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Social Psychology : Unraveling the Mystery

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205420483

ISBN10:
0205420486
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $150.00

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Summary

Social Psychology: Unraveling the Mystery explores how social behavior is goal-directed and a result of interactions between the person and the situation. Social Psychology Unraveling the Mystery has two features that set it apart from other social psychology textbooks: Opening mysteries: Each chapter begins with a mystery of social behavior, designed not only to grab student interest, but also to organize the ensuing discussion of scientific research: Why would a poor black washerwoman give away her hard-earned life-savings? What psychological forces led the Dalai Lama, the most exalted personage in Tibet, to forge a lifelong friendship with a foreign vagabond openly scorned by Tibetan peasants? Why would a boy falsely confess to murdering his own mother? A unique integrated approach to social behavior: Rather than encyclopedically listing unconnected factoids, the authors organize each chapter around the two broad themes, asking: (1) what are the goals that underlie the behavior in question? (2) what factors in the person and the situation link to each goal? The book thus presents the discipline as a coherent framework for understanding human behavior. Cutting-edge scholarship, lively writing, and the authors' strengths as both respected researchers and expert teachers, all come together to make the third edition of Social Psychology: Unraveling the Mystery an accessible and engaging read for students, and provides a modern and cohesive approach for their teachers.

Table of Contents

From the Authors xiii
Introduction to Social Psychology
1(29)
The Mysteries of Social Life
1(2)
What Is Social Psychology?
3(1)
Major Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology
4(5)
The Sociocultural Perspective
4(1)
The Evolutionary Perspective
5(1)
The Social Learning Perspective
6(1)
The Social Cognitive Perspective
7(2)
Combining Perspectives
9(1)
Basic Principles of Social Behavior
9(3)
Social Behavior Is Goal Oriented
10(1)
The Interaction between the Person and the Situation
11(1)
How Psychologists Study Social Behavior
12(13)
Focus on Method Why Good Theories Need Good Data
13(1)
Descriptive Methods
14(4)
Correlation and Causation
18(1)
Experimental Methods
19(2)
Why Social Psychologists Combine Different Methods
21(2)
Ethical Issues in Social Psychological Research
23(2)
How Does Social Psychology Fit into the Network of Knowledge?
25(2)
Social Psychology and Other Areas of Psychology
25(1)
Social Psychology and Other Disciplines
26(1)
Revisiting the Mysteries of Social Life
27(1)
Summary
28(1)
Key Terms
29(1)
The Person and the Situation
30(38)
The Enigma of an Ordinary and Extraordinary Man
31(2)
The Person
33(14)
Motivation: What Drives Us
33(4)
Knowledge: Our View of the World
37(1)
Feelings, Attitudes, Emotions, and Moods
38(1)
Focus on Method Assessing Feelings
39(5)
Introducing the Self
44(3)
The Situation
47(10)
Persons as Situations: Mere Presence, Affordances, and Descriptive Norms
48(3)
Focus on Social Dysfunction Descriptive Norms, Pluralistic Ignorance, and Binge Drinking on Campus
51(1)
Rules: Injunctive Norms and Scripted Situations
52(1)
Strong versus Weak Situations
53(1)
Culture
54(3)
The Person and the Situation Interact
57(7)
Different Persons Respond Differently to the Same Situation
57(1)
Focus on Application Person-Situation Fit in the Workplace
58(1)
Situations Choose the Person
59(1)
Persons Choose Their Situations
60(1)
Different Situations Prime Different Parts of the Person
60(2)
Persons Change the Situation
62(1)
Situations Change the Person
62(2)
Revisiting the Enigma of an Ordinary and Extraordinary Man
64(1)
Summary
65(2)
Key Terms
67(1)
Social Cognition: Understanding Ourselves and Others
68(34)
Portraits of Hillary Rodham Clinton
69(1)
The Social Thinker
70(3)
Four Core Processes of Social Cognition
71(1)
The Goals of Social Cognition
72(1)
Conserving Mental Effort
73(9)
Expectations
73(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
74(1)
Dispositional Inferences
75(3)
Other Cognitive Shortcuts
78(2)
Arousal and Circadian Rhythms
80(1)
Need for Structure
81(1)
Complex Situations and Time Pressure
81(1)
When the World Doesn't Fit Our Expectations
82(1)
Managing Self-Image
82(8)
Cognitive Strategies for Enhancing and Protecting the Self
83(2)
Focus on Application Control Beliefs and Health
85(2)
Self-Esteem
87(1)
Threats to Self-Esteem
87(1)
When Self-Esteem Is Fragile
88(1)
How Universal Is the Need for Positive Self-Regard?
