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Social Stratification and Inequality,9780072487701
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Social Stratification and Inequality

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780072487701

ISBN10:
0072487704
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/25/2002
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $86.28
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Summary

Harold Kerbo continues to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date exploration of the economic and social divisions in human societies. While the book is grounded in the nature of social stratification in the United States, this edition maintains a commitment to keeping a global perspective. Extensive comparative information, as well as an overview of how, historically, social stratification has changed and evolved, gives readers a global perspective on class conflict. Praised for its thorough research and scholarship, Social Stratification and Inequality includes current statistics and the latest trends in the field.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
PART I INTRODUCTION 1(78)
Perspectives and Concepts in the Study of Social Stratification
3(17)
Definitions and Concepts
11(3)
Social Stratification and Inequality
11(1)
Class Divisions and Social Mobility
12(2)
Social Stratification in the Modern World System
14(3)
The Organization of Chapters
17(1)
Summary
18(2)
Dimensions of Inequality in the United States: Class, Gender, and Race
20(28)
Income and Wealth Inequality
22(13)
Income Inequality
22(3)
Trends in U.S. Income Inequality
25(4)
Comparative Income Inequality
29(1)
Wealth Inequality
29(5)
Historical Trends in Wealth Inequality
34(1)
Inequality in Basic Necessities
35(2)
Health Inequalities
37(2)
Unequal Political Outputs
39(6)
Taxes
40(4)
Government Services
44(1)
Dimensions of Inequality: A Conclusion
45(1)
Summary
46(1)
Notes
47(1)
Social Stratification in Human Societies: The History of Inequality
48(31)
Varieties of Human Stratification Systems
50(9)
Primitive Communal Societies
52(1)
Slavery
52(1)
Caste
53(2)
Estate
55(2)
Class
57(2)
The Emergence of Inequality and Social Stratification
59(13)
Early Human Groups
59(3)
Early Social Change
62(1)
The Neolithic Revolution
62(4)
Early Agrarian Empires
66(1)
Late Agrarian Societies
67(3)
The Fall of Feudalism and the Rise of Industrial Societies
70(2)
The Reduction of Inequality with Industrial and Post-Industrial Societies
72(3)
Conclusion: The History of Inequality
75(1)
Summary
76(1)
Notes
77(2)
PART II EXPLANATIONS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: STRATIFICATION THEORIES 79(76)
Social Stratification Theory: Early Statements
81(33)
Competing Paradigms in the Study of Social Stratification
82(5)
The Marxian Heritage in Social Stratification: The Development of a Critical-Conflict Paradigm
87(10)
On Understanding Marx
89(1)
Basic Foundations of Marxian Theory
90(3)
Social Change
93(2)
The Marxian View of Class
95(2)
Concluding Notes
97(1)
Max Weber: An Alternative Conflict Paradigm
97(8)
Weber's Paradigm Assumptions
99(1)
Multidimensional View of Stratification
100(2)
The Rise of Bureaucratic Dominance
102(3)
An Uncritical-Order Paradigm Matures: The Functional Theory of Emile Durkheim
105(4)
The Division of Labor and Organic Solidarity
107(2)
The Place of Class and Class Conflict in Durkheim's Perspective
109(1)
The Classical Period of Sociological Theory: A Summary
109(2)
Summary
111(1)
Notes
112(2)
Modern Theories of Social Stratification
114(41)
Views of Social Stratification in America: Early Years
115(2)
Functional Theories of Social Stratification
117(14)
The Davis and Moore Theory
117(1)
Critiques of Davis and Moore
118(2)
Empirical Research on the Davis and Moore Theory
120(1)
Parsons' Functional Theory of Social Stratification
121(2)
Critiques of Parsons
123(3)
Studies of Occupational Prestige
126(2)
Socioeconomic Status Scales
128(1)
Critique of Occupation as a Status Hierarchy
129(2)
Conflict Theories of Social Stratification
131(11)
Modern Marxian Theory
132(3)
Recent Empirical Work and Wright's Class Categories
135(2)
Power Conflict Theories
137(1)
Dahrendorf's Conflict Theory
137(2)
Summary and Critiques of Power Conflict Theories
139(3)
Modern World System Theory
142(1)
The Bases of Class Stratification and Class Location
142(9)
Occupational Structure
144(1)
Bureaucratic Authority Divisions
144(1)
Divisions within the Property Structure
144(1)
The Convergence of Occupation, Power, and Property on Class Stratification
145(1)
A Working Definition of Class
145(2)
A Note on Subjective Class Identification
147(2)
A Note on Sociobiology
149(2)
Theories of Social Stratification: A Conclusion
151(1)
Summary
152(1)
Notes
153(2)
PART III THE AMERICAN CLASS STRUCTURE 155(216)
The Upper Class
157(31)
Locating the Upper Class
158(7)
Upper Class Dominance Today?
