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Social Problems in a Diverse Society

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205337255

ISBN10:
0205337252
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Social Problems in a Diverse Society focuses on the significance of race, class, and gender; uses personal narratives to convey how problems are experienced by individuals and groups; and applies sociological perspectives throughout to examine social issues. The book includes five chapters on problems based on inequalities: wealth and poverty, race and ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation. the author, who specializes in social theory, uses the three main sociological perspectives throughout the book, along with contemporary feminist and humanist perspectives.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Taking a New Look at Social Problems
2(20)
What is a Social Problem?
4(4)
Box 1.1 Social Problems and Social Policy
Do Guns Kill People or Do People Kill People?
4(3)
Subjective Awareness and Objective Reality
7(1)
Why Study Social Problems?
7(1)
The Sociological Imagination and Social Problems
8(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Social Problems
8(7)
The Functionalist Perspective
9(2)
The Conflict Perspective
11(2)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
13(2)
Social Research Methods for Studying Social Problems
15(7)
Field Research
15(1)
Survey Research
16(1)
Secondary Analysis of Existing Data
16(1)
Box 1.2 Social Problems in the Media
Violence in the Media
17(2)
In Sum
19(1)
Summary
20(1)
Key Terms
21(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
21(1)
Wealth and Poverty: U.S. and Global Economic Inequalities
22(22)
Wealth and Poverty in Global Perspective
24(2)
Analyzing U.S. Class Inequality
26(5)
Box 2.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
``Cheap Labor'' and the Global Economy
26(2)
Wealth versus Income Inequality
28(2)
Divisions in the U.S. Class Structure
30(1)
Poverty in the United States
31(6)
Social Problems and Statistics
Poverty in the United States
32(2)
The Poverty Line
34(1)
Who Are the Poor?
35(1)
Consequences of Poverty
36(1)
Social Welfare in the United States
37(7)
Box 2.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
Following Up on Welfare Reform: Does One Size Fit All?
38(2)
Explanations for Poverty
40(1)
Can Class-Based Inequality Be Reduced?
41(1)
Summary
42(1)
Key Terms
43(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
43(1)
Racial and Ethnic Inequality
44(26)
Racial and Ethnic Inequality as a Social Problem
45(2)
What Are Race and Ethnicity?
46(1)
``Official'' Racial and Ethnic Classifications
46(1)
Dominant and Subordinate Groups
47(1)
Racism, Prejudice, and Discrimination
47(3)
Box 3.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Racism in Canada
49(1)
Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Inequality
50(4)
Social-Psychological Perspectives
50(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
50(1)
Functionalist Perspectives
51(1)
Conflict Perspectives
51(1)
Box 3.2 Social Problems in the Media
Reflections on the TV Screen: The Portrayal of Latinas and Latinos
52(2)
Inequalities Among Racial and Ethnic Groups
54(11)
Native Americans (American Indians)
55(1)
African Americans
56(3)
Latinos/as (Hispanic Americans)
59(1)
Social Problems and Statistics
Accurate and Inaccurate Comparisons
60(2)
Asian and Pacific Americans
62(2)
Box 3.3 Social Problems and Social Policy
Social Justice: Beyond Black and White
64(1)
Summary
65(1)
Can Racial and Ethnic Inequalities be Reduced?
65(5)
Summary
67(1)
Key Terms
68(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
68(2)
Gender Inequality
70(26)
Gender Inequality as a Social Problem
72(1)
Defining Sex and Gender
72(1)
Biological and Social Bases for Gender Roles
72(1)
Gender Inequality and Socialization
73(6)
Gender Socialization by Parents
73(1)
Peers and Gender Socialization
74(1)
Education and Gender Socialization
74(2)
Sports and Gender Socialization
76(1)
Social Problems and Statistics
Do Athletic Gains for Women Equal Losses for Men?