89(1)
Seeking Accuracy
90(8)
Unbiased Information Gathering
90(1)
Considering Alternatives
91(1)
Attributional Logic: Seeking the Causes of Behavior
92(1)
Mood
93(2)
Need for Cognition
95(1)
Unexpected Events
95(1)
Social Interdependence
96(1)
Accuracy Requires Cognitive Resources
96(2)
Revisiting the Portraits of Hillary Rodham Clinton
98(1)
Summary
99(2)
Key Terms
101(1)
Presenting the Self
102(36)
The Amazing Lives of Fred Demara
103(2)
What Is Self-Presentation?
105(6)
Why Do People Self-Present?
105(1)
When Do People Self-Present?
106(2)
The Nature of Self-Presentation
108(1)
Focus on Application Detecting Deception
109(2)
Appearing Likable
111(9)
Strategies of Ingratiation
111(1)
Focus on Method The Science of Deciphering Facial Expressions
112(5)
Gender
117(1)
Potential Friends and Power-Holders
118(1)
Multiple Audiences
119(1)
Appearing Competent
120(6)
Strategies of Self-Promotion
120(2)
Focus on Social Dysfunction The Paradox of Self-Handicapping
122(1)
Competence Motivation and Shyness
123(1)
When Competence Matters
124(1)
Competence Checks
125(1)
The Interpersonal Cycle of Self-Promotion
125(1)
Conveying Status and Power
126(7)
Strategies of Status and Power
126(3)
Gender Revisited
129(2)
Image Threats, Newly Available Resources
131(1)
Different Strategies for Different Audiences
131(2)
Revisiting the Amazing Lives of Fred Demara
133(2)
Summary
135(2)
Key Terms
137(1)
Attitudes and Persuasion
138(38)
The Changing Story of Peter Reilly
139(2)
The Nature of Attitudes
141(4)
Attitude Formation
141(1)
Attitude Strength
142(1)
Attitude-Behavior Consistency
143(2)
What Is Persuasion?
145(10)
Measuring Attitude Change
145(1)
Focus on Method The After-Only Design
146(2)
Cognitive Responses: Self-Talk Persuades
148(2)
Focus on Application Smoking the Tobacco Companies with Counterarguments
150(1)
Dual Process Models of Persuasion: Two Routes to Change
151(4)
The Goals of Persuasion: Why People Change Their Attitudes and Beliefs
155(1)
Seeking Accuracy
155(7)
Good Shortcuts
155(4)
What Affects the Desire for Accuracy?
159(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction Defensiveness and Denial
160(2)
Being Consistent
162(8)
Balance Theory
163(1)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
164(2)
What Affects the Desire for Cognitive Consistency?
166(2)
Consistency with What?
168(2)
Gaining Social Approval
170(3)
Self-Monitoring
170(1)
Gender: Women, Men, and Persuasion
170(1)
The Expectation of Discussion
171(1)
Self-Monitoring and Expectation of Discussion
171(2)
Revisiting the Story of Peter Reilly
173(1)
Summary
174(1)
Key Terms
175(1)
Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
176(38)
The Extraordinary Turnaround (and Around) of Steve Hassan
177(2)
Categories of Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
179(8)
Conformity: Asch's Research on Group Influence
180(2)
Compliance: The ``Foot-in-the-Door'' Technique
182(1)
Focus on Method Participant Observation
182(2)
Obedience: Milgram's Shock(ing) Procedure
184(3)
The Goals of Social Influence
187(1)
Choosing Correctly
187(7)
Authority
188(2)
Social Validation
190(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction Mass Hysteria
191(1)
Uncertainty
192(1)
Consensus and Similarity
192(2)
Uncertainty and the Desire for Accuracy
194(1)
Gaining Social Approval
194(9)
Social Norms: Codes of Conduct
195(3)
What Personal Factors Affect the Impact of Social Approval?
