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Social Gerontology with Research Navigator : A Multidisciplinary Perspective

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205423347

ISBN10:
0205423345
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $143.00
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Summary

This best-selling, multidisciplinary, text on the experience of growing old presents positive images of aging while considering the many factors that contribute to how older individuals experience life.

Up-to-date and expanded, Social Gerontology, Seventh Edition, offers a comprehensive view that presents aging positively, portraying concepts of active aging and resilience, and defining productive aging by elaborating on the many ways elders contribute to society and to their families. Based on the latest research findings, it offers greater depth to critical issues of aging, attending to differences by age and cohort, gender, ethnic minority status, sexual orientation, and socio-economic status.

New features to the seventh edition include:

  • FREE subscription to Research Navigator™ with every new book. This subscription offers unlimited access to Research Navigator™ for six months from any computer with an Internet connection.
  • Automatically packaged with new copies of this text is the Research Navigator™ Guide for Social Gerontology, a guide that encourages readers to go beyond the book to explore current research and news on aging from articles in leading scholarly journals, popular magazines, and The New York Times.
  • Expanded discussion on international and cross-cultural aging issues, emphasize immigrant and refugee elders and multigenerational and intergenerational exchange across the life span that affects quality of life in old age.
  • New material on future directions in aging and career opportunities is interspersed throughout the text.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
part one The Field of Social Gerontology
1(64)
The Growth of Social Gerontology
3(42)
The Field of Gerontology
3(2)
Social Gerontology
5(1)
What Is Aging?
5(2)
The Older Population Is Diverse
6(1)
An Active Aging Framework
7(1)
A Person-Environment Perspective on Social Gerontology
8(2)
Environmental Press
8(2)
Environmental Interventions
10(1)
Organization of the Text
10(1)
Why Study Aging?
11(1)
Growth of the Older Population
12(4)
Changes in Life Expectancy
13(1)
Maximum Life Span
14(2)
The Oldest-Old
16(6)
Ages 85 and Older
16(2)
Centenarians
18(2)
Population Pyramids
20(2)
Dependency Ratios
22(1)
Population Trends
23(4)
Ethnic Minorities
23(1)
Geographic Distribution
24(2)
Educational and Economic Status
26(1)
Worldwide Trends
27(4)
Impact of Demographic Trends in the United States
31(1)
Longevity in Health or Disease?
31(1)
How Aging and Older Adults Are Studied
32(1)
Development of the Field
32(1)
Historical Forces of the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
33(1)
Formal Development of the Field
33(1)
Major Research Centers Founded
34(1)
Research Methods
34(6)
The Age/Period/Cohort Problem
35(1)
Cross-Sectional Studies
35(1)
Longitudinal Studies: Design and Limitations
36(1)
Sequential Designs
37(2)
Problems with Representative Samples of Older Persons in Research
39(1)
Summary and Implications for the Future
40(1)
Glossary
41(1)
Resources
42(1)
References
42(3)
Historical and Cross-Cultural Issues in Aging
45(20)
Old Age Historically
46(3)
Old Age in Ancient Cultures
46(1)
Old Age in Greek and Roman Cultures
47(1)
Old Age in Medieval Europe
48(1)
Old Age in Colonial America
48(1)
The Effects of Modernization
49(6)
Alternatives to Modernization Theory
51(1)
Ideal of Equality versus Status of Age in America
52(1)
Other Perspectives on Historical Change
53(2)
A Cross-Cultural View of Old Age in Contemporary Societies
55(4)
Importance of Social Position and the Control of Property
56(1)
Knowledge as a Source of Power
57(2)
Effects of Culture and Modernization: The Case of Japan
59(1)
Summary and Implications for the Future
60(1)
Glossary
61(1)
References
61(4)
part two The Biological and Physiological Context of Social Aging
65(96)
The Social Consequences of Physical Aging
68(41)
Biological Theories of Aging
69(3)
Can Aging Be Reversed or Delayed?