76(1)
The Media and Gender Socialization
77(2)
Contemporary Gender Inequality
79(9)
The Gendered Division of Paid Work
79(3)
The Wage Gap
82(1)
Sexual Harassment
82(1)
The Glass Ceiling and the Glass Escalator
83(2)
Box 4.1 Social Problems and Social Policy
Men Being Taunted by Other Men: Is It Sexual Harassment?
85(2)
The Double Shift
87(1)
Perspectives on Gender Inequality
88(2)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
88(1)
The Functionalist Perspective
89(1)
Conflict and Feminist Perspectives
90(1)
Global Gender Inequality
90(3)
Box 4.2 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Sex-Selective Abortion: Missing Girls in China
91(2)
Can Gender Inequality in the United States Be Reduced?
93(3)
Summary
93(1)
Key Terms
94(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
94(2)
Inequality Based on Age
96(20)
Ageism as a Social Problem
97(9)
Age-Based Stereotypes
98(1)
Social Inequality and the Life Course
99(1)
Box 5.1 Social Problems in the Media
Media Ageism and Reporting on Teenagers
100(4)
Social Problems and Statistics
Drawing the Wrong Conclusion
104(1)
Death and Dying
105(1)
Problems Associated with Aging
106(5)
Workplace Discrimination
106(1)
Retirement and Changing Roles
107(1)
Health, Illness, and Health Care
107(1)
Box 5.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
Government-Funded Health Care for Older People: Medicare
108(1)
Victimization
109(1)
Family Problems and Social Isolation
109(1)
Housing Patterns and Long-Term Care Facilities
110(1)
Perspectives on Aging and Social Inequality
111(1)
The Functionalist Perspective
111(1)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
111(1)
The Conflict Perspective
112(1)
Can Age-Based Inequality be Reduced?
112(4)
Summary
114(1)
Key Terms
115(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
115(1)
Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation
116(20)
Nature and Extent of Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation
118(1)
Social Problems and Statistics
How Many Gays and Lesbians?
118(1)
Ideological Bases of Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation
119(4)
Box 6.1 Social Problems in the Media
Depictions of Gay Men and Lesbians: Accurate Portrayals in Television Programming?
120(1)
Religion and Sexual Orientation
120(2)
Law and Sexual Orientation
122(1)
Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation
123(5)
Lack of Marital Rights
123(1)
Parental Rights
124(1)
Housing Discrimination
124(1)
Discrimination in Medical Care
124(1)
Occupational Discrimination
125(1)
Discrimination in the Military
126(1)
Victimization and Hate Crimes
126(1)
Box 6.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
School's Out: Closing the Books on Homophobia
127(1)
Perspectives on Sexual Orientation and Social Inequality
128(4)
Biological and Psychological Perspectives
128(2)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
130(1)
Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives
131(1)
Can Inequalities Based on Sexual Orientation be Reduced?
132(4)
Summary
134(1)
Key Terms
135(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
135(1)
Prostitution, Pornography, and the Sex Industry
136(20)
Deviance, the Sex Industry, and Social Problems
137(1)
Prostitution in Global Perspective
138(4)
The World's Oldest Profession?
139(1)
The Global Sex Industry
139(1)
Health Aspects of Prostitution for Women
140(1)
Box 7.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Economic Development or Childhood Sexual Slavery?
140(2)
Prostitution in the United States
142(4)
The Nature of Prostitution
142(1)
The Extent of Prostitution
143(1)
Social Problems and Statistics
What We Know and Don't Know about Prostitution
143(1)
Prostitution and Age, Class, and Race
143(3)
Sociological Perspectives on Prostitution
146(1)
The Functionalist Perspective
146(1)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
146(1)
The Conflict Perspective
147(1)
Pornography
147(5)
The Social Construction of Pornography as a Social Problem
148(1)
The Nature and Extent of Pornography
149(1)
Research on Pornography
149(1)
Box 7.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
The Issue of Real versus Virtual Actors in Internet Child Pornography
150(1)
Pornography and Age, Gender, Class, and Race
150(2)
The Future of Pornography and the Sex Industry
152(4)
Summary
154(1)
Key Terms
155(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
155(1)
Alcohol and Other Drugs
156(26)
Drug Use and Abuse
157(2)
Defining Drug Abuse
158(1)
Drug Addiction
158(1)
Alcohol Use and Abuse
159(5)
Alcohol Consumption and Class, Gender, Age, and Race
159(2)
Alcohol-Related Social Problems
161(1)
Box 8.1 Social Problems in the Media
A Fading Drumbeat against Drunken Driving?
