designp. 243
Introductionp. 243
History and terminologyp. 245
Procedural Considerationsp. 246
Multiple-treatment interferencep. 247
Counterbalancing relevant experimental factorsp. 252
Number and sequencing of alternationsp. 253
Examples of Alternating Treatments Designsp. 254
Comparing treatment and no treatment conditionsp. 254
Comparing multiple treatmentsp. 258
Advantages of the Alternating Treatments Designp. 266
Visual Analysis of the Alternating Treatments Designsp. 267
Simultaneous Treatment Designp. 268
Statistical Analyses for Single-Case Experimental Designsp. 271
Introduction and Overviewp. 271
Single-Subject Experiments and Time-Series Datap. 273
The nature of time-series datap. 273
Mathematical and graphical description of a time seriesp. 274
The problem of autocorrelationp. 275
Autocorrelation and human behaviorp. 278
General commentsp. 279
Specific Statistical Testsp. 279
Conventional t and F testsp. 279
Randomization testsp. 281
Interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA)p. 287
Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Modelsp. 288
Model building processp. 291
Intervention (impact) analysisp. 294
ITSA modeling strategiesp. 296
Box-Jenkins-Tiao strategy (Box & Tiao, 1965)p. 296
Full series modeling strategyp. 296
Interrupted time-series experiment (ITSE)p. 297
Examplep. 298
Intervention analysisp. 299
Other statistical testsp. 301
Revusky's R[subscript n] (test of ranks)p. 302
Split-middle techniquep. 302
Double bootstrap methodp. 303
Evaluation of statistical tests: which test to choose?p. 303
Summary and Conclusionp. 304
Beyond the Individual: Direct, Systematic, and Clinical Replication Proceduresp. 307
Introductionp. 307
Direct Replicationp. 308
Definition of direct replicationp. 308
two successful replicationsp. 309
four successful replications with design alterations during replicationsp. 312
mixed results in a multiple baseline designp. 316
simultaneous replication in a groupp. 319
Guidelines for direct replicationp. 321
Systematic Replicationp. 322
Definition of systematic replicationp. 322
Example: differential attention in childrenp. 323
Comment on replicationp. 333
Guidelines for systematic replicationp. 333
Clinical Replicationp. 336
Definition of clinical replicationp. 337
Example: clinical replication with autistic childrenp. 337
Benchmarkingp. 339
Practice Research Networksp. 340
Advantages of Replication of Single-Case Experimentsp. 341
Hiawatha Designs an Experimentp. 343
Referencesp. 347
Subject Indexp. 375
Name Indexp. 383
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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