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Smart Talk : Contemporary Interviewing and Interrogation,9780131146969

Smart Talk : Contemporary Interviewing and Interrogation

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780131146969

ISBN10:
0131146963
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/8/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $83.60

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Summary

Every profession has specific philosophies and approaches to effective communication; "Smart Talk: Contemporary Interviewing and Interrogation", First Edition, was designed to pinpoint those most useful to the criminal justice profession. "Smart Talk" covers both interviewing and interrogation techniques - along with their legal considerations - in a single volume. Exploring multiple approaches to interviewing, it clearly identifies communication techniques that improve the quality and quantity of information gathered from victims, witnesses, and perpetrators. Landmark cases and field accounts bring a real world application to the book and reinforce how strong communication skills lead to more successful case investigations.Provides essential interviewing and interrogation techniques. Provides the theory, philosophy and background for each approach so readers understand what the approach is and when to use it. Addresses techniques for interviewing special populations such as children, elders, and persons with disabilities and mental illness.Law enforcement professionals.

Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
Acknowledgments xxv
About the Author xxvii
PART I: LAYING THE GROUNDWORK FOR SUCCESS
1(60)
Interviewing and Interrogation
3(20)
Key Terms
4(1)
Chapter Objectives
4(1)
Introduction
4(1)
The Nature of Interviewing
5(5)
Victims
6(1)
Witnesses
7(3)
Suspects
10(1)
The Nature of Interrogation
10(2)
Interrogation Controversy
11(1)
Purpose of the Interrogation
12(1)
Personal Qualities of the Interviewer
13(3)
Willing to Develop Rapport
15(1)
Knowledgeable
15(1)
Professional
16(1)
Communicating
16(3)
Kinesics
17(1)
Proxemics
18(1)
Paralanguage
19(1)
Conclusions
19(1)
Questions for Review
20(1)
Short-Answer Questions
20(1)
Fill-in Questions
20(1)
Exercises
20(1)
References
21(2)
The Interview Process
23(18)
Key Terms
24(1)
Chapter Objectives
24(1)
Introduction
24(1)
Phase I: Interview Preparation
25(5)
Case Review
26(1)
Determine Prior Criminal Record
27(1)
Viewing the Scene
28(1)
Misinformation
28(2)
Phase II: Establishment of the Psychological Content
30(3)
When Should the Questioning Occur?
31(1)
Where Should the Questioning Occur?
31(1)
When in the Police Station or an Office
32(1)
Phase III: The Questioning
33(5)
The Order of Interviews
33(1)
Types of Questions
34(3)
Determining an Approach
37(1)
Conclusions
38(1)
Questions for Review
39(1)
Short-Answer Questions
39(1)
Fill-in Questions
39(1)
Exercises
39(1)
References
40(1)
Purposeful Interviewing and Processes
41(20)
Key Terms
42(1)
Chapter Objectives
42(1)
Introduction
42(1)
Characteristics of Purposeful Interviewing
43(2)
Active Listening
43(1)
Rapport Development
44(1)
Objectives of Purposeful Interviewing
45(11)
The Nature of the Offense
45(4)
Was a Crime Committed?
49(3)
Identifying a Perpetrator
52(2)
Making an Identification
54(1)
Field Identification
54(1)
Lineups
55(1)
Assessing Accuracy of a Statement
56(1)
Conclusions
57(1)
Questions for Review