162(2)
Tobacco (Nicotine) Use as a Social Problem
164(1)
Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, and Caffeine
165(2)
Prescription Drugs
166(1)
Over-the-Counter Drugs
166(1)
Caffeine
167(1)
Illegal Drug Use and Abuse
167(6)
Marijuana
167(1)
Box 8.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
The Battle over Marijuana: Medicalization or Legalization?
168(1)
Stimulants
169(2)
Depressants
171(1)
Narcotics
171(1)
Hallucinogens
172(1)
Explanations of Drug Abuse
173(3)
Biological Explanations
173(1)
Psychological Explanations
173(1)
Sociological Explanations
174(2)
The Future of Alcohol and Drug Abuse
176(6)
Prevention Programs
176(2)
Treatment Programs
178(2)
Summary
180(1)
Key Terms
181(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
181(1)
Crime and Criminal Justice
182(30)
Crime as a Social Problem
183(3)
Problems with Official Statistics
184(1)
Defining Crime and Delinquency
184(2)
Types of Crimes
186(9)
Violent Crime
186(2)
Box 9.1 Social Problems in the Media
What Makes Murder So Newsworthy?
188(3)
Property Crime
191(2)
Occupational (White-Collar) Crime
193(1)
Corporate Crime
193(1)
Organized Crime
194(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
194(1)
Who Commits Crimes?
195(2)
Biological and Psychological Explanations of Crime
197(1)
Biological Explanations
197(1)
Psychological Explanations
197(1)
Sociological Explanations of Crime
198(5)
The Functionalist Perspective
198(2)
The Conflict Perspective
200(1)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
200(2)
Box 9.2 Social Problems in the Media
The Virtual World of Extreme Violence
202(1)
The Criminal Justice System
203(9)
The Police
204(1)
The Courts
205(1)
Punishment and the Prisons
206(1)
The Death Penalty
207(1)
Box 9.3 Social Problems and Social Policy
Crime Prevention or the Prison-Industrial Complex?
208(1)
Summary
209(1)
Key Terms
210(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
211(1)
Health Care: Problems of Physical and Mental Illness
212(24)
Health Care as a Social Problem
213(6)
Acute and Chronic Diseases and Disability
216(2)
Box 10.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Global Enemies of Health: The Double Burden of Low-Income Nations
218(1)
The AIDS Crisis
218(1)
Mental Illness as a Social Problem
219(5)
Treatment of Mental Illness
221(1)
Race, Class, Gender, and Mental Disorders
222(2)
The Crisis in U.S. Health Care
224(7)
Health Care Organization, Rising Costs, and Unequal Access
224(1)
Box 10.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
Health Care: The Canadian Model
225(3)
Social Problems and Statistics
Families without Health Insurance
228(1)
The Uninsured and the Underinsured
229(1)
Race, Class, Gender, and Health Care
230(1)
Sociological Explanations for Health Care Problems
231(5)
The Functionalist Perspective
231(1)
The Conflict Perspective
232(1)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
233(1)
Summary
234(1)
Key Terms
235(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
235(1)
The Changing Family
236(24)
The Nature of Families
237(4)
Changing Family Structure and Patterns
238(1)
Are U.S. Families in Decline?
