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Small Group and Team Communication,9780205335480
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Small Group and Team Communication

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780205335480

ISBN10:
0205335489
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $65.40
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Summary

Praised for its writing style, research base, and range of topics covered, this text develops issues of diversity, ethics, technology and the organizational use of groups and teams within a systems theory framework. Clearly organized and logically presented, this text provides the opportunity for outstanding discussions of critical issues. Harris and Sherblom effectively integrate real-world examples, hypothetical situations, social science theories, and scholarly research into a unified discussion of small group and team communication. Extensive examples, case studies, and exercises engage students and help them to move from theoretical discussions into application and experience of the concepts presented.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Small Groups: Power, Definition, and Attraction
1(22)
The Power of Groups
3(1)
Defining Small Group Communication
4(2)
Transactional Process
4(1)
Symbolic Behavior
5(1)
Shared Meaning
5(1)
Why Join a Group?
6(2)
Interpersonal Attraction
6(1)
Need for Affiliation
7(1)
Commitment to Group Goals and Activities
7(1)
Assignment by Someone Else
8(1)
Characteristics of Small Groups
8(2)
Interdependence and Interactivity
8(1)
Exponential Number of Interactions
9(1)
Synergy
9(1)
Characteristics of Small Group Communication
10(2)
Complex Transactions
10(1)
Interactive Complexities
11(1)
Types of Small Groups
12(1)
Groups in Organizations
13(3)
Examples from the Automotive Industry
14(1)
Meetings
14(2)
Summary
16(1)
Discussion Questions
17(1)
Exercises
18(4)
References
22(1)
Groups as Systems of Interaction
23(20)
Understanding Small Group Success
24(2)
Communication in Small Groups
26(1)
A Systems Approach to Small Group Communication
27(10)
Systems Theory
27(1)
Open Systems
28(5)
Complex Systems
33(4)
Summary
37(1)
Discussion Questions
37(1)
Exercises
38(4)
References
42(1)
Norms, Roles, Cohesiveness, and Groupthink
43(19)
Norms
44(4)
The Reason for Norms
44(1)
Types of Norms
45(1)
Norms and Diversity
46(1)
Violating Norms
47(1)
Roles
48(4)
Types of Roles
48(3)
The Function of Roles
51(1)
Cohesiveness
52(1)
Influences on Cohesiveness
52(1)
Consequences of Cohesiveness
53(1)
Groupthink
53(2)
Summary
55(1)
Discussion Questions
56(1)
Exercises
56(5)
References
61(1)
Four Phases of Group Development: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing
62(21)
Forming: Hello, Orientation, and Inclusion
64(2)
Storming: Conflict in Groups
66(2)
Norming: Emergence as a Group
68(1)
Performing: Making Decisions and Solving Problems
69(1)
Terminating
70(2)
Usefulness of the Phase Model
72(1)
Modifications
72(1)
Organizational Teams
73(1)
Overriding Influences
73(2)
Formal or Informal Group
74(1)
Task and Social Dynamics
74(1)
Primary and Secondary Tensions
75(1)
Summary
75(1)
Discussion Questions
76(1)
Exercises
76(6)
References
82(1)
Diversity in Groups: The Strength of Different Perspectives
83(18)
Defining Diversity and Its Place in Small Groups
84(1)
Assumptions and Stereotyping
85(2)
Communication Contexts
87(2)
Language Use
88(1)
Nonverbal Communication
88(1)
Diversity in Small Groups and Teams
89(2)
Group Commitment and Consensus
89(1)
Strength in Diversity
90(1)
Making Diverse Groups Work
91(3)
Conflict Management
91(1)
Hierarchies of Power
92(1)
Pressures for Conformity
93(1)
Summary
94(1)
Discussion Questions
95(1)
Exercises
96(3)
References
99(2)
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
101(23)
Functions of Verbal Communication
103(2)
Task Ordering
103(1)
Process Orientation
103(1)
Narratives and Group Fantasies
104(1)
Structures of Meaning in Verbal Communication
105(4)
Denotative and Connotative Meaning
105(1)
Semantics
106(1)
Group Talk
107(1)
Humor
108(1)
Nonverbal Communication
109(8)
Principles of Nonverbal Communication
109(2)
Types of Nonverbal Communication
111(5)
Powerless Stereotypes
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
Discussion Questions
118(1)
Exercises
118(4)
References
122(2)
Listening and Feedback: The Other Half of Communication
124(20)
Motivation
127(1)
The Four Components of Listening
128(4)
Sensing (Hearing the Message)
128(2)
Interpreting the Message
130(1)
Evaluating the Message Content
131(1)
Memory: Retaining and Responding to the Message
131(1)
Active Listening
132(4)
Barriers to Active Listening
132(2)
Active Listening Response Methods
134(2)
Feedback: Responding to the Message
136(3)
Providing Constructive Feedback
136(2)
Receiving Feedback
138(1)
Summary
139(1)
Discussion Questions
139(1)
Exercises
139(4)
References
143(1)
Group Evolution: Teams
144(17)
The Scope of Employee Involvement Programs
146(1)
Teams
147(7)
Quality Circles
147(4)
Self-Managing Work Teams
151(3)
Summary
154(1)
Discussion Questions
155(1)
Exercises
155(4)
References
159(2)
Decision Making and Problem Solving
161(22)
Decision Making and Problem Solving
162(1)
