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Social Problems and the Quality of Life (8th),9780072355222
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Social Problems and the Quality of Life (8th)

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780072355222

ISBN10:
0072355220
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/1/2001
Publisher(s):
McGraw Hill (Tx)
List Price: $77.85
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Table of Contents

List of Figures
xv
List of Tables
xvii
Preface xix
PART 1 Foundations 1(64)
Understanding Social Problems
3(36)
Learning Objectives
3(1)
Focus Questions
3(1)
Introduction
4(1)
Personal vs. Social Problems
4(4)
The Causes of Problems
5(1)
The Consequences of Problems
6(2)
The Sociological Approach
8(4)
The Social Nature of Attitudes
8(1)
The Social Nature of Norms
9(2)
The Social Nature of Behavior
11(1)
Theoretical Explanations
12(14)
The Social Disorganization Theory
12(2)
The Social Change Theory
14(2)
The Value Conflict Theory
16(1)
The Deviance Theories
17(7)
The Social Structure Theories
24(2)
Theories as Complementary
26(1)
Social Problems as Contradictions
26(3)
Quality of Life
28(1)
Involvement---What? Why? How?
29(5)
Multiple Levels of Social Problems
30(1)
Social Action for Resolution
31(1)
The Changing Nature of Social Problems
32(1)
A Definition
33(1)
Summary
34(1)
Key Terms
35(1)
Study Questions
35(1)
For Further Reading
35(1)
Notes
36(3)
Myths and Facts: Using Critical Thinking and Research
39(26)
Learning Objectives
39(1)
Focus Questions
39(1)
Introduction
40(1)
The Source of Myth: Fallacies of Thinking
41(9)
Fallacy of Dramatic Instance
41(1)
Fallacy of Retrospective Determinism
42(2)
Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness
44(1)
Fallacy of Personal Attack
44(1)
Appeal to Prejudice
45(1)
Circular Reasoning
46(1)
Fallacy of Authority
46(2)
Fallacy of Composition
48(1)
Non Sequitur
49(1)
Involvement---How, and How Not, to Think
50(1)
The Source of Facts: Social Research
50(11)
Survey Research
51(3)
Statistical Analysis of Official Records
54(2)
Experiments
56(3)
Participant Observation
59(2)
Summary
61(2)
Key Terms
63(1)
Study Questions
63(1)
For Further Reading
63(1)
Notes
64(1)
PART 2 Problems of Behavioral Variance 65(154)
Sexual Variance
67(38)
Learning Objectives
67(1)
Focus Questions
67(1)
Introduction
68(1)
Examples of Sexual Variance
68(1)
Prostitution
69(7)
Prostitution and the Quality of Life
70(5)
Contributing Factors
75(1)
Global Comparisons: Child Prostitutes
76(3)
What Is to Be Done?
79(1)
Pornography, Erotica, and Obscenity
80(5)
Nature and Extent of the Problem
80(2)
Pornography, Erotica, Obscenity, and the Quality of Life
82(2)
Contributing Factors
84(1)
Involvement---Sexy or Disgusting?
85(1)
What Is to Be Done?
86(1)
Homosexuality and Homophobia
87(9)
Homosexuality: Definition and Numbers
87(1)
Why Are Some People Homosexual?
88(3)
Homosexuality and the Quality of Life
91(5)
Voices: ``I Didn't Understand''
96(3)
Contributing Factors
97(2)
What Is to Be Done?
99(2)
Summary
101(1)
Key Terms
102(1)
Study Questions
102(1)
For Further Reading
102(1)
Notes
103(2)
Alcohol and Other Drugs
105(38)
Learning Objectives
105(1)
Focus Questions
105(1)
Introduction
106(1)
Types and Effects
107(2)
Alcohol
107(1)
Other Drugs
108(1)
Alcohol
109(6)
Patterns of Use
109(3)
Alcohol and the Quality of Life
112(3)
Global Comparisons: Alcoholism in Eastern Europe
115(4)
Contributing Factors
117(2)
What Is to Be Done?
119(2)
Involvement---``I'd Kill Before I'd Drink''
121(1)
Other Drugs
122(8)
Patterns of Use
122(3)
Drugs and the Quality of Life
125(4)
Contributing Factors
129(1)
Voices: Despair and Hope
130(6)
What Is to Be Done?