238(1)
Box 11.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
The Changing Family around the World
239(1)
Changing Views on Marriage and Families
240(1)
Sociological Perspectives on Family-Related Problems
241(3)
Functionalist Perspectives
242(1)
Conflict and Feminist Perspectives
242(1)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
243(1)
Diversity in Intimate Relationships and Families
244(3)
Singlehood
244(1)
Postponing Marriage
244(1)
Cohabitation and Domestic Partnerships
245(1)
Dual-Earner Marriages
246(1)
Comparing Two-Parent and One-Parent Households
246(1)
Child-Related Family Issues
247(5)
Reproductive Freedom, Contraception, and Abortion
248(1)
Infertility and New Reproductive Technologies
249(1)
Adoption
250(1)
Teen Pregnancies and Unmarried Motherhood
250(2)
Divorce and Remarriage
252(2)
Social Problems and Statistics
The Odds of Getting Divorced
253(1)
Domestic Violence
254(3)
Child Abuse
254(1)
Spouse Abuse
255(1)
Social Responses to Domestic Violence
256(1)
Family-Related Problems in the Twenty-First Century
257(3)
Box 11.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
Day Care: Jump-Starting the Stalled Revolution
257(1)
Summary
258(1)
Key Terms
259(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
259(1)
Problems in Education
260(22)
Sociological Perspectives on Education
261(5)
Functionalist Perspectives
262(1)
Conflict Perspectives
263(1)
Box 12.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Education in Japan: The Underside of Excellence
263(2)
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
265(1)
Problems in U.S. Education
266(6)
What Can Be Done about Illiteracy?
266(1)
Immigration and Increasing Diversity in School
267(2)
Educational Opportunities and Race, Class, and Gender
269(2)
School Violence
271(1)
Problems in School Financing
272(3)
Box 12.2 Social Problems in the Media
Channel One: Commercialism in the Classroom
273(2)
Problems in Higher Education
275(3)
The Soaring Cost of a College Education
275(1)
Social Problems and Statistics
Does Spending More Money Guarantee a Better Education?
276(1)
The Continuing Debate over Affirmative Action
277(1)
Educational Problems in the Twenty-First Century
278(4)
Summary
279(1)
Key Terms
280(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
281(1)
Problems in Politics and the Global Economy
282(22)
Types of Economies
284(2)
Preindustrial Economies
284(1)
Industrial Economies
284(1)
Postindustrial Economies
284(2)
Three Major Modern Economic Systems
286(1)
Problems in the Global Economy
286(2)
Transnational Corporations and the Lack of Accountability
287(1)
Box 13.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Global Consumerism: Something for Everyone?
288(1)
Problems in the U.S. Economy
288(4)
Concentration of Wealth
288(2)
The National Debt and Consumer Debt
290(1)
Corporate Welfare
291(1)
Problems in Political Participation Around the World
292(1)
Problems in U.S. Politics
293(5)
Voter Apathy and the Gender Gap
293(1)
Politics and Money in Political Campaigns
293(1)
Box 13.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
Campaign Finance Reform
294(2)
Government by Special-Interest Groups
296(1)
Government by Bureaucracy
296(1)
The Military-Industrial Complex
297(1)
Sociological Perspectives on the Political Economy
298(2)
The Functionalist Perspective
298(1)
The Conflict Perspective
299(1)
Problems in Politics and the Economy in the Twenty-First Century
300(4)
Summary
301(1)
Key Terms
302(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
303(1)
Problems in the Media
304(20)
The Political Economy of Media Industries
306(6)
Media Ownership and Control
307(2)
Problems Associated with Convergence
309(1)
Box 14.1 Social Problems in the Media
Virtual Media versus the Mainstream Press
310(2)
Global Media Issues
312(2)
Box 14.2 Social Problems in the Global Perspective
The Depiction of Africa by the Global Media: Omissions and Commissions
313(1)
Potential Media Effects
314(4)
Aggression, Violence, and the Media
314(2)
Perpetuation of Race and Gender Stereotypes in the Media
316(2)
Sociological Perspectives on Media-Related Problems
318(2)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
318(1)
The Functionalist Perspective
319(1)
The Conflict Perspective
319(1)
The Media in the Twenty-First Century
320(4)
Summary
321(2)
Key Terms
323(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
323(1)
Population and the Environmental Crisis
324(26)
Global Overpopulation
325(7)
Population Growth
325(3)
The Impact of Population Growth
328(1)
Box 15.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Challenges and Opportunities Presented by Worldwide Migration
328(2)
World Hunger
330(2)
Controlling Fertility
332(2)
Family Planning
333(1)
Zero Population Growth
333(1)
Immigration and its Consequences
334(2)
Population and the Environment
336(8)
Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation
337(1)
Air Pollution
337(3)
Problems with Water, Soil, and Forests
340(1)
Solid, Toxic, and Nuclear Wastes
341(1)
Box 15.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
What to Do with Waste? NIMBY (Not in My Back Yard!)
