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Social Science : An Introduction to the Study of Society,9780205408474
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Social Science : An Introduction to the Study of Society

by ;
Edition:
12th
ISBN13:

9780205408474

ISBN10:
0205408478
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $88.80
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Summary

This classic text provides a revised and updated survey of the social sciences, written in an unbiased manner with a multidisciplinary, common sense approach. Comprehensive coverage incorporates elements of anthropology, economics, political science, sociology, history, and geography. The twelfth edition highlights the dramatic political and economic changes that have swept the world in recent years, including extensive examinations of the impact of the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks in the Political Science and Economics chapters.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Chapter 1 Social Science and Its Methods
Social Science
3(11)
Social Science as a System of Rules
6(3)
The Scientific Method and Its Application
9(2)
Methodology and the Social Sciences
11(3)
The Methods of Social Science
14(9)
Social Science Approaches to Problems
17(3)
Common Sense in the Social Sciences
20(1)
The Use of Statistics
20(1)
The Interdisciplinary Approach
21(2)
Social Science and Society
23(1)
Continuing Problems
23(1)
Values, Terminology, and Rhetoric
24(1)
Conclusion
24(3)
Appendix Historical Roots of Social Science
27(4)
The Enlightenment
20(10)
From Philosophy to Social Science
30(1)
Chapter 2 Human origins 31(22)
The Origin of the Human Species
32(8)
Darwin and the Theory of Evolution
32(3)
Recent Developments in Genetics
35(1)
Some Implications of Recent Developments
36(1)
Sociobiology
37(1)
Punctuated Equilibrium versus Gradual Change
38(2)
The Evolution of Human Beings
40(9)
Science, Faith, and Controversy
40(2)
Predecessors of Modern Humans
42(7)
Conclusion
49(4)
Chapter 3 Origins of Western Society 53
From the Stone Age to the Agricultural Age
53(1)
Early Civilizations
54(9)
The Cradle of Modern Civilization: Mesopotamia and Egypt
54(4)
Development of the Greek Civilization
58(1)
The Persian Empire
58(3)
Roman Civilization
61(2)
The Middle Ages (A.D. 416-1453)
63(3)
The Renaissance
66(2)
The Development of Modern Economic and Political Institutions
68
From Serfdom to Mercantilism
69(2)
The Emergence of Nation-States
71(1)
The Industrial and Political Revolutions of the 1750's to the 1850's
71
Conclusion
14
Chapter 4 Society, Culture, and Cultural Change 11(89)
Culture and the Nature of Society
19(64)
Culture and Its Role in Human Societies
79(1)
The Elements of Culture
80(3)
Cultural Integration
83(1)
Culture, Society, and Social Change
84(7)
Popular Theories of Social Change
85(1)
Factors Causing Cultural Change
86(3)
Language and Cultural Change
89(1)
Factors Stabilizing Culture
89(2)
Social Change versus Social Stability
91(1)
Social Change and Social Problems
91(4)
Cultural Lag and Social Problems
92(2)
Limitations of the Cultural Lag Theory
94(1)
Contrasts among Cultures
95(5)
The Interaction of Humans and Society
95(1)
Cultural Relativism
95(1)
Approach to the Study of Society
96(4)
Chapter 5 Geography, Demography, Ecology, and Society 100(18)
Geography
100(1)
Demography
101(10)
Population Estimates
103(1)
Determinants of Population Growth
103(2)
The Growth of Population over Time
105(2)
The Problem of Counting
107(1)
The Malthusian Theory
107(1)
Population and Means of Subsistence
108(1)
The Concept of Optimal Population
109(1)
The Question of Population Quality
110(1)
Ecology: The Interaction of Geography, Demography, and Environment
111(4)
The Ecological Balance
111(2)
Pollution and Conservation
113(2)
Conclusion
115(3)
Chapter 6 Technology and Society 118(20)
The Industrial Revolution
110(6)
The Development of Industrialism in the United States
121(1)
Standardization, Interchangeability, and Mass Production
122(2)
Technology and Globalization
124(2)
Machines and Unemployment
126
Technology and Social Change
116(15)
Problems Created by Technology
127(1)
Technology, Hierarchy, and Class Systems
127(2)
Natural Resources, Economics, and Technology
129(1)
Natural Resources and the Limits of Economic Growth
130(1)
Global Warming
131(1)
Technology of the Past
131(1)
Technology of the Future
131(7)
The Social Basis for Technological Progress
