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Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades : A Constructivist Approach,9780137048854
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Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades : A Constructivist Approach

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780137048854

ISBN10:
0137048858
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/16/2010
Publisher(s):
Pearson
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Summary

Replete with lessons, best practices in teaching strategies, and the latest on the constructivist approach, this text demonstrates how to help diverse students construct important social studies concepts and skills. Packed with activities, up-to-date technology, teaching strategies, and a constructivist approach, this text demonstrates how to use developmentally appropriate strategies to help students construct important social studies ideas and skills. Building on the success of previous editions, Social Studies for the Elementary and Middle Grades discusses flexible strategies for teaching today's diverse learner, the structure of the knowledge to be learned, how to help students reconstruct present ideas, and how to translate theory and recent research into lesson plans and units.Social Studies Methods with a constructivist approach. Designed as a main text for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in both Elementary and Middle School social studies methods in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: What is Powerful and Meaningful Social Studies?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Social Studies in the Elementary and Middle School

A First-Grade Classroom Scene

A Sixth-Grade Classroom Scene

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

What Is Purposeful and Powerful Social Studies?

Building on Diversity Box: Meaningful Social Studies

Defining Social Studies

Education for Active Citizenship

Using Technology Box: Deciding Whether and When

Social Studies Curriculum

Planning Powerful Social Studies Lessons

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: From Tree to Paper

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Making a Literature Connection Box: Using Trade Books in Social Studies

Social Studies is Essential

Expansion:

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 2: How Do Students Engage in Powerful and Meaningful Social Studies?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

How is Social Studies Best Taught in Today’s Classrooms?

Development: Applying What We Know About Meaningful Learning to Social Studies Curriculum

Using Constructivist Theory in Social Studies Instruction

Using Behavioral Learning Theory in Social Studies Instruction

An Effective Strategy to Promote Conceptual Change

Phases of a Learning Cycle Lesson

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Scale

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Exploratory Introduction

Development

Expansion

Lesson Summary

Choosing Activities for Each Phase of the Learning Cycle Lesson

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Building on Diversity Box

Student Assessment in Each Phase of the Learning Cycle

Writing Your Own Learning Cycle Lesson

The Optimal Length of Time for a Learning Cycle

Working With the Learning Cycle

Expansion: Principles of Teaching and Learning that Support the Curriculum Standards for the Social Studies

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 3: How Are Students Social Studies Inquiry Skills Learned?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Using Inquiry Skills to Develop Students' Social Studies Ideas

Early Inquiry Skills

Social Studies Inquiry Skills

Data-Gathering Skills

Data-Organizing Skills

Data-Processing Skills

Communicating Skills

Reflecting Skills

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Using Technology Box

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Observations, Inferences, and Hypotheses

Observations

Inferences

Hypotheses

Developing and Using Guiding Hypotheses

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Teaching Lessons in Which Students Use Integrative Thinking Skills

Critical Thinking

Problem Solving and Decision Making

Investigating

Creative Thinking

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Creating Conditions that Promote Student Thinking in Social Studies

Lesson Characteristics

Planning Activities to Teach Inquiry Skills

Expansion: Applying a Learning Cycle to Teach an Inquiry Skill

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: How Can We Classify Native American Food Plants?

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Assessing the Use of Inquiry Skills

Hierarchy of Inquiry Skills

Classroom Scenario: The Mystery in the Back Yard

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 4: How Are Social Studies Concepts and Generalizations Developed?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Concept Teaching Starts with Reflection and Practice

A Fourth-Grade Classroom Scene

Development: Facts as Social Studies Concepts

Classroom Scenario: Constructing a Concept of Aggression

Forming Concepts

Identifying All Important Attributes of a concept

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Types of Concepts

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Interrelationships Among Concepts

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Differences in Complexity and Abstractness of Concepts

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Powerful Concept Teaching

The Concept Learning Cycle

Teaching Concepts of Varying Complexity and Abstractness Differently

Building on Diversity Box

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Productive Resources

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Assessment of Concept Learning

Using Technology Box

Generalizations Show Relationships Between Concepts

Forming Generalizations

Defining Generalizations

Distinguishing Generalizations from Facts and Concepts

Using Generalizations to Make Predictions

Making a Literature Connection Box

Types of Generalizations

Teaching Powerful Generalizations

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

The Exploratory Introduction Phase of a Generalization Learning Cycle

The Lesson Development Phase of a Generalization Learning Cycle

The Expansion Phase of a Generalization Learning Cycle

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Using Technology to Investigate a Problem: Why Are Cities Built Where Rivers Come Together?

Formative Evaluation and Assessment In Constructing Generalizations

Expansion: Applying Concepts and Generalizations to Create Powerful and Meaningful Social Studies

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 5: How Do Students Develop Citizenship in Democratic and Global Societies? 