198(2)
What Situational Factors Affect the Impact of Social Approval?
200(2)
Who's Strong Enough to Resist Strong Group Norms?
202(1)
Focus on Application Doing Wrong by Trying to Do Right
202(1)
Being Consistent with Commitments
203(7)
Commitment-Initiating Tactics
204(2)
Harnessing Existing Commitments
206(1)
Active and Public Commitments
207(1)
Men, Women, and Public Conformity
208(2)
Revisiting the Turnaround of Steve Hassan
210(1)
Summary
211(2)
Key Terms
213(1)
Affiliation and Friendship
214(30)
The Fugitive Who Befriended the God-King
215(1)
What Is a Friend?
216(4)
Studying Real-Life Relationships
217(1)
Focus on Method Studying Intimate Relationships without Really Being There
217(2)
Goals of Affiliation and Friendship
219(1)
Getting Social Support
220(7)
Focus on Application Health Psychology and Emotional Support
221(1)
Do Women Tend and Befriend While Men Fight or Take Flight?
222(1)
Threats: Why Misery (Sometimes) Loves Company
223(1)
Pushing Support Away
224(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction The Self-Perpetuating Cycle of Loneliness and Depression
225(2)
Attachment and Social Development
227(1)
Getting Information
227(5)
Social Comparison and Liking for Similar Others
228(1)
Self-Disclosers and Nondisclosers
229(1)
Uncertainty
230(1)
Similarity
230(1)
When Dissimilarity Can Save Self-Esteem
231(1)
Gaining Status
232(2)
Men's Friendships Are More Hierarchical
232(1)
Status by Association
233(1)
Seeking Status May Erode Social Support
234(1)
Exchanging Material Benefits
234(7)
Fundamental Patterns of Social Exchange
235(1)
Individual Differences in Communal Orientation
236(1)
Communal and Exchange Relationships
237(1)
Proximity and Social Capital
237(2)
Are Exchange Relationships Different in Western and Non-Western Cultures?
239(2)
Revisiting the Fugitive Who Befriended the God-King
241(1)
Summary
242(1)
Key Terms
243(1)
Love and Romantic Relationships
244(34)
The Puzzling Love Lives of the British Monarchs
245(1)
Defining Love and Romantic Attraction
246(4)
The Defining Features of Love
246(2)
Focus on Method Uncovering the Different Factors of Love
248(1)
Are There Different Varieties of Love?
248(1)
The Goals of Romantic Relationships
249(1)
Obtaining Sexual Satisfaction
250(7)
Hormones
250(1)
Sociosexual Orientation
250(1)
Who's Sexually Attractive?
251(2)
Gender Differences in Sexuality
253(1)
Arousing Settings
254(1)
Cultural Norms about Sexuality
255(1)
Sexual Situations Look Different to Men and Women
256(1)
Cultural Practices May Trick Evolved Mechanisms
256(1)
Establishing Family Bonds
257(6)
The Importance of Attachment
257(1)
Attachment Style
258(1)
Exchange/Communal Orientation
259(1)
Threats
260(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction Obsessive Relationships and Unrequited Love
261(1)
Jealousy and Same-Sex Competitors
262(1)
Relationships Change Our Personalities
263(1)
Gaining Resources and Social Status
263(7)
Gender and Sexual Orientation
264(2)
Culture, Resources, and Polygamy
266(2)
Social Exchange in Committed Relationships
268(1)
When Dominance Matters
268(2)
Breaking Up (and Staying Together)
270(4)
Some People Are Better at Getting Along
270(1)
Some Situations Pull Couples Apart
270(1)
Interactions: It Takes Two to Tango
271(1)
Focus on Application Studying Healthy Communication to Save Marriages
272(2)
Revisiting the Love Lives of the British Monarchs
274(1)
Summary
275(2)
Key Terms
277(1)
Prosocial Behavior
278(34)
The Strange Case of Sempo Sugihara
279(2)
The Goals of Prosocial Behavior
281(1)
Improving Our Basic Welfare: Gaining Genetic and Material Benefits
282(6)
Insights into the Evolution of Help
282(1)
Focus on Method Using Behavioral Genetics to Study Helping
283(1)
Learning to Help
284(2)
Similarity and Familiarity
286(1)
Focus on Application Getting Help by Adjusting the Helper's Sense of ``We''
286(2)
Genetic Similarity and Need
288(1)
Gaining Social Status and Approval
288(7)
Social Responsibility: The Helping Norm
289(3)
Desire for Approval
292(1)
Effects of Those around Us
292(1)
Gender and Help
293(2)
Managing Self-Image
295(6)
Personal Norms and Religious Codes
295(2)
Labeling and Self-Focus
297(1)
Deciding Not to Help Friends or to Seek Their Help
298(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction Failing to Seek Needed Help
299(2)
Managing Our Emotions and Moods
301(5)
Managing Emotional Arousal in Emergencies: The Arousal/Cost-Reward Model
301(1)
Managing Mood in Nonemergencies: The Negative State Relief Model
302(4)
Does Pure Altruism Exist?