134(1)
Future Shock?
135(3)
Chapter 7 Psychology, Society, and Culture 138(25)
Socialization of the Individual
139(2)
Significance of the Early Years of Childhood
139(1)
Significance of Differences in Individual Environment
140(1)
Effects of Extreme Isolation on Children
141(1)
Personality and Its Development
141(9)
The Nature/Nurture Debate
143(2)
Explanations of Behavior
145(1)
The Well-Adjusted Individual
146(1)
Adjustment and Normality
147(1)
The Freudian Concept of Personality
147(3)
Pop Psychologies
150(1)
Intelligence, Personal Adjustment, and Normality
150(6)
Testing for Intelligence
150(5)
Intelligence and Personal Adjustment
155(1)
Deviance
156(4)
Major Theories on Deviance
156(2)
Sociological Explanations of Deviance
158(1)
Economic Explanations of Deviant Behavior
159(1)
Summary of Various Perspectives on Deviance
160(1)
Conclusion
160(3)
Chapter 8 The Family 163(18)
Variations in the Family Pattern
163
Number of Mates
164(1)
Selection of Mates
164(2)
Family Control
166(1)
Reckoning of Descent
166
Functions of the Family in Society
161
Social Change and Family Functions: An Example
168(1)
Variations of Family Patterns and the Functions of the Family
168
The Family in the United States Today
111(70)
Dating
174(1)
Sex and Singles
175(1)
Children
176(1)
Senior Citizens
177(1)
Family Disorganization and Divorce
178(3)
Singles
181(1)
Living Together
182(1)
Homosexual and Lesbian Households
182
The Family in Transition
181(1)
Technology's Effect on the Family
183(1)
The Future of the Family
183
Chapter 9 Religion 181
The Nature of Religion
188(2)
The Great Religions of Today
190
Hinduism
191(1)
Buddhism
192(1)
Judaism
193(4)
Islam
197(3)
Christianity
200
The Role of Religion in Society
103(5)
Religion as a Source of Moral Values
204(1)
Impact of Religion on Education, the Arts, and Literature
204(1)
The Potential Conflict between Religion and Government
205
Chapter 10 Education 108(125)
Schools as Agencies of Social Control
109(101)
The Dual Thrust of U.S. Education
209(1)
Education and U.S. Democracy
209(1)
The Development of U.S. Education
210(7)
Democratic Structure of the U.S. School System
213(1)
Formalization of the School System
214(3)
Examining the School System
217(12)
Technological Change and Teaching
217(1)
Private Schools and Home Schooling
217(1)
Charter Schools, Privatization, and the Problem of School Finance
218(2)
Textbooks
220(1)
School Dropouts
220(1)
Multiculturalism, Collaborative Learning, and Institutional Fairness
221(1)
How Good Are U. S. Schools?
222(2)
The Search for Excellence
224(1)
Changes in the College Curriculum
225(2)
Is the U.S. Educational System Equal?
227(1)
How Much Education Should the Average Citizen Receive?
228(1)
Interaction of Economics, Politics, and Social Institutions
229(4)
Chapter 11 Social and Economic Stratification 233(18)
Types of Social Stratification
234(5)
Estates
234(1)
Castes
234(1)
Social Classes
235(4)
Social Mobility
239(2)
Economic and Social Inequality
241(2)
Causes of Income Inequality
241(1)
Measuring Poverty
242(1)
Reducing Social and Economic Inequality
243(8)
Who Are the Upwardly Mobile?
245(1)
Rising Incomes and Class Distinctions
246(1)
Class Consciousness in the United States
247(1)
Class Consciousness and the Labor Movement
248(1)
Some Conclusions about the U.S. Class System
249(2)
Chapter 12 Stratification, Minorities, and Discrimination 251(34)
Race and Ethnicity
251(5)
Questions of Ethnic and Racial Superiority
252(3)
Racial and Ethnic Prejudice and Discrimination
255(1)
The Melting Pot
255(1)
Minorities
256(26)
Native Americans
256(1)
African Americans
257(9)
Hispanics
266(2)
Asians
268(2)
Immigrants and Minorities
270(3)
Religious Minorities
273(1)
Sexual Minorities
274(5)
Senior Citizens
279(3)
Conclusion
282(3)
Chapter 13 The Functions and Forms of Government 285(24)
The Primary Functions of Government
286(4)
Maintaining Internal Order and External Security
286(1)
Ensuring Justice
286(2)
Safeguarding Individual Freedoms
288(1)
Regulating Individuals' Actions
288(1)
Promoting the General Welfare
289(1)
Debates about the Nature of Government
290(4)
Political Theory and Government
290(1)
Three Views of the Nature of Government
291(3)
Elements of Truth in Each of the Views
294(1)
Forms of Government
294(12)
Democracies
294(5)
Autocracy
299(7)
Governments Are Far from Simple
306(3)
Chapter 14 Democratic Government in the United States 309(22)
Historical Development of U.S. Government