57(2)
Short-Answer Questions
57(1)
Fill-in Questions
58(1)
Exercises
58(1)
References
59(2)
PART II: METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
61(66)
Traditional, Structural, and Inferential Interviewing with Statement Analysis Techniques
63(22)
Key Terms
64(1)
Chapter Objectives
64(1)
Introduction
64(1)
Identifying the Sources
65(1)
Guidelines for the Traditional Interviewing Approach
66(5)
What?
67(1)
Who?
68(1)
When?
68(1)
Where?
69(1)
Why?
69(2)
How?
71(1)
What Is Structural Interviewing?
71(1)
Steps for Structural Interviewing
72(2)
Step One: Build Rapport
72(1)
Step Two: Encourage Participation
72(1)
Step Three: Review the Statement
73(1)
Inferential Interviewing
74(2)
Statement Coherence
74(1)
Response Length
74(1)
Type-Token Ratio
75(1)
Verbal Hedging
75(1)
Statement Analysis
76(1)
Conducting Statement Analysis
76(4)
Step One: Parts of Speech
76(3)
Step Two: Extraneous Information
79(1)
Step Three: Lack of Conviction
80(1)
Step Four: Balance of the Statement
80(1)
Field Statement Analysis
80(1)
Conclusions
81(1)
Questions for Review
82(1)
Short-Answer Questions
82(1)
Fill-in Questions
82(1)
Exercises
83(1)
References
83(2)
Forensic Hypnosis and Cognitive Interviewing
85(22)
Key Terms
86(1)
Chapter Objectives
86(1)
Introduction
86(1)
What Is Hypnosis?
87(1)
Forensic Hypnosis Interviewing Methods
87(4)
Guidelines for the Use of Forensic Hypnosis
88(1)
Preparing for the Hypnotic Session
89(1)
Induction Phase
89(1)
Narrative Phase
90(1)
Closure Phase
91(1)
Recall Phase
91(1)
Challenges to Hypnotic Memory Retrieval
91(2)
Confabulation
92(1)
Faking
92(1)
Memory Hardening and Suggestibility
92(1)
Hypnosis Evidence in Court
93(1)
What Is Cognitive Interviewing?
94(1)
Cognitive Interviewing Techniques
95(4)
Mnemonics
96(1)
Reconstruction Technique
97(1)
Reporting-Everything Technique
98(1)
Changing the Order of Events
98(1)
Changing the Perspective
98(1)
Additional Memory-Jogging Techniques
98(1)
Steps of the Cognitive Interview Method
99(2)
Step One: Meet and Greet
99(1)
Step Two: Narrative Phases
100(1)
Step Three: Extensive Recall through Mnemonics
101(1)
Step Four: Summary and Closure
101(1)
Challenges to Memory Retrieval
101(2)
Contamination
102(1)
Emotion
103(1)
Scripting
103(1)
Conclusions
103(1)
Questions for Review
104(1)
Short-Answer Questions
104(1)
Fill-in Questions
104(1)
Exercises
105(1)
References
105(2)
Behavioral Interviewing Techniques
107(20)
Key Terms
108(1)
Chapter Objectives
108(1)
Introduction
108(1)
What Is Behavioral Interviewing?
109(2)
Kinesics
109(1)
Neurolinguistic Programming
110(1)
Cultural and Personal Considerations
111(1)
Emotions and Observable Behaviors
112(4)
Facial Expression
112(2)
Body Posture
114(2)
Eye Movement
116(4)
The Visual Right-Handed Person
117(1)
The Auditory Right-Handed Person
118(1)
The Kinesthetic Right-Handed Person
119(1)
Sensory Verbal Communication
120(1)
Qualifiers, Hedging, and Manipulators
121(1)
Detecting Deceit
122(2)
Conclusions
124(1)
Questions for Review
124(1)
Short-Answer Questions
124(1)
Fill-in Questions
124(1)
Exercises
125(1)
References
125(2)
PART III: Interviewing Special Populations
127(72)
Interviewing Children
129(28)
Key Terms
130(1)
Chapter Objectives
130(1)
Introduction
130(1)
Child Developmental Stages
131(2)
Age-Related Limitations on Reporting
132(1)
Field Assessment
133(1)
Initial Considerations for Child Interviews
134(5)
Step 1: Risk Assessment
134(1)