306(3)
The Empathy-Altruism Sequence
306(2)
An Egoistic Interpretation
308(1)
Revisiting the Case of Sempo Sugihara
309(1)
Summary
310(1)
Key Terms
311(1)
Aggression
312(40)
A Wave of Senseless Violence
313(2)
What Is Agression?
315(3)
Different Types of Aggression
315(1)
Gender Differences in Aggression May Depend on Your Definition
315(2)
The Goals of Aggressive Behavior
317(1)
Coping with Feelings of Annoyance
318(7)
The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
319(1)
Feelings of Arousal and Irritability
320(1)
Unpleasant Situations
321(2)
Annoyance Leads to Changes in Perception of Situations
323(2)
Some People Create Their Own Annoying Situations
325(1)
Gaining Material and Social Rewards
325(8)
Focus on Social Dysfunction Gangland Violence
326(1)
Social Learning Theory and Media Violence
327(1)
Who Finds Rewards in Violence?
328(1)
Glamorized Violence in the Media
329(1)
Focus on Method Using Meta-Analysis to Examine the Effects of Violent Media
330(3)
Violent Media Magnify Violent Inclinations
333(1)
Gaining or Maintaining Social Status
333(7)
Aggression and Sexual Selection
334(1)
Sex and Testosterone
335(2)
Insults and Other ``Trivial Altercations''
337(2)
Different Paths to Status
339(1)
Protecting Oneself or Others
340(3)
Self-Defenders
340(2)
Perceived Threats
342(1)
Self-Protective Aggression Can Increase Danger
342(1)
Reducing Violence
343(4)
Rewarding Alternatives to Aggression
343(1)
Focus on Application Using Cognition to Manage Angry Arousal
343(2)
Legal Punishments
345(1)
Prevention by Removing Threats
345(2)
Revisiting Senseless Violence
347(1)
Summary
348(2)
Key Terms
350(2)
Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination
352(38)
The Unlikely Journey of Ann Atwater and C.P. Ellis
353(2)
Planet Prejudice
355(6)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
356(1)
Discrimination
357(1)
The Costs of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination
358(3)
The Goals of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination
361(1)
Supporting and Protecting One's Group
361(4)
Creating and Maintaining Ingroup Advantage
362(1)
Social Dominance Orientation
363(1)
Intergroup Competition
364(1)
The Self-Fulfilling Spiral of Intergroup Competition
365(1)
Gaining Social Approval
365(3)
Conformity Seeking, Self-Monitoring, and Perceived Social Standing
366(1)
The Times
366(1)
Intrinsic Religiosity and Prejudice
367(1)
Managing Self-Image
368(5)
Personal and Social Identities
369(1)
Ingroup Identification
370(1)
Authoritarianism
370(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction The Authoritarian Personality
370(2)
Failure
372(1)
Self-Esteem and Threat
372(1)
Seeking Mental Efficiency
373(7)
The Characteristics of Efficient Stereotypes
375(1)
Focus on Method Exploring the Automatic Activation of Stereotypes
376(1)
Need for Structure
377(1)
Moods and Emotions
377(2)
Cognitively Taxing Circumstances
379(1)
Overheard Ethnic Slurs
379(1)
Reducing Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination
380(6)
Interventions Based on the Ignorance Hypothesis
380(1)
The Goal-Based Approach
381(3)
When Contact Helps
384(1)
Focus on Application Cooperation in the Classroom
385(1)
Revisiting the Journey of Ann Atwater and C.P. Ellis
386(2)
Summary
388(1)
Key Terms
389(1)
Groups
390(38)
Blowing the Whistle on Hidden Group Pathologies
391(2)
The Nature of Groups
393(8)
The Mere Presence of Others and Social Facilitation
393(2)
Crowds and Deindividuation
395(1)
Groups as Dynamic Systems: The Emergence of Norms
396(1)
Focus on Method Using Computer Simulation to Explore Complex Group Processes
397(2)
``Real'' Groups
399(1)
Why Do People Belong to Groups?