342(2)
Sociological Perspectives on Population and the Environment
344(2)
The Functionalist Perspective
344(1)
The Conflict Perspective
345(1)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
346(1)
Population and the Environment in the Twenty-First Century
346(4)
Summary
347(1)
Key Terms
348(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
349(1)
Urban Problems
350(22)
Changes in U.S. Cities
352(2)
Early Urban Growth and Social Problems
352(1)
Contemporary Urban Growth
352(2)
Urban Problems in the United States
354(8)
Fiscal Crisis in Cities
354(2)
The Crisis in Health Care
356(1)
Housing Problems
356(1)
Box 16.1 Social Problems in the Media
Homelessness and the Holidays
357(3)
Racial and Ethnic Segregation
360(2)
Problems in Global Cities
362(3)
Sociological Perspectives on Urban Problems
365(4)
The Functionalist Perspective
365(1)
The Conflict Perspective
366(1)
Box 16.2 Social Problems and Social Policy
Who Will Benefit Most from the Community Renewal Initiative?
366(2)
The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
368(1)
Urban Problems in the Twenty-First Century
369(3)
Summary
370(1)
Key Terms
371(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
371(1)
Global Social Problems: War and Terrorism
372(20)
War as a Social Problem
374(5)
The Nature of War
374(1)
The Consequences of War
375(1)
Box 17.1 Social Problems in Global Perspective
Surviving the War in Bosnia
375(4)
Military Technology and War
379(1)
Global Terrorism
380(2)
Domestic Terrorism in the United States
382(3)
Box 17.2 Social Problems in the Media
Media and Terrorism: What Is the Line between Information and Fear?
383(2)
Explanations of War and Terrorism
385(3)
Biological Perspectives
385(1)
Psychological Perspectives
386(1)
Sociological Explanations
387(1)
War and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century
388(4)
Summary
389(1)
Key Terms
390(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
391(1)
Can Social Problems Be Solved?
392(20)
A Review of Major Social Theories on Social Problems
394(1)
Social Change and Reducing Social Problems
395(1)
Microlevel Attempts to Solve Social Problems
396(1)
Seeking Individual Solutions to Personal Problems
396(1)
Limitations of the Microlevel Solutions Approach
397(1)
Midrange Attempts to Solve Social Problems
397(5)
Groups That Help People Cope with Their Problems
397(1)
Grassroots Groups That Work for Community-Based Change
398(2)
Box 18.1 Social Problems and Social Policy
Floating Homeless Shelters: A Solution or a Problem for Homeless People?
400(1)
Limitations of the Midlevel Solutions Approach
401(1)
Macrolevel Attempts to Solve Social Problems
402(10)
Working through Special-Interest Groups for Political Change
402(1)
Working through National and International Social Movements to Reduce Problems
403(4)
Limitations of the Macrolevel Solution Approach
407(1)
Box 18.2 Social Problems in the Media
Mobilizing for Change through the Echo Effect
407(2)
Summary
409(1)
Key Terms
410(1)
Questions for Critical Thinking
411(1)
Glossary 412(7)
References 419(29)
Name Index 448(7)
Subject Index 455


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