72(2)
Growth Hormones
72(1)
Caloric Restriction
73(1)
Antiaging Compounds
74(1)
Research on Physiological Changes with Age
74(14)
Aging in Body Composition
75(2)
Changes in Organ Systems
77(10)
Changes in Sleep Patterns with Aging
87(1)
Changes in Sensory Functions
88(13)
Changes in Vision
90(5)
Assisting Adaptation and Quality of Life through Environmental Modifications
95(1)
Changes in Hearing
96(4)
Changes in Taste and Smell
100(1)
Implications for the Future
101(1)
Summary
101(2)
Glossary
103(1)
Resources
104(1)
References
104(5)
Managing Chronic Diseases and Promoting Well-Being in Old Age
109(52)
Defining Health
109(2)
Quality of Life in Health and Illness
111(2)
Chronic and Acute Diseases
113(6)
Interactive Effects
116(1)
Causes of Death in Later Years
116(3)
Common Chronic Conditions
119(20)
Heart Disease and the Cardiovascular System
119(2)
Strokes and Other Cerebrovascular Problems
121(1)
Cancer
122(1)
Arthritis
123(2)
Osteoporosis
125(5)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Respiratory Problems
130(1)
Diabetes
130(1)
Problems with the Kidneys and Urinary Tract
131(2)
Problems with the Intestinal System
133(1)
Oral Diseases
134(1)
HIV/AIDS in the Older Population
135(1)
Accidents among Older People
136(1)
Older Drivers
137(2)
Falls and Their Prevention
139(1)
Use of Physician Services by Older People
140(2)
Use of Other Health Services
140(2)
Health Promotion with Older People
142(10)
Improving the Success of Health Promotion Programs
144(1)
The Relationship of Health Practices to Health Outcomes
145(1)
Exercise as Part of Health Promotion
146(3)
Health Promotion Guidelines
149(1)
Oral Health Promotion
150(1)
Limitations of Health Promotion
151(1)
Implications for the Future
152(1)
Summary
153(1)
Glossary
154(1)
References
155(6)
part three The Psychological Context of Social Aging
161(118)
Cognitive Changes with Aging
164(30)
Intelligence and Aging
165(5)
Problems in the Measurement of Cognitive Function
168(1)
Longitudinal Studies of Intelligence
168(2)
Factors That May Influence Intelligence in Adulthood
170(2)
The Process of Learning and Memory
172(3)
The Information Processing Model
175(1)
Factors That Affect Learning in Old Age
176(4)
The Importance of Attention
176(1)
Practical Implications of Attention Changes with Aging
177(1)
Environmental Factors
178(2)
Age-Related Changes in Memory
180(2)
Tip-of-the-Tongue States
182(1)
Improving Cognitive Abilities in Old Age
182(4)
Cognitive Retraining
182(1)
Memory Mediators
183(3)
Wisdom and Creativity
186(1)
Implications for the Future
187(1)
Summary
188(1)
Glossary
189(1)
References
190(4)
Personality and Mental Health in Old Age
194(58)
Defining Personality
194(1)
Stage Theories of Personality
195(5)
Erikson's Psychosocial Model
195(2)
Jung's Psychoanalytic Perspective
197(1)
Empirical Testing of These Perspectives
197(1)
The Kansas City Studies
198(1)
Dialectical Models of Adult Personality
199(1)
Trait Theories of Personality
200(2)
Emotional Expression and Regulation
202(1)
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
202(2)
Stress, Coping, and Adaptation
204(5)
Some Useful Definitions
204(1)
Aging and Life Events
205(1)
What Determines Stress Responses in Old Age?
