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Social Media: Enduring Principles offers a comprehensive overview of topics in social media, from interpersonal communication to the role of social media in culture and society. It covers not only cultural issues like online identity and community, but also tackles more analytical topics like social media measurement, network analysis, and social media economics at an introductory level. Each chapter is based on a set of core social science theories and concepts rather than platform-specific frameworks and findings. Rather than providing the final word or predictions, it aims to open a well-structured, well-grounded conversation about media transition and its effects.
Filling the need for a standard academic text in the field, Social Media: Enduring Principles summarizes both foundational and state-of-the-art research and also presents a coherent framework for future research. It draws from longstanding theories in communication, journalism, sociology, and marketing, but also includes a number of contemporary case examples, making it a foundational text in the area.
Ashlee Humphreys is an associate professor at the Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University. Professor Humphreys is a sociologist who examines core topics in communication, consumer behavior, and marketing. Her research investigates the role of legal and cultural institutions in shaping media institutions and markets, the influence of language on judgements, and the process of co-creation. Her work has been published in the Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, and Sociology Compass.
Table of Contents
Introduction Chapter 1: Introduction Perspective of this Book Organization of the Book Uses of this Book
Part I: Messages Chapter 2: The Communication Model What is Social Media? Models of Communication Interpersonal Approaches Mass Communication Connecting Interpersonal with Mass Communication Historical Discourses of Digital Technology Do We Structure Technology or Does Technology Structure Us? Media Ecology New Concepts in Social Media Web 2.0 Convergence Platforms Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Note Further Readings References
Chapter 3: Message Types Affordances Attributes of Social Media Social Presence and Media Richness Temporal Structure Symmetry Permanence Mobility and Replicability A Brief History of Computer-Mediated Communication Internet Mobile Communication Forms and Genres of Social Media Technology, Form, and Genre Remediation Social Network Sites Blogs Message Boards or Forums Chatrooms Feeds Content Sharing and Hybrid Forms Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercises Further Readings References
Chapter 4: Measuring Social Media Attention Economy Measuring Attention Reach and Frequency Platform Structures Narrowcasting Attention, Engagement, Conversion Methods for Studying Social Media Digital Anthropology and Netnographic Analysis Textual Analysis Network Analysis Machine Learning and Big Data Privacy Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Notes Further Readings References
Part II: People Chapter 5: User Interaction and Co-Creation Co-creation as a Concept History of Co-creation The Value Chain Co-creation of Media Content Collaborative Production Motivations for Co-creation Ethical Issues in Co-creation Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Notes Further Readings References
Chapter 6: Uses and Benefits of Social Media Uses and Gratifications Theory Self Social Comparison Theory Performance Online Context Collapse Extended Self Interpersonal Relationships Self-Disclosure and Anonymity Trust Boundaries of Self and Privacy Communitas Information and cultivation Therapeutic Uses Gossip, Bullying, and Drama Play Addiction Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Notes Further Readings References
Chapter 7: Digital Inequality, Age, and Social Class Literacy and Capital Literacy Economic, Social, and Cultural Capital Social Class Social Class & Literacy Taste and Social Reproduction Age Digital Natives or Digital Naives? Region Rural versus Urban Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Notes Further Readings References
Chapter 8: Race and Gender Identity and Performance Race Discussion, Debate, and Hate Speech Collective Action and Anti-Racism Online Gender Gender and Performance Representation Online Gender and Uses of Social Media Gender, Harassment, and Misogyny Online Sexuality Summary and Conclusion Discussion Questions Exercises Notes Further Readings References
Part III: Networks Chapter 9: Social Networks Network Analysis It's a Small World, After All! Properties of Ties Properties of Networks Properties of Nodes Emergence: How Networks Form Network Theory in Social Media Social Capital Types of Social Capital Online versus Offline Social Networks Social Networks in Practice Diffusion of Innovations Social Influence Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Notes Further Readings References
Chapter 10: Virtual Communities Traits of Community Theoretical Approaches to Community and Types of Online Community Imagined community Subcultures Audience Communities Communities of Practice Status and Roles in Online Communities Roles in Online Communities Group Boundaries Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Notes Further Readings References
Chapter 11: Social Media Marketing Information or Persuasion? Paid, Earned, and Owned Media The Purchase Funnel and the Decision Journey Decision Journey Advertising Messages and Channels Search Advertising Word of Mouth Crisis Management and Firestorms Social Media Campaigns and Offline Promotions Social Media Marketing and the Value Chain Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercises Notes Further Readings References
Part IV: Culture and Society Chapter 12: Cultural Representations and Practices Theories of Culture Cultural Styles and Practices Participatory Culture Fan Fiction Repetition, Mashups, Remixes, and Parody Language Cultural Transmission Circulation Cultural Content Narrative Transmedia Storytelling Celebrity Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercises Notes Further Readings References
Chapter 13: Political Life Power Public Sphere Citizenship and Civic Participation Social Movement Theory Social Issue Formation Social Movement Tactics Mobilization Coordination Slacktivism Hacktivism and Alternative Means of Communication Social Media Use and Amount of Participation Framing News Consumption and Civic Engagement Social versus Mainstream News Media Citizen Journalism Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercises Notes Further Readings References
Chapter 14: Economic and Legal Structures Shifts in Economic Structure Decreasing Costs of Production, Storage, and Dissemination Blurred Rights of Ownership Copyright Networked Consumers Platforms and the Chicken and Egg Problem Monopolies, Switching Costs, and Multi-homing Shifts in Economic Practice and Production User Innovation Sharing Business Models for Social Media Summary and Conclusion Topics Discussion Questions Exercise Notes Further Readings References