9781780768113

Sir Arthur Evans and Minoan Crete Creating the Vision of Knossos

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  • ISBN13:

    9781780768113

  • ISBN10:

    1780768117

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2/26/2015
  • Publisher: I. B. Tauris
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Summary

Before Sir Arthur Evans, the principal object of Greek prehistoric archaeology was the reconstruction of history in relation to myth. European travellers to Greece viewed its picturesque ruins as the gateway to mythical times, while Heinrich Schliemann, at the end of the nineteenth century, allegedly uncovered at Troy and Mycenae the legendary cities of the Homeric epics. It was Evans who, in his controversial excavations at Knossos, steered Aegean archaeology away from Homer towards the broader Mediterranean world. Yet in so doing he is thought to have done his own inventing, recreating the Cretan Labyrinth via the Bronze Age myth of the Minotaur. Nanno Marinatos challenges the entrenched idea that Evans was nothing more than a flamboyant researcher who turned speculation into history. She argues that Evans was a proper archaeologist who used scientific observation and classification. Evans' combination of anthropology, comparative religion and analysis of cultic artefacts enabled him to develop a bold new method which the author calls 'mental anthropology'. This method enabled him to develop remarkable ideas about Minoan religion that are now being vindicated as startling new evidence comes to light.

Author Biography

Nanno Marinatos is Professor of Classics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. Her publications include Minoan Kingship and the Solar Goddess: A Near Eastern Koine, Minoan Religion: Ritual, Image, and Symbol and The Naked Goddess and Mistress of Animals in Early Greek Religion. Author residency – Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Table of Contents

Preface
PART I: INTRODUCTION
1. A Portrait
2. Personal Memories
3. Truth and Happiness
PART II: TREE AND PILLAR CULT
4. Evans and E. B. Tylor
5. The Mental Anthropology behind Tree and Pillar Cult
6. The Pantheon on the Mycenae Ring
7. The Artistic Side of Evans
PART III: MOURNING KYBELE: ARTHUR EVANS AND JAMES FRAZER
8. Kybele and the Young Resurgent God
9. The Tomb and the Rites
10. Communion and the Dying God: William Robertson Smith and James Frazer
11. The Oriental Goddess
12. Tree Cult and a Wounded Goddess from Thera?
PART IV: THE WHIRLIGIG OF TIME: THE NARRATIVE OF THE PALACE OF MINOS
13. A Single Story
14. The End of Knossos
PART V: MONOTHEISM
15. Revision of the Paradigm
16. The Unity of the Minoan Cosmos
17. The Unity of the Goddess
18. The Cow of Heaven
19. The Mother of the Young God
20. The Debate over Monotheism and Polytheism
21. The Challenge of Nilsson
PART VI: THE RING OF NESTOR
22. A Clever Forger?
23. The Find Circumstances of the Ring of Nestor
24. Evans's Interpretation. An Egyptian Prototype for the Ring?
25. The Tree of Life and the Golden Bough
PART VII: THE RING OF MINOS
26. The Discovery of the Ring of Minos
27. Emile Gilliéron as the Mediator; The Two Copies
28. Evans's Interpretation of the Minos Ring
29. Theft of the Herakleion Museum
PART VIII: THE FINAL YEARS. EVANS'S RESTORATIONS AND HIS VISION OF KNOSSOS
30. The Vision of the Palace and Its Reception
31. The First Phase of Restorations
32. Two Earthquakes (1926, 1930)
33. The Responses of Georg Karo and Spyridon Marinatos
34. The Third Earthquake (1935) and the Fate of the Herakleion Museum
PART IX: SIR ARTHUR EVANS AND SPYRIDON MARINATOS
35. A Quarrel and an Apology
36. The Excavation of the Temple Tomb
37. Spyridon Marinatos's Excavations in Crete 1932-36
PART X: EVANS'S LAST VISIT TO CRETE
38. Honorary Citizen
39. Nostalgia
40. A Troubled Island
PART XI: SUNT LACRIMAE RERUM. THE WAR AND THE DEATH OF EVANS
41. The Last Exhibition of Minoan Civilization 1936
42. Greece on the Eve of the War
43. Two Intellectuals under Hitler's Germany: Erich Bessel Hagen and Georg Karo
44. The War and the Death of Evans
PART XII: APPENDICES
1. Letters between Evans and Spyridon Marinatos
2. Letters between Edith Eccles and Spyridon Marinatos
3. The Relationship of John Pendlebury and Spyridon Marinatos
4. A Letter of Spyridon Marinatos to Humfry Payne
5. Letters of Priest Nikolaos Pollakes to Spyridon Marinatos and his wife Maria Evangelidou

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