206(1)
Adaptation in the Later Years
207(2)
Successful Aging
209(4)
A Critique of the Successful Aging Paradigm
212(1)
Psychological Disorders among Older Persons
213(23)
Depression
214(5)
Suicide among Older People
219(1)
Dementia
220(2)
Delirium
222(1)
Alzheimer's Disease
223(3)
Characteristics of Alzheimer's Disease
226(3)
Behavioral Therapies and Environmental Interventions
229(3)
Parkinson's Disease
232(1)
Alcoholism
232(2)
Drug Abuse
234(1)
Paranoid Disorders and Schizophrenia
234(1)
Anxiety
235(1)
Older Adults Who Are Chronically Mentally Ill
236(3)
Psychotherapy with Older Persons
236(2)
Use of Mental Health Services
238(1)
Implications for the Future
239(1)
Summary
240(3)
Glossary
243(1)
Resources
244(1)
References
244(8)
Love, Intimacy, and Sexuality in Old Age
252(27)
Attitudes and Beliefs about Sexuality in Later Life
253(1)
Myths and Reality about Physiological Changes and Frequency of Sexual Activity
254(3)
Women and Age-Related Physiological Changes
257(4)
Men and Age-Related Physiological Changes
261(2)
Chronic Illness and Sexual Activity
263(4)
Gay and Lesbian Partners in Old Age
267(3)
Psychosocial Factors and Late-Life Affection, Love, and Intimacy
270(3)
Facilitating Older Adults' Sexual Functioning
273(1)
Implications for the Future
274(1)
Summary
275(1)
Glossary
276(1)
References
276(3)
part four The Social Context of Aging
279(308)
Social Theories of Aging
283(22)
The Importance of Social Theories of Aging
283(1)
Social Gerontological Theory before 1961: Role and Activity
284(3)
Role Theory
284(2)
Activity Theory
286(1)
The First Transformation of Theory
287(2)
Disengagement Theory
287(1)
Continuity Theory
288(1)
Alternative Theoretical Perspectives
289(6)
Symbolic Interactionism and Subculture of Aging
290(1)
Age Stratification Theory
291(2)
Social Exchange Theory
293(1)
Political Economy of Aging
294(1)
Life Course Perspective
294(1)
Life Course Capital
295(1)
Recent Developments in Social Gerontological Theory: The Second Transformation
295(5)
Social Phenomenologists and Social Constructionists
295(2)
Critical Theory and Feminist Perspectives
297(3)
Summary and Implications for the Future
300(1)
Glossary
301(1)
References
302(3)
The Importance of Social Supports: Family, Friends, Neighbors, and Communities
305(44)
The Nature and Function of Informal Supports
306(1)
The Impact of Social Supports on Well-Being
306(1)
Changing Family Structure
307(5)
The Growth of the Multigenerational Family
308(1)
Defining Multigenerational Families
309(1)
Cultural Variations in Multigenerational Families
310(2)
Older Partners
312(6)
Marital Satisfaction
313(1)
Divorce in Old Age
314(1)
Lesbian and Gay Partners
315(3)
Sibling Relationships
318(1)
Never-Married Older People
319(1)
Childless Older Adults
319(1)
Other Kin
320(1)
Intergenerational Relationships: Adult Children
320(2)
Patterns of Intergenerational Assistance
321(1)
Grandparenthood and Great-Grandparenthood
322(9)
Grandparents as Custodial Caregivers of Grandchildren
325(4)
Great-Grandparents
329(1)
The Effects of Divorce on Grandparenthood
330(1)
Friends and Neighbors as Social Supports
331(2)
Interventions to Strengthen or Build Social Supports
333(2)
Intergenerational Programming
335(1)
Relationships with Pets
336(1)
Implications for the Future
336(1)
Summary
337(1)
Glossary
338(1)
Resources
339(1)
References
339(10)
Opportunities and Stress of Informal Caregiving
349(34)
Costs and Benefits of Informal Care
351(2)
For Society
351(1)
For Informal Caregivers
351(2)
Caregiver Gains
353(1)
Who Are Informal Caregivers?