165(21)
The Upper Class as a Governing Class
165(1)
Indicators of Upper-Class Membership
166(1)
Upper-Class Unity
167(2)
Upper-Class Economic Power
169(1)
Stock Ownership
169(2)
Upper-Class Backgrounds of Economic Elites
171(1)
Upper-Class Political Power
172(1)
Upper-Class Participation in Government
173(4)
Political Campaign Contributions
177(2)
Congressional Lobbying
179(1)
Shaping Government Policy
180(6)
The Upper Class: A Conclusion
186(1)
Summary
187(1)
The Corporate Class
188(29)
The Upper Class as Ruling Class: A Critique
190(2)
The Structure of Corporate Concentration: Foundation for a Corporate Class
192(15)
Corporate Size and Concentration
193(3)
Concentration of Stock Control
196(4)
Interlocking Directorates and Economic Concentration
200(4)
The Globalization of Corporate Power
204(2)
The Inner Group of the Corporate Class
206(1)
The Concentration of Economic and Political Power: So What?
207(8)
Functional Elite Theory
209(2)
Critical Elite Theory
211(1)
The Pluralist Response
212(3)
The Corporate Class: Conclusion
215(1)
Summary
216(1)
The Middle and Working Classes
217(31)
The Middle and Working Classes in the System of Social Stratification
219(3)
The Middle Class and Working Class: Recent Historical Changes
222(5)
The New Middle Class
222(2)
Stability and Change in the Working Class
224(1)
The Changing Occupation Structure: The Shrinking Middle
225(2)
Some Consequences of Class Position
227(15)
Income Distribution by Class
228(1)
Conditions of Work
229(1)
Work Satisfaction and Alienation
230(3)
The Physical Conditions of Work
233(1)
Class Subcultures and Lifestyles
234(1)
Sociability and Community Participation
235(1)
Childhood Socialization
236(1)
Political Values and Behavior
237(5)
Middle-Class and Working-Class Subcultures: Conclusion
242(1)
Middle-Class and Working-Class Positions in the Structures of Economic and Political Power
242(5)
Labor Unions
243(2)
Middle-Class and Working-Class Political Influence
245(2)
Summary
247(1)
Poverty and the Political Economy of Welfare
248(48)
A Brief History of Poverty in America
251(3)
Counting the Poor
254(4)
Criticisms of the Poverty Line
254(2)
Poverty in Comparative Perspectives
256(2)
The Extent of Poverty in the United States
258(4)
Changes in the Rate of Poverty
260(1)
Movement into and out of Poverty
260(2)
The Distribution of Poverty
262(1)
Theories of Poverty
262(20)
Blaming the Poor
263(5)
Four Categories of Poverty Theories
268(1)
Blaming the Poor: Social Darwinism
269(3)
A Culture of Poverty?