309(2)
The Structure of U.S. Government
311(4)
Structure of the National Government
311(3)
The Nature of Our National Government
314(1)
The Political Process
315(18)
Political Parties
326(1)
Elections
327(3)
The Fourth Estate
330(1)
The Political Elite
331(1)
The Military-Industrial Complex and Pressure Groups
331(2)
Evaluation of the Democratic Political Process
333
Chapter 15 Governments of the World 331(28)
French Government
331(11)
The French Parliamentary System
338(1)
The French Executive Branch
339(3)
Mexican Government
342(4)
Japanese Government
346(3)
Russian Government
349(3)
Saudi Arabian Government
352(3)
Some lessons about Governments
355(1)
Future Changes in Governments
356(3)
Chapter 16 The Organization of Economic Activities 359(22)
The Nature of an Economy
359(4)
Functions of an Economy
360(1)
Economics and the Social Sciences
360(1)
Economic Wants and Economic Goods
360(1)
The Economic Aspects of Culture
361(1)
The Great Economic Problem
361(1)
Planned and Unplanned Economies
362(1)
The Evolution of Economic Systems
363(2)
From Feudalism to Mercantilism
363(1)
From Mercantilism to a Market Economy
364(1)
From a Market Economy to a Mixed Economy
365(1)
Market Economies
365
How a Market Economy Works
366(3)
The Role of Government in Market Economies
369
The Changing Nature of the U.S. Economy
310(1)
The Upheaval in the Formerly Socialist Economies
311(1)
Historical Development of Socialist Thought
371(1)
Socialism and Communism
371(2)
How Planned and Unplanned Economies Work
373(1)
Problems with Central Planning
374(1)
Why Central Planning Did Not Meet Its Goals
374(2)
Transition Problems from a Planned to an Unplanned Economy
376
The Continuing Evolution of Economies
311(70)
Chapter 17 Government and the Economy 381(10)
Government's Direct Role in the Economy
381(10)
Government-Supplied Goods
383(1)
The U.S. Social Security System
384(1)
Other Government Spending Programs
385(2)
Government's Macroeconomic Role
387(4)
Government's Indirect Role in the Economy
391(2)
The Problem of Regulating the Economy
391(2)
Government Inefficiency and Waste
393(1)
Conclusion
393
Chapter 18 International Political Relations 391(29)
The State in International Relations
391(10)
The Nation-State
399(1)
The Establishment and Disappearance of Nation-States
400(1)
Power in the World Community
401(9)
The Nature and Sources of National Power
401(6)
Other Sources of Power
407(1)
Maintaining Security
408(2)
Foreign Policies
410(3)
Geography and Foreign Policy
410(1)
Values, Ideologies, and Foreign Policy
411(2)
The United States in the World Community
413(7)
The President and Foreign Policy
414(2)
U.S. Foreign Policies
416(4)
Chapter 19 International Economic Relations 420(18)
The Terminology of Trade
411(2)
The Balance of Trade and the Balance of Payments
421(1)
Visible and Invisible Trade
422
Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade
413(3)
Three Advantages of Trade
423(1)
Disadvantages of Trade
424(1)
Why You Can't Get the Advantages without the Disadvantages
425
Restrictions on International Trade
416(15)
Tariffs on Imports
427(2)
Import Quotas
429(1)
Removing Trade Restrictions
430(1)
Globalization and Trade Restrictions
431(1)
Foreign Exchange
431(4)
The Meaning of Foreign Exchange
431(2)
Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rate Systems
433(2)
Conclusion
435(3)
Chapter 20 The Political Economies of Developing Countries 438(23)
Problems of Developing Countries
441(7)
The Political Consensus Problem
441(1)
The Corruption Problem
442(1)
The Economic Problem
443(2)
The Debt Problem
445(1)
The Population Problem
446(1)
The Brain Drain Problem
446(1)
Mission Impossible: Advice to a Potential Leader
447(1)
Options of Developing Countries
448(1)
Political Options
448(1)
Economic Options
448(1)
Foreign Policy Options
448(1)
Population Options
448(1)
The Brain Drain Option
449(1)
Who Will Be the Next Leader?
449(1)
Case Studies
449(9)
China
449(4)
Mexico
453(3)
Uganda
456(2)
Conclusion
458(3)
Chapter 21 International Institutions and the Search for Peace 461(24)
The Problem of War
461(1)
The Causes of War
462(2)
Approaches to the Problem of War
464
The United Nations
461(13)
Is the UN Worth It?
468(2)
The UN's Role in Keeping the Peace
470(3)
Other UN Approaches
473(1)
The Outlook for Peace
474(11)
Trouble Spots of the World
476(6)
The War on Global Terrorism
482(3)
Index 485


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