The Stages of Decision Making and Problem Solving
163(7)
Defining the Problem
163(2)
Constraints in the Context of Goals
165(1)
Searching Out Alternatives
166(2)
Making the Decision
168(1)
Implementing the Decision
168(1)
Evaluating the Decision
169(1)
Patterns of Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Groups
170(2)
Group Composition
171(1)
Group Process
171(1)
The Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Process
172(5)
Problem Identification and Information Gathering
172(2)
Refining Goals
174(1)
Refining Alternatives
175(1)
Making the Choice
175(1)
Implementing the Decision
176(1)
Summary
177(1)
Discussion Questions
178(1)
Exercises
179(3)
References
182(1)
Creativity in the Small Group Process
183(21)
What Is Creativity?
184(1)
Creativity Means a New Way of Looking
185(1)
Barriers to Creativity
186(5)
Perceptual Barriers
187(2)
Cultural Barriers
189(1)
Emotional Barriers
190(1)
Techniques for Encouraging Creativity
191(3)
Idea Needlers
191(1)
Manipulative Verbs
192(1)
Association and Metaphors
193(1)
Analogy
194(1)
Solving Problems Creatively
194(1)
A Creative Group Climate
195(3)
Openness
195(1)
Sharing
195(1)
Gibb's Communication Climate Comparisons
196(2)
Summary
198(1)
Discussion Questions
199(1)
Exercises
199(4)
References
203(1)
Group Process and Presentation Techniques
204(21)
Brainstorming
206(1)
Creative Decision-Making Techniques
206(6)
Focus Groups
207(1)
Nominal Group Technique
207(2)
Delphi Technique
209(1)
Synectics
209(1)
Buzz Sessions
210(1)
Idea Writing
211(1)
Role Playing
211(1)
Listening Teams
211(1)
Problem-Solving Tools
212(5)
Flowcharts
212(1)
Fishbone Diagrams
212(3)
Pareto's Principle
215(2)
The RISK Procedure
217(1)
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
217(1)
Small Group Presentational Formats
218(2)
The Forum
218(1)
The Panel
219(1)
The Colloquium
219(1)
The Symposium
220(1)
Summary
220(1)
Discussion Questions
220(2)
Exercises
222(2)
References
224(1)
Productive Conflict Management
225(25)
Defining Conflict within a Communication Context
227(3)
Conflict within Systems
227(1)
Conflict within Small Groups
228(1)
The Substance of Conflict
229(1)
Patterns of Conflict Resolution
230(7)
Collaboration (and Consensus)
232(1)
Negotiation
232(1)
Accommodation
233(1)
Compromise
234(1)
Competition
235(1)
Avoidance
236(1)
Power in Group Conflict
237(3)
Expert Power
237(1)
Interpersonal Linkage Power
237(1)
Reward and Punishment Power
238(1)
Positional (Legitimate) Power
238(1)
Referent Power
239(1)
Charismatic (or Personal) Power
239(1)
Avoidance Power
239(1)
Power in Context
240(1)
Summary
241(2)
Discussion Questions
243(1)
Exercises
243(5)
References
248(2)
Leadership in Small Groups
250(25)
Recognizing Leaders
252(1)
Leadership as a Function in a System
253(1)
Theories of Leadership
253(6)
Managerial Leadership Grid Theory
254(3)
Transactional and Transformational Theories
257(1)
Leadership by Adaptation
258(1)
Leaderless Groups
259(1)
Three Characteristics of Leaders
259(2)
Vision
259(1)
Credibility
260(1)
Communication Competence
260(1)
Choosing a Leader
261(3)
Appointed Leaders
262(1)
Elected Leaders
262(1)
Emergent Leaders
263(1)
Shared (Facilitative) Leadership
263(1)
Tasks of Group Leaders
264(1)
Facilitating Meetings
264(1)
Empowering Group Members
265(1)
Managing Conflict
265(1)
Influences on Group Leadership
265(2)
External Context
265(1)
Nature of Task
266(1)
Interdependence of Group Members
267(1)
Leadership Styles
267(2)
Leader-as-Technician
267(1)
Leader-as-Conductor
268(1)
Leader-as-Coach
269(1)
Summary
269(1)
Discussion Questions
270(1)
Exercises
270(3)
References
273(2)
Observing and Evaluating a Small Group
275(19)
Systematic Feedback
276(1)
Success and Failure
277(1)
Observer---Members Scales
277(7)
Rating Scales
278(1)
Postmeeting Reaction Forms
279(5)
Observer Feedback Guidelines
284(1)
Individual Role Behavior
285(1)
Verbal Interaction and Content Analyses
285(5)
Summary
290(1)
Discussion Questions
290(1)
Exercises
290(3)
References
293(1)
Computer Mediated Group Communication
294(25)
Understanding the Technology and Its Influences on Small Group Communication
296(7)
The Importance of Understanding Influential Undercurrents
296(1)
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
297(1)
Electronic Meeting Systems
298(5)
Undercurrents of the Communication Medium
303(6)
Social Presence
303(4)
The Effects of CMC Undercurrents on Group Processes
307(2)
Choosing a Medium for the Effective Use of CMC
309(2)
Choosing a Medium for the Communication Task
309(1)
Finding a Language Demand-Technology Fit
309(2)
Matching Media Richness to the Communication Function
311(1)
Adopting Effective Group Communication Strategies for CMC
311(3)
Facilitating Effective CMC Group Communication
312(1)
Leading a CMC Group Meeting
312(2)
Summary
314(1)
Discussion Questions
315(1)
Exercises
315(2)
References
317(2)
Epilogue: The Next Ten Years 319(2)
Discussion Question
320(1)
References
320(1)
Appendix: Gathering, Organizing, Processing, and Presenting Information as a Team 321(6)
I. Choose a Topic
321(1)
II. Gather Information
321(1)
III. Process the Information
322(2)
IV. Organize the Information for Presentation
324(2)
V. Practice
326(1)
Index 327


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