9781566706537

In Situ Remediation Engineering

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781566706537

  • ISBN10:

    156670653X

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-12-28
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

In Situ Remediation Engineering provides a comprehensive guide to the design and implementation of reactive zone methods for treatment of all major classes of groundwater contamination. It teaches the fundamentals that underlie development of cost-effective reactive zone strategies, guides the selection of cost-effective remedial strategies and provides environmental engineers and scientists with tools to achieve optimal deployment of source area, reactive barrier, and site-wide treatments. It offers extensive coverage of remedial system operation, discussing reagent injection strategies, interpretation of process monitoring results for biological and chemical reactive zone systems, and impacts of treatment processes on aquifer hydraulic characteristics.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(64)
Legacy of Pollution
1(1)
Development of in Situ Approaches
2(3)
Types of in Situ Reactions
5(23)
Microbial Reactions
8(2)
Biochemical Energetics
10(4)
Microbial Oxidation Reactions
14(1)
Microbial Reduction Reactions
15(1)
Microbial Metals Precipitation
16(1)
Chemical Reactions
17(1)
Chemically Oxidizing Reactions
18(1)
Chemically Reducing Reactions
19(1)
Hydrolytic Reactions
19(3)
Acid-Base Reactions
22(6)
Reactants and Solvents
28(22)
Water-Solvent Reaction Medium
28(2)
Solubility in Water
30(1)
Reactants
31(1)
Molecular Structures of Compounds
32(13)
Functionalities and Environmental Behavior
45(5)
Reversible vs. Irreversible Processes
50(2)
Hydrogeology and Hydraulic Impacts
52(2)
System Poise and Flux of Competing Compounds
54(1)
Current Status
55(10)
Regulatory Acceptance and Permitting
55(3)
Biostimulation vs. Bioaugmentation
58(1)
Biostimulation
58(1)
Bioaugmentation
59(1)
Contaminant Types
60(1)
Emerging Contaminants
60(2)
References
62(3)
Microbial Reactive Zones
65(162)
Types of Microbial Reactions
66(2)
Microbial Oxidizing Zones
68(10)
Engineered Aerobic Systems
68(1)
Direct Aerobic Oxidation
69(4)
Microbial Oxidation by Fe(III), Nitrate, and Sulfate
73(2)
Aerobic Cometabolic Oxidation
75(2)
Microbial Oxidation of MTBE
77(1)
Microbial Reducing Zones
78(109)
Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination
78(7)
Microbial Ecology of Reductive Dechlorination
85(3)
The Aquifer as an Ecosystem
88(14)
Biochemistry of Reductive Dechlorination
102(10)
Dechlorinating Bacterial Species and Consortia
112(6)
Review of Field-Scale Bioaugmentation Studies
118(5)
Summary of Bioaugmentation
123(1)
Review of Field-Scale Biostimulation Studies
123(26)
Evaluating Degradation Signatures
149(6)
Summary and Conclusions
155(3)
Abiotic Reductive Dechlorination
158(3)
In Situ Precipitation of Heavy Metals
161(4)
Principles of Heavy-Metal Precipitation
165(5)
Chromium Precipitation
170(4)
Nickel Precipitation
174(1)
Arsenic Precipitation
175(7)
Cadmium
182(1)
Aquifer Parameters and Transport Mechanisms
182(2)
Contaminant Removal Mechanisms
184(1)
In Situ Denitrification
185(2)
Emerging Contaminants
187(40)
Perchlorate Reduction
188(7)
1,4-Dioxane
195(1)
Prospects for Mass Transfer
196(1)
Biological Remedies
197(3)
Explosives
200(6)
Radionuclides
206(1)
Uranium
207(5)