272(1)
The Culture of Poverty: A Critique
273(2)
The Situational View of Poverty
275(1)
A Structural View of Poverty
276(1)
Poverty and the Occupational Structure
277(3)
Poverty and the Property Structure
280(1)
Poverty and Authority Structures
281(1)
Class Conflict and the Welfare State
282(13)
Welfare in the United States
283(2)
The 1996 Welfare Reform
285(2)
A Cross-National Perspective on Welfare
287(1)
The Welfare State as Conflict Management and the Lower Class in the Power Structure
288(2)
The Functions of Public Welfare
290(1)
Protest Movements and Welfare: Empirical Evidence
291(4)
Class Conflict and the Welfare State: A Conclusion
295(1)
Summary
295(1)
Gender Stratification and Inequalities: The Persistence of Ascription:
296(35)
Sex and Gender
299(1)
Gender Inequalities
300(7)
Gender and Work
300(1)
Labor Force Participation and Income Inequalities by Gender
301(2)
Occupational Segragation and Income
303(4)
Educational Attainment and Gender
307(3)
Gender Inequality in Global Perspective
310(9)
Labor Force Participation and Occupational Distribution
310(3)
Women in the Global Factory
313(2)
Gender and Economic Development
315(1)
Gender and Education in Global Perspective
316(1)
Women and Politics
316(3)
A History of Gender Stratification
319(3)
Theories of Gender Stratification
322(8)
Structural Functional Theories
324(1)
Conflict Theories
324(2)
Class Effects on Gender Income Inequality
326(4)
Summary
330(1)
Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity: The Persistence of Ascription:
331(40)
Race and Ethnicity: Some Definitions
334(1)
The Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity
335(12)
Income Inequalities Within Races and Ethnic Communities
340(3)
Educational Inequalities
343(3)
Other Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity
346(1)
A History of Race and Ethnic Stratification
347(6)
A Comparative History of American Diversity
349(4)
Global Immigration: A Comparative View of the New Dimensions of Global Race and Ethnic Conflicts
353(10)
Journeys for Survival: Migration of the World's Poor
355(3)
Reactions to Diversity Among the Rich Nations
358(1)
The Case of Germany
358(2)
The Case of Japan
360(3)
Theoretical Explanations of Race and Ethnic Inequalities
363(6)
Theories of Race and Ethnic Stratification
363(2)
Conflict Theory
365(2)
Maintenance of Racial and Ethnic Inequalities
367(1)
Class Effects on Race and Ethnic Income Inequality
368(1)
Summary
369(2)
PART IV THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION 371(76)
Social Mobility: Class Ascription and Achievement
373(45)
Social Mobility
376(23)
Social Mobility in the United States
378(4)
Social Mobility and Wright's Class Categories
382(1)
Social Mobility at the Top
383(3)
Black Mobility Patterns
386(3)
Mobility Patterns among Women
389(3)
Social Mobility: Historical and Comparative
392(1)
Historical Patterns of Mobility in the United States
392(2)
Comparative Mobility Studies
394(3)
Social Mobility: A Conclusion
397(2)
The Attainment Process
399(17)
Status Attainment Models
400(1)
The Wisconsin Model
401(3)
Education as Mediating Structure
404(1)
The Early Years of Schooling
404(2)
Family Background and College Attendance
406(1)
A Conflict Perspective of Education
407(1)
The Conflict Perspective: A Critique and Reinterpretation of Status Attainment Research
408(1)
Limited Explanatory Power
409(1)
The Limitations of Occupational Status
410(2)
Global and Economic Structural Influences on the Attainment Process
412(1)
A Conflict Perspective: Allocation versus Attainment
413(2)
The Conflict View of Attainment: A Conclusion
415(1)
Summary
416(1)
Notes
417(1)
The Process of Legitimation
418(29)
The Sociopsychological Process of Legitimation
422(11)
Norms of Distributive Justice
423(1)
The Socialization Process and Self-Evaluation
424(3)
The Effects of Individualism and Equality of Opportunity
427(4)
The Basis of Legitimation: A Summary
431(2)
The Macro Process of Legitimation: Building Support for Specific Forms of Inequality
433(13)
The Legitimation Function of Education
434(3)
The Legitimation Function of the Mass Media
437(5)
Opinion-Influencing Organizations
442(2)