400(1)
Getting Things Done
401(7)
Lightening the Load, Dividing the Labor
401(1)
Focus on Social Dysfunction The Social Disease of Social Loafing
402(2)
Expectations of Individual Failure and Group Success
404(1)
Current Needs, Individualistic Societies
404(1)
When Are Groups Most Productive?
405(3)
Making Accurate Decisions
408(8)
The Need to Know
408(1)
Uncertain Circumstances
409(1)
Discussion and Decision-Making
410(2)
Focus on Application Majority and Minority Influence in the Jury Room
412(4)
Gaining Positions of Leadership
416(7)
Who Wants to Lead?
417(1)
When Opportunity Knocks
418(1)
Who Gets to Lead?
419(1)
When Are Leaders Effective?
419(4)
Revisiting the Revealed Pathologies of the FBI, Enron, and WorldCom
423(2)
Summary
425(2)
Key Terms
427(1)
Social Dilemmas: Cooperation Versus Conflict
428(32)
Contrasting Future Worlds
429(2)
Defining Social Dilemmas
431(4)
Focus on Social Dysfunction The Tragedy of the Commons
432(1)
Interlocking Problems and Solutions
433(1)
Goals Underlying Global Social Dilemmas
434(1)
Gaining Immediate Satisfaction
435(7)
Social Traps
435(1)
Egoistic versus Prosocial Orientations
436(2)
Changing the Consequences of Short-Sighted Selfishness
438(2)
Different Strokes for Different Folks
440(2)
Defending Ourselves and Valued Others
442(14)
Outgroup Bias and International Conflict
442(1)
Some of Us Are More Defensive Than Others
443(2)
Competition and Threat
445(2)
Focus on Method Time-Series Analysis and International Cooperation
447(3)
Intercultural Misperception and International Conflict
450(2)
The Reciprocal Dynamics of Cooperation and Conflict
452(2)
Focus on Application Increasing Intergroup Cooperation with the GRIT Strategy
454(2)
Revisiting the Future
456(1)
Summary
457(1)
Key Terms
458(2)
Integrating Social Psychology
460(29)
Public Spectacles, Hidden Conspiracies, and Multiple Motives
461(2)
What Ground Have We Covered?
463(1)
Findings and Theories
464(1)
Major Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology
464(7)
The Sociocultural Perspective
465(1)
The Evolutionary Perspective
466(3)
The Social Learning Perspective
469(1)
The Social Cognitive Perspective
469(1)
Are Gender Differences in Our Genes, in Our Cultural Learning Experiences, or All in Our Minds?
470(1)
Combining the Different Perspectives
471(9)
Social Behavior Is Goal Oriented
472(3)
Focus on Social Dysfunction The Thin Line between Normal and Abnormal Social Functioning
475(3)
The Interaction between the Person and the Situation
478(2)
Why Research Methods Matter
480(3)
Focus on Method Some Conclusions for Consumers of Social Science Information
481(2)
How Does Social Psychology Fit into the Network of Knowledge?
483(2)
Focus on Application Social Psychology's Usefulness for Business, Medicine, and Law
484(1)
The Future of Social Psychology
485(1)
Summary
486(1)
Key Terms
487(2)
References 489(74)
Author Index 563(20)
Subject Index 583(16)
Photo Credits 599


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