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The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality: Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality:
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This anthology examines the social construction of race, class, gender, and sexuality and the institutional bases for these relations. While other texts discuss various forms of stratification and the impact of these on members of marginalized groups, The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality provides a thorough discussion of how such systems of stratification are formed and perpetuated and how forms of stratification are interconnected.
Critical thinking questions at the end of each reading and part opening essays aid students in understanding how the material relates to their lives and how their own attitudes, actions, and perspectives may serve to perpetuate a stratified system.
About the Author
Tracy E. Ore is currently an Assistant professor of Sociology and the Director of the Applied Sociology Program at Saint Cloud State University. She received her Ph.D. in Sociology at the University of Michigan. She serves as a consultant for multicultural education and curriculum to a variety of universities, organizations, and agencies and conducts workshops and trainings across the country related to issues of inequality. Her research areas include social inequality, race and ethnicity, and the development of effective teaching pedagogy.
Table of Contents
* An asterisk indicates a new reading.
Part I: Constructing Differences
Examining what categories are constructed, how this is done, and why such categories of difference are constructed.
Race & Ethnicity
1. Racial Formations- Michael Omi and Howard Winant
2. Optional Ethnicities: For Whites Only?- Mary C. Waters
3. Becoming Suspects- Tram Nguyen
4. How Did Jews Become White Folks?- Karen BrodkinSocial Class
*5. Race, Homeownership and Wealth – Thomas Shapiro
6. Media Magic: Making Class Invisible- Gregory Mantsios
7. Doubly Divided: The Racial Wealth Gap- Meizhu Lui
*8. Capitalism Hits the Fan- Rick Wolff
Sex & Gender
9. The Social Construction of Gender- Judith Lorber
10. The Five Sexes, Revisited- Anne Fausto-Sterling
11. The Transgender Paradigm Shift toward Free Expression- Holly Boswell
12. Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity- Michael S. Kimmel
13. The Invention of Heterosexuality- Jonathan Ned Katz
*14. 'If You Don't Kiss Me, You're Dumped': Boys, Boyfriends and Heterosexualised Masculinities in the Primary School- Emma Renold
15. Sexual Identity and Bisexual Identities: The Struggle for Self-Description in a Changing Sexual Landscape- Paula C. Rust
16. Naming All the Parts- Kate Bornstein
Part II: Maintaining Inequalities: Systems of Oppression & Privilege
Examining what elements of social structure work to maintain systems of stratification based on constructions of difference.
*17. Fictive Kin, Paper Sons, and Compadrazgo: Women of Color and the Struggle for Family Survival – Bonnie Thornton Dill
18. Families on the Fault Line: America's Working Class Speaks About the Family, the Economy, Race, and Ethnicity- Lillian B. Rubin
19. Stability and Change in Chicano Men's Family Lives- Scott Coltrane
20. Gay and Lesbian Families Are Here- Judith StaceyEducation
*21. The Return of "Separate But Equal"- Richard D. Kahlenberg
22. Preparing for Power: Cultural Capital and Curricula in America's Elite Boarding Schools- Peter W. Cookson, Jr and Caroline Hodges Persell
23. Civilize Them with a Stick- Mary Crow Dog and Richard Erdoes
24. Missing in Interaction- Myra Sadker and David Sadker
25. Schools and the Social Control of Sexuality- Melinda S. Miceli
Work & the Economy
26. Jobless Ghettos: The Social Implications of the Disappearance of Work in Segregated Neighborhoods- William J. Wilson
*27. Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment- Devah Pager, Bruce Western, Bart Bonikowski
28. The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the 'Female' Professions- Christine L. Williams
29. Cause of Death: Inequality- Alejandro Reuss
The State & Public Policy
30. Welfare Reform, Family Hardship, and Women of Color- Linda Burnham
31. Beyond Crime and Punishment- Bruce Western and Becky Petit
32. No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System – David Cole
33. The Effects of Affirmative Action on Other Stakeholders- Barbara Reskin
34. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: Racialized Social Democracy and the "White" Problem in American Studies- George Lipsitz
35. Five Decades and Three Hundred Sitcoms about Class and Gender- Richard Butsch
*36. Winnebagos, Cherokees, Apaches, and Dakotas: The Persistence of Stereotyping of American Indians in American Advertising Brands- Debra Meskin
*37. How Do You Solve a Problem Like Will Truman? The Feminization of Gay Masculinities on Will & Grace- Thomas J. Linneman
38. Metaphors Matter: Disaster Myths, Media Frames, and Their Consequences in Hurricane Katrina- Kathleen Tierney, Christine Bevc, and Erica Kuligowski
Language & Culture
39. Racism in the English Language- Robert B. Moore
40. Self, Identity & the Naming Question: Reflections on the Language of Disability- Irving Kenneth Zola
41. How to Tame a Wild Tongue- Gloria Anzaldúa
*42. Names, Logos, Mascots, and Flags: The Contradictory Uses of Sports Symbols- Stanley D. Eitzen
Violence & Social Control
*43. Climate of Fear- Southern Poverty Law Center
*44. Sexual Assault on Campus: A Multilevel, Integrative Approach to Party Rape- Elizabeth A. Armstrong, Laura Hamilton, and Brian Sweeney
45. The Construction of Masculinity and the Triad of Men's Violence- Michael Kaufman
46. Homophobia as a Weapon of Sexism- Suzanne Pharr
Part III: Experiencing Difference & Inequality in
Examining the impact of constructions of difference and maintaining inequalities on members of society.
47. Making Systems of Privilege Visible- Stephanie M. Wildman with Adrienne D. Davis.
48. "Yes, I Follow Islam, But I’m Not a Terrorist"- Nada El Sawy
49. A Dozen Demons- Ellis Cose
50. Always Running- Luis Rodriguez
51. The Story of My Body- Judith Ortiz Cofer
52. Separated by Deportation- Tram Nguyen
53. "Gee, You Don't Seem Like An Indian From the Reservation"- Barbara Cameron
54. Living Fearlessly With and Within Differences: My Search for Identity Beyond Categories and Contradictions- Shefali Milczarek-Desai
55. Nickel-and-Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America- Barbara Ehrenreich
56. I Am Your Welfare Reform- Annie Downey
57. Learning to Fight- Geoffrey Canada
*58. Square Pegs: Affronting Reason- Cheryl Chase
Part IV: Resistance & Social Change
Examining how people working within individual and institutional contexts transform difference from a system of inequality to a system of liberation.
59. Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection- Patricia Hill Collins
60. Cultural Resistance: Reconstructing Our Own Images- Yen Le Espritu
61. Good for the Hood?- Anmol Chaddha
62. Seeing More Than Black & White: Latinos, Racism, and the Cultural Divides- Elizabeth Martinez
*63. Dismantling Environmental Racism in the USA- Robert D. Bullard
*64. Feminism Future: Young Feminists of Color Take the Mic- Daisy Hernandez and Pandora Leong
65. Voices of a New Movimiento- Roberto Lovato