Step 2: Models for Evaluating Abuse
135(1)
Step 3: Preliminary Considerations
136(1)
Step 4: Remaining Neutral
137(2)
What Is the Forensic Approach to Child Interviewing?
139(1)
Forensic Interviewing Techniques
140(3)
Phase I: Caretaker Instructions
140(1)
Phase II: Evaluation
141(1)
Phase III: Preparing the Child
141(1)
Phase IV: Establishing Rapport
142(1)
Phase V: Conducting the Interview
142(1)
What Is the Cognitive Approach to Interviewing Children?
143(1)
Cognitive Interviewing Techniques
143(4)
Caretaker Instructions
144(1)
Practice Interview
144(1)
Establishing Rapport: Cognitive Interview Step 1
144(1)
Reconstructing and Reporting Everything: Cognitive Interview Step 2
145(1)
Changing the Order and Perspective: Cognitive Interview Step 3
146(1)
The Child as Reporter
147(1)
Accuracy
147(1)
Memory and Fantasy
148(1)
The Child as Victim
148(2)
Tools for Interviewing Children
149(1)
Bolstering Credibility through Evidence
150(2)
Determining Competency and Reliability
152(1)
Conclusions
153(1)
Questions for Review
153(2)
Short-Answer Questions
153(1)
Fill-in Questions
154(1)
Exercises
154(1)
References
155(2)
Interviewing the Elderly
157(20)
Key Terms
158(1)
Chapter Objectives
158(1)
Introduction
158(1)
Crimes Targeting the Elderly
159(3)
Domestic Violence
159(2)
Fiduciary Abuse
161(1)
Initial Considerations When Questioning the Older Person
162(3)
The Pre-Interview
162(3)
Case Credibility
165(1)
Conducting the Interview
165(2)
Step 1: Preparing for the Interview
165(1)
Step 2: Establishing Rapport
166(1)
Step 3: Conducting the Interview
166(1)
Step 4: Ending the Interview
167(1)
Step 5: Following Up
167(1)
Empowering the Elderly Victim
167(1)
The Elderly as Witnesses
168(4)
Physical Limitations
169(1)
Cognitive Limitations
170(1)
Concerns Due to Dependence
171(1)
Interdisciplinary Interviewing
172(1)
Mandatory Elder Abuse Reporting
172(1)
Crime Perpetrated by the Elderly
173(1)
Conclusions
173(1)
Questions for Review
174(1)
Short-Answer Questions
174(1)
Fill-in Questions
174(1)
Exercises
174(1)
References
175(2)
Interviewing Persons with Disabilities or Mental Illness
177(22)
Key Terms
178(1)
Chapter Objectives
178(1)
Introduction
178(1)
The Americans with Disabilities Act
179(2)
Accommodations for Interviewing
180(1)
Police Liability under the ADA
180(1)
Initial Considerations
181(2)
Identifying When Special Care Is Necessary
183(4)
Mental Retardation
184(1)
Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder
184(1)
Autism
185(1)
Mental Illness
185(1)
Personality Disorders
186(1)
Field Evaluation
187(1)
Interview Considerations
188(2)
Legal Issues
189(1)
Preparing for the Interview
190(3)
Establishing Rapport
191(1)
Conducting the Interview
191(2)
Interrogation Considerations
193(2)
Miranda Rights
193(1)
False Confessions
194(1)
Conclusions
195(1)
Questions for Review
196(1)
Short-Answer Questions
196(1)
Fill-in Questions
196(1)
Exercises
197(1)
References
197(2)
PART IV: Interrogation
199(95)
The Interrogation Process and the Law
201(22)
Key Terms
202(1)
Chapter Objectives
202(1)
Introduction
202(1)
Fifth Amendment Considerations
203(1)
The Miranda Standard
204(5)
When Are the Miranda Warnings Required?
205(1)
When Is a Waiver of Miranda Rights Valid?
206(2)
Right to Counsel under Miranda
208(1)
Sixth Amendment Considerations
209(1)
Fourteenth Amendment Considerations
210(4)
The Exclusionary Rule
210(4)
Fourth Amendment Considerations
214(4)
Probable Cause
215(3)