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

 Development: Defining Citizenship in a Democratic Society

Developing Political Awareness

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Citizenship and Standards

Key Concepts and Values

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Voting is a Way to Make Decisions

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Assessing Civic Education in U. S. Schools

Resources for Citizenship Education

Media Resources

Making a Literature Connection: Selecting a Trade Book That Stresses Social Studies

Law-Related Education

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Presidential Oath

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Participating in Democracy

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

School-Based Community Service Projects

Participation in Student Government

Building on Diversity box: The Challenges

Using Technology box: Cybercitizenship

Political Participation

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Expansion

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 6: What is Social Studies' Contribution to Global Education?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Global Education: An Evolving Definition

Global Education Appropriate for Grades Kindergarten - 8

Approaches to Global Education

Building on Diversity box: Finding the Views of People in Other Nations

The Cultural Approach to Global Education

Global Education Appropriate for K-8

The Problems Approach to Global Education

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Interdisciplinary Connections

Teaching Global Education

Resources for Teaching Global Education

Computers and the Internet

Learning Cycle Unit Plan: Teaching About War to Help Create a More Humane World

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Book Series

Resources for Current Events

Expansion

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 7: How Do Teachers Use and Manage Social Studies Instructional Strategies Effectively?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development:  Social Studies Pedagogical content Knowledge (PCK)

Teaching Dimensions That Support Meaningful Learning

Clarity

Variety

Task Orientation

Student Engagement

Best Practices: Teaching Strategies that Support Meaningful Learning

Questioning

Cooperative Learning

Using Technology box: Creating a Collaborative Classroom

A Continuum of Knowledge and Instruction

Matching Instructional Strategies to Student Needs

Expository, or Direct, Instructional Methods: Lower Student Control

Guided Discovery Instructional Methods: Mixed Teacher and Student Control

Inquiry and Problem-Solving/Decision-Making Instructional Methods: Greater Student Control

Matching Types of Instructional Activities to Each Phase of the Lesson

A Classroom Scene: One Teacher's Planning Decisions

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Useful Instructional Activities for the Exploratory Introduction Phase

Cooperative Group Challenge

Confrontational Challenges or Discrepant Events

Problem Exploration

Open Exploration

Useful Instructional Activities for the Lesson Development Phase

Field Trips

Guest Speakers

Demonstration

Lecture or Teacher Presentation

Games

Role-Playing and Simulations

Role-Playing

Simulations

Writing in Social Studies

Difficulties In Reading Textbooks

Doing a Content Analysis of a Textbook

Developing a Teaching Plan Using a Textbook

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Social Studies Kits

Making a Literature Connection Box: Reading Literature

Building on Diversity Box: Reading Activities

Visual Information and Literacy

Learning Centers

Inquiry Invitation

Using a WebQuest

Useful Instructional Activities for the Expansion Phase

Classroom Management Strategies for Powerful Social Studies

Advanced Planning

Giving Directions

Distributing Materials

Organizing the Beginning

Grouping Students

Using Classroom Rules

Crating Lesson Smoothness

Being a Facilitator

Assessment Considerations

Expansion: Making Decisions About Which Instructional Strategies to Use

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 8: How Are Powerful and Meaningful Social Studies Units Constructed?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development:  Planning the Appropriate Focus for Social Studies Units

Thinking-Skills Focused Units

Conceptual and Thinking Skills-Focused Units

Units that Integrate School Subjects

Theme Units

Issue and Problem-Solving Units

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think

How to Choose Appropriate Topics for Integrated Units

Planning Integrated Units

Using a Column Design

Developing Integrated Units

Step 1: Generating Ideas for the Topic of a Unit

Step 2: Researching the Topic

Step 3: Developing Essential or Focus Questions

Step 4: Identifying Special Needs Among Students and Making Accommodations

Step 5: Developing Intended Learning Outcomes

Step 6: Categorizing Intended Learning Outcomes

Step 7: Creating an Idea Web

Step 8: Developing a Rationale and goals

Step 9: Beginning the KWL Chart

Step 10: Developing Learning Objectives

Step 11: Developing an Assessment Plan

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Step 12: Developing Lesson Plans

Step 13: Developing Accommodations for Technology

Making a Literature Connection Box: Incorporating Social Studies Trade Books into Units

Step 14: Implementing the Unit

Step 15: Evaluating Student Learning

Step 16: Reflecting on the Unit

Using Technology Box: Databases and Spreadsheets

Expansion: Conceptualizing an Integrated Unit

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 9: How Do Teachers Foster Students’ Development as Individuals and Community Members?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Respect for Diverse Students and Oneself as a Teacher

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Sharing and Negotiation

The Curriculum Respects Diversity

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Development of Self-Concept in Diverse Students

Independence and Responsibility

Jealousy

Fears

Aggressive Feelings, Bullying, and Conflict Resolution

Using Technology Box: Internet Safety and Cyber-Bullying

Friendship

Empathy and Helpful Prosocial Behaviors

Self-Esteem

Values and Moral Education in a Diverse Society

Building on Diversity Box: Learning from the Voices of Our Family and Community

Three Aspects of Morality

Moral Development Theories

Teaching Approaches for Values Education

Character Education

Attitudes and Dispositions Promoting Powerful Social Studies

Curiosity

Respect for Evidence

Open-Mindedness

Perseverance

Consideration of Conflicting Evidence

Reserving Judgment

Flexibility

Responsibility to Others and to the Environment

Values, Morals, and Aesthetics

Making a Literature Connection Box: Demonstrating Powerful Attitudes and Dispositions