Technetium-99 (99Tc)
212(2)
Plutonium
214(1)
N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)
215(1)
References
216(11)
Chemical Reactive Zones
227(88)
Introduction to Chemical Reactive Zones
227(1)
Chemical Reactivity
228(17)
Oxidation States
229(2)
Thermodynamic Feasibility of Reactions
231(1)
Bond Energies
231(1)
Gibbs Free Energy
232(1)
Nonstandard Conditions --- The Nernst Equation
233(1)
Kinetic Control of Reaction Rates
234(1)
Reaction Order and Rate Equations
234(5)
Kinetic Feasibility
239(2)
Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
241(1)
Estimating Temperature Effect on Thiosulfate-Mediated Destruction of Methyl Bromide
242(1)
Effect of pH on Reactions
243(1)
Effect of Ionic Strength on Reactions
243(2)
Reaction Mechanisms
245(21)
Electron Transfer Reactions
245(1)
Electron Transfer (Oxidation--Reduction) Reactions
245(3)
Radical Reactions
248(2)
Carbonate Interference
250(5)
Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions
255(3)
Nucleophilicity
258(3)
Precipitation Reactions
261(1)
Solubility in Aqueous Phase
262(1)
The Solubility Product
262(1)
Calculation of Nickel Concentrations from Ksp
263(2)
Aging of Precipitated Solids
265(1)
Heterogeneous Reactions
266(1)
Chemical Oxidation Zones
266(31)
Fenton's Reagent
266(2)
Hydroxyl Radical Production Strategies
268(1)
Conventional Fenton's Process
269(1)
Iron Chelation Strategies
270(1)
Mineral Iron Strategies
271(1)
Radical Consumption by Carbonates and Other Competitive Inhibitors
271(1)
Common Reaction By-Products
272(1)
Monitoring Fenton's Reagent Applications
273(1)
Permanganate Oxidation
274(2)
Permanganate Demand Estimation and Injection Loading Requirements
276(1)
Permanganate Reaction Mechanisms
277(1)
By-Product Formation
278(2)
Permanganate Reaction Kinetics
280(1)
Sorption Effects on Permanganate Oxidation
280(4)
Phase-Transfer Catalysts
284(2)
Ozone
286(1)
Ozone as the Sole Oxidant Source
286(5)
Ozone-Peroxide Systems
291(1)
Bench-Scale Ozonation of 1,4-Dioxane
292(3)
By-Products
295(1)
Persulfate
295(2)
Chemical Reducing Zones
297(12)
Hydrogen
297(1)
Dithionite
297(1)
Dithionite Chemistry
297(3)
Dithionite-Driven Reduction of Chromium
300(3)
Zero-Valent Iron
303(1)
Zero-Valent Iron Reaction Mechanisms
304(1)
Zero-Valent Iron Applicability
305(2)
Reduced Vitamin B12
307(2)
Chemical Precipitation Strategies
309(6)
References
310(5)
Components of an in Situ Reactive Zone
315(80)
Site Screening
320(10)
Site Access
320(6)
Safety Considerations
326(1)
Vapor Migration
327(2)
Trends in Contaminant Concentration and Electron Acceptor Processes
329(1)
Oxidation State of Contaminants
330(3)
Site Conceptual Model
333(8)
Hydrogeologic Model
333(4)
Contaminant Distribution
337(2)
Biogeochemical Characterization
339(2)
Performance Measures
341(16)
Process Monitoring
342(1)
Performance Monitoring
343(1)
Groundwater Sampling and Analysis
344(3)
Dissolved Gases
347(1)
Dissolved Oxygen Field Measurement
348(1)
Analysis of Biogeochemical Parameters
348(3)
Oxidation--Reduction Potential and EH
351(2)
Microbial Assessments
353(4)
System Design
357(15)
Design Considerations
357(1)
Geology
358(1)
Hydraulic Conductivity
359(1)
Groundwater Flow Characteristics
360(1)
Saturated Thickness and Depth to Water
360(1)
Geochemistry
361(2)
Groundwater Chemistry
363(1)
pH
364(1)
Role of Sulfur in Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination Systems