Conclusions
218(1)
Questions for Review
219(2)
Short-Answer Questions
219(1)
Fill-in Questions
219(1)
Exercises
220(1)
References
221(2)
Confessions
223(26)
Key Terms
224(1)
Chapter Objectives
224(1)
Introduction
224(1)
What Is an Interrogation?
225(1)
Since Miranda
226(6)
Who Is Likely to Conduct Interrogations?
227(2)
Who Is Likely to Waive Rights per Miranda?
229(1)
Why Do People Waive Their Rights?
230(1)
Why Do Suspects Confess?
231(1)
Does a Waiver Affect the Case?
231(1)
False Confessions
232(2)
Improving Interrogations
233(1)
What Is Not an Interrogation?
234(3)
Subtle Compulsion
235(1)
Traffic Stop
235(1)
Sobriety Testing
235(1)
A Stop and Frisk
236(1)
Interrogation Tactics
237(1)
Case-Specific Methods of Interrogation
238(6)
Child Pornography Cases
238(2)
Child Sexual Assault
240(1)
Hate Crimes
241(1)
Homicide
242(1)
Sexual Assault Cases
243(1)
Truth and Consequences
244(1)
Conclusions
245(1)
Questions for Review
245(1)
Short-Answer Questions
245(1)
Fill-in Questions
245(1)
Exercises
246(1)
References
246(3)
Techniques for Interrogation
249(26)
Key Terms
250(1)
Chapter Objectives
250(1)
Introduction
250(1)
Purpose of the Interrogation
251(1)
Interrogation Approach
252(4)
Noncustodial Interrogation Situation
254(1)
Custodial Interrogation Situation
255(1)
Confession-Eliciting Models
256(1)
Interrogation Phase I: Preparing
257(6)
Step One: Know the Case
258(1)
Step Two: Determine the Prior Record
258(1)
Step Three: View the Scene
259(1)
Step Four: Establish the Timing
260(2)
Step Five: Determine Who Will Interrogate
262(1)
Interrogation Phase II: Developing Outcome-Based Tactics
263(6)
Tactic #1. Appealing to the Suspect's Self-Interest
263(1)
Tactic #2. Confronting the Suspect with Evidence of Guilt
264(1)
Tactic #3. Undermining the Suspect's Confidence in His or Her Denials
265(1)
Tactic #4. Identifying Contradictions in the Suspect's Alibi or Story
265(1)
Tactic #5. Asking Specific ``Behavioral Analysis'' Interview Questions
266(1)
Tactic #6. Appealing to the Importance of Cooperating
267(1)
Tactic #7. Offering Moral Justifications and Face-Saving Excuses
267(1)
Tactic #8. Confronting the Suspect with False Evidence of Guilt
267(1)
Tactic #9. Praising or Flattering the Suspect
268(1)
Tactic #10. Appealing to the Detective's Expertise and Authority
268(1)
Interrogation Phase III: Getting the Confession
269(3)
Step One: Make the Claim
269(1)
Step Two: Lock it in
269(3)
Conclusions
272(1)
Questions for Review
272(2)
Short-Answer Questions
272(1)
Fill-in Questions
273(1)
Exercises
273(1)
References
274(1)
Juvenile Rights and Police Responsibilities
275(19)
Key Terms
276(1)
Chapter Objectives
276(1)
Introduction
276(1)
What Is a Juvenile?
277(1)
Age of Criminal Responsibility
277(1)
Juvenile Offending
278(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
279(1)
Due Process and the Juvenile
279(2)
Questioning a Juvenile Not in Custody
281(3)
Interrogation Methods
282(2)
Questioning a Juvenile in Custody
284(1)
Temporary Custody and Juveniles
285(1)
Fourth Amendment Considerations
285(1)
Fifth Amendment Considerations
286(1)
The Right to Counsel
286(1)
Juvenile Confession Admissibility
287(1)
Specific Crime Categories
288(4)
Juvenile Firesetting
288(2)
Sexual Offending
290(2)
Conclusions
292(1)
Questions for Review
292(2)
Short-Answer Questions
292(1)
Fill-in Questions
293(1)
Exercises
293(1)
References
294


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