136(3)
Summary
139(1)
Key Terms
140(1)
Study Questions
140(1)
For Further Reading
141(2)
Crime and Delinquency
143(38)
Learning Objectives
143(1)
Focus Questions
143(1)
Introduction
144(1)
The Varieties of Crime
145(7)
Predatory Crime
145(1)
Illegal Service Crimes
146(1)
Public Disorder Crimes
146(1)
Crimes of Negligence
146(1)
Computer Crime
146(1)
White-Collar Crime
147(2)
Organized Crime
149(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
150(1)
Juvenile Violence and Juvenile Gangs
151(1)
The Extent of Crime and Delinquency
152(6)
Sources of Data
153(1)
Problems with Official Records
153(2)
The Amount of Crime and Delinquency
155(2)
The Distribution of Crime
157(1)
The Criminal Justice Process
158(1)
Crime, Delinquency, and the Quality of Life
159(2)
Physical and Psychological Costs of Crime
159(1)
Economic Costs of Crime
160(1)
Voices: A Victim Recovers
161(1)
Contributing Factors
162(3)
Social Structural Factors
162(3)
Global Comparisons: Alternatives to Imprisonment: Germany and Israel
165(1)
Involvement---Coddling Criminals
166(5)
Social Psychological Factors
169(2)
What Is to Be Done?
171(4)
Punishment or Rehabilitation?
171(2)
Innovative Alternatives
173(1)
Community Action and Involvement
174(1)
Aid to Victims
175(1)
Summary
175(1)
Key Terms
176(1)
Study Questions
177(1)
For Further Reading
177(1)
Notes
178(3)
Violence
181(38)
Learning Objectives
181(1)
Focus Questions
181(1)
Introduction
182(1)
What Is Violence?
182(4)
How Much Violence Is There?
183(3)
Violence and the Quality of Life
186(2)
Human Injury and Destruction
186(1)
Psychological Disruption and Dehumanization
186(1)
Violence as Seductive Self-Destruction
187(1)
Economic Costs
188(1)
Contributing Factors
188(5)
Social Structural Factors
189(4)
Involvement: Violently Opposed to Violence
193(9)
Is There a Subculture of Violence?
196(1)
Social Psychological Factors
197(5)
What Is to Be Done?
202(1)
The Violence of Rape
203(1)
Number and Characteristics of Victims
204(1)
Rape and the Quality of Life
204(3)
Emotional Trauma
206(1)
Voices: ``I Felt Guilty''
207(2)
Physical Abuse
209(1)
Contributing Factors
209(3)
Social Structural Factors
209(1)
Social Psychological Factors
210(2)
Global Comparisons: Correlates of Sexual Abuse among Taiwanese College Students
212(3)
What Is to Be Done?
215(1)
Summary
216(1)
Key Terms
217(1)
Study Questions
217(1)
For Further Reading
218(1)
Note
218(1)
PART 3 Problems of Inequality 219(110)
Poverty
221(34)
Learning Objectives
221(1)
Focus Questions
221(1)
Introduction
222(1)
What Is Poverty?
222(3)
Extent of Poverty
223(2)
Who Are the Poor?
225(4)
The Changing Nature of Poverty
227(2)
Poverty and the Quality of Life
229(1)
The Right to Life and Happiness
229(1)
Global Comparisons: Poverty in the World System
230(2)
Voices: ``We Feel Like Deadbeats''
232(5)
The Right to Dignity as a Human Being
234(2)
Poverty and Health
236(1)
Involvement---From Riches to Rags
237(1)
Dilemmas of Poverty
237(1)
Contributing Factors
238(10)
Social Structural Factors
239(7)
Social Psychological Factors
246(2)
What Is to Be Done?
248(3)
Summary
251(1)
Key Terms
252(1)
Study Questions
252(1)
For Further Reading
253(1)
Notes
253(2)
Gender Inequality
255(36)
Learning Objectives
255(1)
Focus Questions
255(1)
Introduction
256(1)
Biology or Society?
256(4)
Gender Inequality and the Quality of Life
260(6)
The Right to Equal Economic Opportunities
260(5)
Educational Attainment
265(1)
Political Participation
265(1)
Global Comparisons: Gender Inequality in the Workplace
266(5)
The Right to Dignity as a Human Being
268(3)
Contributing Factors
271(1)
Social Structural Factors
271(1)
Voices: ``I Didn't Need the Extra Hassles''
272(5)
Involvement---You Are What You Read
277(6)
Social Psychological Factors
279(4)
What Is to Be Done?
283(2)
Summary
285(1)
Key Terms
286(1)
Study Questions
287(1)
For Further Reading
287(1)
Notes
288(3)
Race, Ethnic Groups, and Racism
291(38)
Learning Objectives
291(1)
Focus Questions
291(1)
Introduction
292(1)
The Meaning of Race, Ethnic Groups, and Racism
292(2)
Extent and Origin of Races and Racism in America
294(3)
Race, Ethnicity, and the Quality of Life
297(8)
The Rights of Citizenship
297(3)
The Right to Equal Economic Opportunities
300(4)
The Right to Life and Happiness
304(1)
Voices: Will It Ever End?