365(1)
IRZ Layout Options
366(1)
Injection Well/Point Placement
367(5)
Monitoring Well Placement
372(1)
Reagents
372(4)
Microbial IRZ Systems
372(2)
Suitability of Different Electron Donors
374(2)
Chemical IRZ Systems
376(1)
Delivery System Design
376(7)
Reagent Injection Strategy
381(2)
Pilot Testing
383(12)
Pilot Test Wells --- Number and Location
384(2)
Duration of Pilot Study
386(1)
Scaleup Issues
387(1)
Sustainability and Reliability
388(2)
Biofilm Developments
390(1)
Site Closure
391(1)
References
392(3)
Building Reactive Zone Strategies
395(74)
Introduction to Reactive Zone Strategies
395(1)
A Conceptual Model for Contaminant Distribution
396(31)
Reactive Zone Hydrogeology
396(1)
Darcy's Law, Permeability, and Groundwater Velocity
397(3)
A Dual-Porosity Pore-Scale Model
400(2)
Contaminant Classes and Their Behaviors
402(1)
High-Solubility Inorganics (Salts)
402(1)
Transition Compounds
403(1)
Miscible Organics
403(1)
Hydrophobic Organics
403(1)
Sorption and Desorption Processes
404(1)
Adsorption
404(1)
Absorption
405(1)
Conventional Calculation of Sorbed-Phase and Total Contaminant Mass
406(2)
Multi-Compartment Sorption Models
408(3)
Cation Exchange Capacity
411(1)
Contaminant Distribution in Aquifer Matrices
412(1)
A Multi-Phase Conceptual Model for Contaminant Distribution
412(3)
Distribution of Hydrophobic Organics
415(3)
Distribution of Miscible Organics and Soluble Salts
418(1)
Distribution of Metals
419(1)
Steady-State and Non-Steady-State Distributions
420(5)
Propagation of a Clean Water Front
425(2)
Reactive Zone Structure
427(13)
Injection Zone Management
429(1)
Injection Radius
430(1)
Injection Zone Tracer Test Example
431(2)
Injection Volume Limitations
433(1)
Balancing Injection Volumes and Frequencies
434(1)
The Reactive Zone
435(1)
The in Situ Bioreactor Concept
435(2)
Bioreactor Acclimation --- Microbial Population Buildup Phase
437(1)
Chemical Reactive Zones
438(1)
The Desorption Zone
439(1)
The Recovery Zone
439(1)
Reactive Zone Strategies
440(12)
Reactive Barriers
440(1)
Source Treatments
441(3)
Biological Reducing Zone Strategy for Nickel Precipitation
444(5)
In Situ Oxidation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine
449(2)
Reactive Zone Sequencing and Whole-Plume Treatments
451(1)
Limitations of Aqueous-Phase Reactions in Contaminated Porous Media
452(3)
Achieving Contact between Reactants and Targets
452(2)
Contaminant Shielding by Organic Matter
454(1)
Phase Transfer Catalysts and Surfactants in Chemical Reactive Zones
454(1)
Partitioning Electron Donors, Surfactants, and Cosolvents in Biological Reactive Zones
455(1)
Reaction Products and Consequences
455(14)
Type Curves for Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination
456(1)
The Taxonomy of Type Curves
456(4)
Results of Partial Oxidation
460(2)
Release of Sorbed 1,1,1-Trichloroethane Associated with Partial Oxidation by Fenton's Reagent
462(1)
Reactions with Nontarget Organics
463(1)
Redox Effects on Nontarget Inorganic Species
463(1)
Redox Reduction Effects
464(1)
Oxidation Effects
464(1)
Reaction Product Effects on Hydraulic Conductivity
464(1)
Chemical Oxidation Effects on Aquifer Conductivity
465(1)
Chemical Reduction Effects on Aquifer Conductivity
465(1)
Biological Reactive Zone Effects on Aquifer Conductivity
466(1)
References
466(3)
Appendix 469(18)
Index 487

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