354(1)
The Gendered Nature of Family Care
354(2)
Spouses/Partners as Caregivers
356(1)
Adult Children/Grandchildren as Caregivers
357(2)
Family Caregivers of Color
359(1)
Caregiving for Relatives with Dementia
360(1)
Elder Mistreatment
361(5)
Legislation to Support Family Caregivers
366(1)
Use of Services
367(1)
Supportive Services for Older Adults
368(1)
Supportive Services for Family Caregivers
368(3)
Service Utilization
368(1)
Support Groups for Caregivers
369(1)
Psychoeducational Groups
369(1)
Respite Care
369(1)
Electronic Supports
370(1)
Future Service Directions
370(1)
Institutionalization
371(1)
Underpaid Family Caregivers: Direct Care Workers
372(1)
Implications for the Future
372(1)
Summary
373(1)
Glossary
374(1)
Resources
374(1)
References
374(9)
Living Arrangements and Social Interactions
383(41)
Person-Environment Theories of Aging
384(1)
P--E Congruence Models in Gerontology
384(1)
Geographic Distribution of the Older Population
385(1)
Relocation
386(3)
The Impact of the Neighborhood
389(1)
Victimization and Fear of Crime
389(2)
Housing Patterns of Older People
391(6)
Independent Housing
391(3)
Planned Housing
394(1)
Congregate Housing
395(1)
Continuous Care Retirement Communities
396(1)
Long-Term Care
397(9)
Nursing Homes
397(5)
Newer Options for Long-Term Care
402(1)
Assisted Living: A Growing Trend in Long-Term Care
403(1)
Private Homes That Provide Long-Term Care
404(2)
Services to Aid Older People in the Community
406(2)
Home Care
406(2)
Adult Day Care and Adult Day Health Care
408(1)
Technology to Help Aging in Place
408(4)
Housing Policy and Government Programs
412(2)
SRO Housing
414(1)
The Problems of Homelessness
414(1)
Implications for the Future
415(1)
Summary
416(2)
Glossary
418(1)
Resources
419(1)
References
420(4)
Productive Aging: Paid and Nonpaid Roles and Activities
424(56)
What Do We Mean by Productive Aging? Definitions and Critique
424(3)
Retirement
427(7)
The Timing of Retirement
428(2)
Satisfaction with Retirement
430(3)
The Importance of Planning
433(1)
Employment Status
434(6)
Challenges Faced by Older Workers
436(1)
More Older People Seek Employment
437(1)
Barriers to Employment
438(1)
Creating New Employment Opportunities
439(1)
Economic Status: Sources of Income in Retirement
440(5)
Social Security
441(1)
Asset Income
442(1)
Pensions
443(1)
Earnings
444(1)
Poverty among Old and Young
445(4)
Poverty Differentials over Time
445(2)
Poverty Differentials by Gender
447(1)
Poverty Differentials by Race
447(1)
Poverty Differentials by Age and Living Status
448(1)
Public Assistance
448(1)
Patterns and Functions of Nonpaid Roles and Activities
449(19)
Leisure
449(2)
Membership in Voluntary Associations
451(1)
Volunteer Work
452(3)
Educational Programs
455(1)
Religious Participation, Religiosity, and Spirituality
456(2)
Benefits of Religious Participation and Religiosity
458(2)
The Value of Spirtual Well-Being
460(2)
Political Participation
462(1)
Voting Behavior
462(1)
Senior Power
463(5)
Implications for the Future
468(3)
Summary
471(1)
Glossary
472(1)
Resources
473(1)
References
473(7)
Death, Dying, Bereavement, and Widowhood
480(45)
The Changing Context of Dying
481(3)
Attitudes toward Death
481(1)
Variation by Age and Gender
482(2)
The Dying Process
484(1)
End-of-Life Care
485(8)
Hospice Care
489(4)
The Right to Die or Hastened Death
493(7)
Passive Euthanasia (Voluntary Elective Death)
494(2)
Active Euthanasia
496(4)
Legal Options Regarding End-of-Life Care
500(7)
Bereavement, Grief, and Mourning Rituals
507(2)
The Grief Process
507(2)
Process of Mourning
509(2)
Widowhood
511(5)
Gender Differences in Widowhood
513(3)
Implications for the Future
516(2)
Summary
518(1)