The Macro Legitimation Process: A Conclusion
444(2)
Summary
446(1)
PART V SOCIAL STRATIFICATION BEYOND THE UNITED STATES 447
The World Stratification System: Dominance and Competition Among the Core Nations
449(28)
The Fall of Communism
451(1)
Re-emergence of Asia
451(1)
Capitalistic Competion
452(1)
World Poverty
453(1)
Characteristics of the World Stratification System
454(3)
Development of the Modern World System
457(1)
A Brief History of Core Conflict and Hegemony
458(7)
Postwar Competition Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union
462(1)
The Relative Decline Then Re-emergence of the United States
463(2)
American Inequality and the Future of Core Conflict
465(3)
Capitalistic Models and Core Competition in the Twenty-First Century
468(2)
The Global Corporate Class
470(5)
Summary
475(2)
Social Stratification in Japan
477(42)
Ranking in Japan: Some Introductory Observations
479(1)
A History of Social Stratification in Japan
480(5)
Asian Collectivism
481(1)
Japan's Isolation
482(1)
Japan's Feudal System
482(1)
The Tokugawa Shogunate
482(1)
The Meiji Restoration
483(1)
Occupation Reforms and the Rise of Modern Japan
484(1)
The Structural Bases of Social Stratification in Japan
485(9)
Occupational Structure
486(1)
Occupational Distribution
486(1)
Dual Economy
487(1)
Age Ranking
487(1)
Income Inequality
488(1)
Bureaucratic Authority Structures
488(1)
Corporate Bureaucracies
489(1)
Political Authority Structures
490(1)
Property Structure
491(3)
Japan's Power Elite
494(8)
The Corporate Class
494(2)
The Bureaucratic Elite
496(1)
The Political Elite
497(1)
Japanese Elite Unity
498(2)
Mass Society
500(2)
Achievement and Ascription in Modern Japan
502(13)
Race, Ethnic, and Sex Discrimination in Japan
503(1)
Sex Discrimination
503(3)
Race and Ethnic Discrimination
506(1)
Social Mobility and Status Attainment in Japan
507(1)
Education in Japan
508(1)
Inequality and Status Ranking in Japan
509(1)
Class, Status, and Power in Japan
510(2)
Income Inequality in Japan: Some Explanations
512(3)
Core Competition in the Twenty-First Century: Whither Japan
515(2)
Summary
517(1)
Notes
517(2)
Social Stratification in Germany
519(31)
A Brief History of the German Political Economy
522(7)
The Rise of Nazism
525(1)
Postwar Reconstruction
526(1)
Reduced Inequality
527(2)
Social Stratification in Germany: Some Basic Similarities, and a Few Differences
529(8)
Structures of Social Stratification: Occupation, Authority, and Property
529(1)
Social Mobility and Status Attainment
530(1)
Education and Class
531(1)
Gender Inequalities
532(2)
Poverty and Race/Ethnic Linequaltites
534(3)
Corporate and Bureaucratic Elites
537(5)
German Corporate Structure
539(1)
The Bureaucratic and Political Elite
540(1)
Elite Unity
541(1)
German Workers and Codetermination Laws
542(5)
A History of German Labor Laws
543(3)
Labor Power and the Benefits of the ``Codetermination Laws''
546(1)
Conclusion
547(1)
Summary
548(1)
Notes
548(2)
World Stratification and Globalization: The Poor of This Earth
550
The Extent of World Poverty
552(6)
The World System and Economic Development in Periphery Nations: Why Some of the World's Poor Remain Poor
558(5)
Barriers to Economic Development and Poverty Reduction
559(4)
Global Corporations Can Do Harm: Some Evidence
563(1)
Methodological Considerations
563(1)
World System Effects on Noncore Stratification Systems
563(10)
The Characteristics of East and South East Asian Nations: The ``Exceptions'' Behind the ``Asian Economic Miracles''
573(2)
A Resurgence of Cultural Explanations
573(2)
Asian Traditions and Forms of Social Organization: Some Commonalities
575(4)
Ancient Civilizations
575(1)
Traditions of Authority and Elite Responsibility
576(1)
A Hard State
577(2)
The Case of Thailand
579(8)
A Brief History of Thailand
580(2)
Thai Development Policies
582(2)
Thai Peasants and Political Action
584(1)
Thailand in World System Perspective
585(2)
The World Stratification System: A Conclusion and Perspective on the Future
587(2)
Social Structure and Technical Tools for Development
587(2)
Summary
589
Glossary 1
References 1
Name Index 1
Subject Index 1


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