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Provides the knowledge and tools needed for the future of survey research
The survey research discipline faces unprecedented challenges, such as falling response rates, inadequate sampling frames, and antiquated approaches and tools. Addressing this changing landscape, Social Media, Sociality, and Survey Research introduces readers to a multitude of new techniques in data collection in one of the fastest developing areas of survey research.
The book is organized around the central idea of a "sociality hierarchy" in social media interactions, comprised of three levels: broadcast, conversational, and community based. Social Media, Sociality, and Survey Research offers balanced coverage of the theory and practice of traditional survey research, while providing a conceptual framework for the opportunities social media platforms allow. Demonstrating varying perspectives and approaches to working with social media, the book features:
- New ways to approach data collection using platforms such as Facebook and Twitter
- Alternate methods for reaching out to interview subjects
- Design features that encourage participation with engaging, interactive surveys
Social Media, Sociality, and Survey Research is an important resource for survey researchers, market researchers, and practitioners who collect and analyze data in order to identify trends and draw reliable conclusions in the areas of business, sociology, psychology, and population studies. The book is also a useful text for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses on survey methodology and market research.
Craig A. Hill, PhD, is Senior Vice President for the Survey, Computing, and Statistical Sciences at RTI International. He has more than thirty years of experience in survey research, having directed survey research projects for a wide variety of federal, academic, and commercial clients.
Elizabeth Dean, MA, is a Survey Methodologist at RTI International. She specializes in the development and testing of innovative applications of survey methodology, such as designing surveys for various social media platforms, investigating the use of virtual worlds to increase survey privacy, and adapting cognitive pretesting methods for use with emerging technologies.
Joe Murphy, MA, is a Survey Methodologist at RTI International. His research focus includes the implementation of new data collection processes and analytic techniques to maximize data quality, increase response, and reduce costs, as well as the role of new technologies and social media in the collection and analysis of social data.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Social Media, Sociality, and Survey Research
What Is Social Media?
Social Media Origins
Social Networking Sites and Platforms
Other Social Networking Platforms and Functionalities
Why Should Survey Researchers Be Interested in Social Media?
The Current State of Survey Research
Falling Response Rates
Frame Coverage Errors
The Coming Age of Ubiquity
Public vs. Private Data
Social Media Interaction: Next Wave (or Sub-wave)?
Adding Social Media to the Survey Research Toolbox
Toward Using the Concept of Sociality in Survey Research of the Future
How Can Survey Researchers Use Social Media Data?
Chapter 2: Sentiment Analysis: Providing Categorical Insight into Unstructured Textual Data
Describing Emotional or Subjective Feeling in Textual Data
Definition of Machine-Augmented Sentiment Analysis
How Sentiment Analysis Is Used with Text Data
Different Ways of Representing Sentiment
Nominal Emotion Classification
Techniques for Determining Sentiment
Precursors to Analysis
Structure and Understand
Approaches to Determining Sentiment
Machine-coded Sentiment Analysis
Human-coded Sentiment Analysis
Sentiment Analysis as a Subset of Text Analytics
Current Limitations of Sentiment Analysis
Chapter 3: Can Tweets Replace Polls? A U.S. Health Care Reform Case Study
Sentiment Coding of Tweets
Topical Coding of Tweets
Public Opinion about Health Care Reform: Kaiser Health Tracking Poll
RQ1: To what extent was health care reform discussed on Twitter?
RQ2: What is the distribution of sentiment of health care reform Tweets?
RQ3. Do trends in the sentiment of Tweets about health care reform correlate with observed trends in public opinion about health care reform from nationally representative probability-based surveys?
RQ4. What are the key topics discussed in health care reform Tweets?
Chapter 4: The Facebook Platform and the Future of Social Research
The Changing Web: From Searchable to Social
Digital and Digitized Data
The Case for Facebook Integration
Data and the Graph API
The Future, Mobile Apps, and the Ever-Increasing Complexity of the Social Graph
Chapter 5: Virtual Cognitive Interviewing Using Skype and Second Life
A Brief Background of Cognitive Interviews
Cognitive Interviewing Current Practice
Cognitive Interviews in Practice: Present and Future
Second Life for Survey Research
Think-aloud and Probes
Overall Participant Characteristics
Feasibility of Pilot Study
Quality of Cognitive Interviews by Mode
Type and Severity of Problems
Discussion and Future Research
Chapter 6: Second Life as a Survey Lab: Exploring the Randomized Response Technique in a Virtual etting
Overview of Second Life
Research in Second Life
The Randomized Response Technique
Chapter 7: Decisions, Observations, and Considerations for Developing a Mobile Survey App and Panel
The Impact of the Evolution of Technology on Data Collection
Building an App
The Evolution of an Idea: Critical Decision Points
Decision Point 1: Build It or Buy It?
Decision Point 2: What Do We Build?
Decision Point 3: Who Do We Recruit and How?
Decision Point 4: How Do We Keep Users Engaged?
Decision Point 5: Are We Ready?
Respondent Impressions on Incentives, Survey Length, and Frequency
Chapter 8: Crowdsourcing: A Flexible Method for Innovation, Data Collection, and Analysis in Social Science Research
What Is Crowdsourcing?
Cisco Systems I-Prize Challenge
RTI International’s 2012 Research Challenge
Options for Hosting Your Own Challenges
Crowdsourcing Survey Response on Mechanical Turk
Targeted Data Collection
Emerging Tobacco Product Detection
Findings from the Snus Study
Crowdsourced Citizen Observation Networks: eBird and Waze
Analysis by Crowdsourcing
Challenge-Based Data Analysis
Chapter 9: Collecting Diary Data on Twitter
Diaries on Twitter
Response Rates by Question Format
Public Nature of Twitter
Chapter 10: Recruiting Participants with Chronic Conditions in Second Life
Using Existing Second Life Resources
Other Effective Methods
The Importance of the Recruitment Avatar
Chapter 11: Gamification of Market Research
Significance of Gamification in Market Research
Apply Gamification to Market Research
What Is a Game?
Gamification in Survey Design
Exploring the Role of Gamification in Research Context
Adopting the Concept of Gamification
Rethink Question Writing
Change Question Style
Apply Rules to Question Design
Motivation: Turn Questions into Quest!
Add the Competitive Element
Impose Challenges and Time Limits
Ask People to Guess What Other People Think
Add Reward Mechanics
Make Tasks More Involving
Ensure the Challenge Can Be Accomplished
How to Design Questions to Be More Game-Like
1. Use More Imagery.
2. Challenge the Layout and Design Rules.
3. Get Rid of the Grid Lines.
Common Questions about Gamification
Who Responds to Gamification?
What Impact Does Gamification Have on the Data?
How Do These Techniques Work in Different Cultures?
Chapter 12: The Future of Social Media, Sociality, and Survey Research
Statistical Challenges with Social Media Data
Quality and Representativeness
Sampling from Social Media Sources
Population Estimation from Social Media Data
What Does the Future Hold?
Sociality Hierarchy Level 1: Broadcast
Sociality Hierarchy Level 2: Conversation
Sociality Hierarchy Level 3: Community