Glossary
518(2)
Resources
520(1)
References
520(5)
The Resilience of Elders of Color
525(39)
Defining Ethnicity and Culture
526(3)
Defining Minority and People of Color
527(2)
Research History
529(3)
Ethnic Minorities in Gerontology
531(1)
Older African Americans
532(6)
Economic Status
533(1)
Health
534(2)
Social Supports and Living Situations
536(2)
Older Latinos
538(5)
Economic Status
540(1)
Health
540(2)
Social Supports and Living Situations
542(1)
Older American Indians
543(5)
Economic Status
544(1)
Health
544(3)
Social Supports and Living Situations
547(1)
Older Asian/Pacific Islanders
548(6)
Economic Status
549(2)
Health
551(2)
Social Supports and Living Situations
553(1)
Implications for Services
554(3)
Implications for the Future
557(1)
Summary
558(1)
Glossary
558(1)
Resources
559(1)
References
559(5)
The Resilience of Older Women
564(23)
Rationale for a Focus on Older Women's Needs
564(2)
Older Women's Economic Status
566(6)
Older Women's Health Status
572(6)
Health Insurance and Gender Inequities
572(1)
Higher Incidence of Chronic Health Problems
573(2)
Osteoporosis
575(1)
Menopause
576(2)
Older Women's Social Status
578(3)
Widowhood
579(1)
Limited Opportunities to Remarry
579(1)
Sources of Support
580(1)
Implications for the Future
581(2)
Summary
583(1)
Glossary
583(1)
Resources
584(1)
References
584(3)
part five The Societal Context of Aging
587(79)
Social Policies to Address Social Problems
590(36)
Variations among Policies and Programs
592(2)
Factors Affecting the Development of Public Policies
594(2)
Values Affecting Social Policy
594(1)
Economic Context
595(1)
The Development of Public Policies for Older People
596(5)
1930 to 1950
596(1)
Program Expansion in the 1960s and 1970s
597(2)
Program Reductions in the 1980s and 1990s
599(1)
The Politics of Diversity and Deficit Spending in the 1990s
600(1)
Era of Market and Personal Responsibility
601(1)
Social Security and SSI
601(1)
Income Security Programs: Social Security and Supplemental Security Income
601(8)
Social Security
601(3)
The Future of Social Security
604(4)
Supplemental Security Income
608(1)
Private Pensions and Income Tax Provisions
609(1)
Private Pensions
609(1)
Income Tax Provisions
610(1)
Social Services
610(2)
Policy Dilemmas
612(6)
Age-Based versus Needs-Based Programs
612(1)
The Politics of Productivity versus the Politics of Entitlement
613(1)
Intergenerational Inequity Framework
614(1)
Critique of the Intergenerational Inequity Framework
614(1)
The Interdependence of Generations Framework
615(3)
Who Is Responsible?
618(1)
Reductions in Government Support
618(1)
Implications for the Future
619(1)
Summary
620(1)
Glossary
621(1)
Resources
622(1)
References
622(4)
Health and Long-Term Care Policy and Programs
626(40)
Health and Long-Term Care Expenditures
628(3)
Factors Underlying Growing Costs
629(2)
Medicare
631(11)
Home Health Care under Medicare
632(3)
Efforts to Reduce Medicare Costs
635(3)
The New Medicare
638(1)
Medicare Reform and Prescription Drug Coverage
639(3)
Medicaid
642(6)
Medicaid-Funded Nursing Home Care
644(1)
Medicaid-Funded Home Health Care
645(1)
Eligibility for Medicaid Home Health Care
645(2)
Medicaid Spend-Down
647(1)
Social Services Block Grants and the Older Americans Act (OAA)
648(1)
Private Long-Term Care Insurance
648(3)
Resultant Inequities
650(1)
Health and Long-Term Care Reforms
651(6)
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)
652(1)
Social Health Maintenance Organizations (SHMOs) and Other Model Innovative Programs
653(4)
Implications for the Future
657(1)
Summary
658(1)
Glossary
659(1)
Resources
659(1)
References
659(7)
Index 666


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