305(8)
The Right to Dignity as a Human Being
309(4)
Contributing Factors
313(1)
Social Structural Factors
313(1)
Involvement---Becoming Color Blind
314(8)
Social Psychological Factors
318(4)
Global Comparisons: Prejudice in Europe
322(3)
What Is to Be Done?
325(1)
Summary
326(1)
Key Terms
327(1)
Study Questions
327(1)
For Further Reading
328(1)
Notes
328(1)
PART 4 Problems of Social Institutions 329(182)
Government and Politics
331(34)
Learning Objectives
331(1)
Focus Questions
331(1)
Introduction
332(1)
Why Government?
332(3)
Protect the Citizenry
332(1)
Secure Order
333(1)
Distribute Power Equitably
334(1)
Provide a Safety Net
334(1)
Problems of Government and Politics
335(4)
Inequalities in Power
335(1)
The Failure of Trust
336(3)
Involvement---Why Don't People Trust the Government?
339(4)
Waste, Corruption, and Scandals
340(2)
Gridlock
342(1)
Government, Politics, and the Quality of Life
343(3)
Unequal Opportunities for a High Quality of Life
343(1)
Inadequate Protection of Individual Rights
344(1)
Lack of Responsiveness to Needs
345(1)
Voices: ``Why Isn't There Help for People Like Me?''
346(1)
Contributing Factors
347(3)
Social Structural Factors
347(3)
Global Comparisons: Bureaucracy in Indonesia
350(9)
Social Psychological Factors
357(2)
What Is to Be Done?
359(1)
Summary
360(2)
Key Terms
362(1)
Study Questions
362(1)
For Further Reading
362(3)
Work and the Economy
365(32)
Learning Objectives
365(1)
Focus Questions
365(1)
Introduction
366(1)
The Economy, Work, and the Workforce in America
367(5)
The Changing Economy
367(1)
The Changing Workforce
368(2)
The Changing Composition of the Labor Force
370(1)
The Changing Meaning of Work
371(1)
Work as a Social Problem
372(3)
Unemployment and Underemployment
372(2)
Dissatisfaction and Alienation
374(1)
Global Comparisons: Unemployment Rates in Industrial Nations
375(2)
Work Hazards and Stress
376(1)
Work and the Quality of Life
377(5)
Work, Unemployment, and Health
377(2)
Voices: ``I'm Not a Worrier, but. . .''
379(2)
Interpersonal Relationships
381(1)
Contributing Factors
382(8)
Social Structural Factors
382(6)
Social Psychological Factors
388(2)
Involvement---Fun and Games at Work
390(1)
What Is to Be Done?
391(2)
Summary
393(1)
Key Terms
394(1)
Study Questions
394(1)
For Further Reading
395(1)
Notes
395(2)
Education
397(38)
Learning Objectives
397(1)
Focus Questions
397(1)
Introduction
398(1)
Why Education?
398(1)
Educational Attainment and Payoff
399(4)
Levels of Attainment
399(3)
Attainment and Payoff
402(1)
Global Comparisons: Educational Attainment, by Country
403(2)
Education and the Quality of Life
405(9)
Inequality of Opportunity and Attainment
405(3)
The Atmosphere: Learning or Surviving?
408(2)
The Payoff: A Great Training Robbery?
410(1)
American Education: A Tide of Mediocrity?
411(3)
Contributing Factors
414(2)
Social Structural Factors
414(2)
Involvement---What is the Purpose of Education?
416(3)
Voices: ``I Kept My Mouth Shut''
419(5)
Social Psychological Factors
421(1)
A Concluding Note on the Inequality in Education
422(2)
What Is to Be Done?
424(6)
Quality Enhancement Measures
425(1)
Reducing Racial/Ethnic Inequality
426(1)
Compensatory and Other Innovative Programs
427(3)
Summary
430(1)
Key Terms
431(1)
Study Questions
431(1)
For Further Reading
431(1)
Notes
432(3)
Family Problems
435(36)
Learning Objectives
435(1)
Focus Questions
435(1)
Introduction
436(1)
Is the Family Doomed?
436(4)
Alternative Forms of the Family
436(1)
The Changing American Family
437(2)
Functions of the Family
439(1)
The Extent of Family Problems
440(2)
Disrupted and Reconstituted Families
441(1)
Global Comparisons: Marital Quality and Well-Being of Children
442(5)
Family Violence
443(4)
Family Problems and the Quality of Life
447(4)
Physical and Emotional Difficulties
448(3)
Voices: ``I Survived the Abuse''
451(3)
Poverty
452(1)
Deviant Behavior
453(1)
Maladjustment
453(1)
Contributing Factors
454(8)
Social Structural Factors
454(6)
Social Psychological Factors
460(2)
Involvement---One Big Happy Family
462(3)
What Is to Be Done?
465(2)
Summary
467(1)
Key Terms
468(1)
Study Questions
468(1)
For Further Reading
469(2)
Health Care and Illness: Physical and Mental
471(40)
Learning Objectives
471(1)
Focus Questions
471(1)
Introduction
472(1)
Nature of the Problem: Health Care and Illness
472(6)
Physical Illness
473(3)
AIDS
476(2)
Global Comparisons: The Worldwide Challenge of Infectious Diseases
478(6)
Mental Illness
481(3)
Involvement---Except Me and Thee?
484(1)
Voices: ``If You Want to Live a Long Life . . .''
485(1)
Health Care, Illness, and the Quality of Life
486(7)
Stress and Suffering
486(1)
Interpersonal Relationships
487(1)
Inadequate Care
488(3)
Deinstitutionalization
491(1)
Individual Freedom
492(1)
Economic Costs
493(1)
Contributing Factors
493(11)
Social Structural Factors
493(7)
Social Psychological Factors
500(4)
What Is to Be Done?
504(3)
Summary
507(1)
Key Terms
508(1)
Study Questions
508(1)
For Further Reading
508(1)
Note
509(2)
PART 5 Global Social Problems 511(100)
War
513(30)
Learning Objectives
513(1)
Focus Questions
513(1)
Introduction
514(1)
Extent of the Problem of War
514(2)
War and the Quality of Life
516(9)
Human Destruction and Injury
516(3)
Psychological and Interpersonal Disruption and Dehumanization
519(5)
Environmental Destruction
524(1)
Voices: ``I Didn't Want to See It''
525(5)
Nuclear Winter
526(1)
The Economic Costs
527(2)
War and Civil Liberties
529(1)
Global Comparisons: Militarism: ``A World Gone Insane''
530(1)
Contributing Factors
531(4)
Social Structural Factors
532(2)
Social Psychological Factors
534(1)
Involvement: ``What a Great War That Was''
535(2)
What Is to Be Done?
537(1)
Summary
538(1)
Key Terms
539(1)
Study Questions
539(1)
For Further Reading
540(1)
Notes
540(3)
Population, Aging, and Urban Problems
543(34)
Learning Objectives
543(1)
Focus Questions
543(1)
Introduction
544(1)
Population
544(6)
Population Growth
544(4)
Problems of Population Growth
548(2)
Global Comparisons: The Population Challenge: The Case of India
550(2)
Contributing Factors
551(1)
What Is to Be Done?
552(1)
Aging
552(4)
How Many Aged?
552(1)
What Is Aging?
553(3)
Voices: ``I'm as Busy as Ever''
556(8)
Aging and the Quality of Life
557(5)
Contributing Factors
562(2)
What Is to Be Done?
564(1)
Urbanization
565(4)
Urban Growth
565(1)
Urban Problems
566(3)
Involvement---The Attractions of the City
569(2)
Contributing Factors
570(1)
What Is to Be Done?
571(1)
Summary
572(1)
Key Terms
573(1)
Study Questions
574(1)
For Further Reading
574(3)
The Environment
577(34)
Learning Objectives
577(1)
Focus Questions
577(1)
Introduction
578(1)
The Ecosystem
578(1)
Types of Environmental Problems
579(8)
Environmental Pollution
579(5)
Environmental Depletion
584(3)
How Big Are Our Environmental Problems?
587(1)
Environmental Pollution
587(1)
Global Comparisons: World Energy Production and Consumption
588(6)
Environmental Depletion
592(2)
Environmental Problems and the Quality of Life
594(1)
The Environmental Threat to Life and Health
594(1)
Voices: ``We're Not Safe Here Anymore''
595(4)
Threat to the Ecological Balance
597(1)
The Economic Costs
598(1)
Threat to World Peace
599(1)
Contributing Factors
599(6)
Social Structural Factors
601(3)
Social Psychological Factors
604(1)
What Is to Be Done?
605(2)
Involvement---Nature Bats Last
607(1)
Summary
608(1)
Key Terms
609(1)
Study Questions
609(1)
For Further Reading
609(2)
Glossary 611(8)
References 619(76)
Name Index 695(19)
Subject Index 714


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