Assessing How Diverse Students Relate to Individuals and Communities

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Expansion: Confronting Challenges to Students’ Active, Responsible Development at Citizens

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 10: How Can I Involve All Students in Meaningful Social Studies?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Meaningful Social Studies for All Students

"Best Practices": Giving All Students Greater Control of Their Social Studies Learning

Social Studies Education for Students with Disabilities

General Instructional Strategies for Inclusive Classrooms

Using Technology Box

Multisensory Activities.

Cooperative Group Activities.

Classwide Peer Tutoring.

Peer Buddy System.

Reciprocal Teaching.

Reading Alone.

Lecture-Based Presentation.

Media Presentations.

Strategies for Using Social Studies Textbooks.

Study Guides.

General Suggestions for Adapting Textbook Materials for a Diverse Classroom.

Factors to be Considered in Adapting Social Studies Curricula and Instruction

Involving Students with Visual or Hearing Impairments

Social Studies Education in a Culturally Diverse Society

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Building on Diversity Box

Culturally Responsive Teaching

Sample Strategies for Multicultural Social Studies

Historical Approach

Current Social Issues

Using Student Culture

Role Models and Relevancy

Role Models

Making a Literature Connection Box

Culture and Gender Differences in Student-Teacher Interactions

Helping English Language Learners Participate in Social Studies

Recognizing and Scaffolding Language Learning

Instructional Strategies for Helping ELL Students Understand Social Studies Content

Assessment of Social Studies Learning for All Students

Group Assessment Through Cooperative Learning

Graphic Organizers

Oral Interviews

Projects

Portfolios

Journal Writing

Expansion: Applying Ideas for Helping All Students Learn Meaningful Social Studies

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 11: How Do I Engage Students in Examining History?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Definition of History

History in Schools

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Learning from the Paintings and Drawings of Artists

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Standards for History

Benefits of Studying History

Students and the Learning of History

Using Timelines to Develop Chronology

Resources for Teaching History

Locating and Using Historical Resources

People as Resources

Artifacts and Museums

The Community as a Resource

Documents as Resources

Diaries, Letters, and Pictures as Resources

Visual Literacy and History

Reenactments and Drama

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Biographies and Historical Literature

Building on Diversity: Pitfalls in Selecting Multicultural Books

Making a Literature Connection: Using Trade Books to Add Depth to History Units

Using Technology: Using Interactive Activities and Games in Learning History

Expansion:  Your Skills in History

The Lincoln Penny Worksheet

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 12: How Do I Engage Students in Interpreting the Earth and Its People Through Geography?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Defining Geography

The Five Themes of Geography

Geography and the National Social Studies Standards

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: People Change Their Environments

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Geography Education Standards the Six Elements of Geography Education

Resources for Teaching Geography

Using Technology box: An Important Contributor to Learning Geography

Developing Geographic Concepts, Generalizations, and Skills

A Classroom Scene

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Research Findings on Geographic Education

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Making a Literature Connection box: Books Provide Different Cultural Perspectives

Research on Map and Globe Skills

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Helping Students learn and Use Map and Globe Skills

Shapes and Patterns

Symbols

Direction

Distance

Grid System

Remote Sensing and Digital Maps in the Teaching of Geography

Numbers: The Amount or Quality on Maps, in Atlases, and in Textbooks

Reading and Maps

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Latitude and Longitude

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Expansion

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 13: How Do I Assist Students in Making Economic Decisions?

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Economic Literacy

Defining Economics

National Social Studies Standards Related to Economics

Voluntary National Standards in Economics

National Standards in Personal Finance

Economic Concepts and Values

Macroeconomic Concepts

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Making a Literature Connection box: Trade Books Illustrating Economic Concepts

International Economic Concepts

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Economic Interdependence

Measurement Concepts and Methods

Economic Decision-Making Skills

Economic Goals and Values

Children and the Learning of Economics

Approaches to Teaching Economics

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Advertisements and Making Good Choices

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Using Technology box

Resources for Teaching Economics

Expansion

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 

Chapter 14: How Do I Teach Students To Learn Through Multiple Assessments and

Exploratory Introduction

Chapter Overview

Chapter Objectives

Development: Assessing and Evaluating Social Studies Learning

When Evaluation and Assessment Are Needed

Guiding Principles for Assessment and Evaluation

National Testing of Social Studies

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Assessment and Evaluation Beyond Testing

Conferences with Diverse Parents and Families

Rubrics

Building on Diversity box

Modes of Assessment

Checklists

Individual Portfolios

Interviews

Classroom Websites

Journals

Quality Circles

Self-Evaluation Reports

Identifying Assessments Within a Lesson Plan

Learning Cycle Lesson Plan: Making Good Rules

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Action Research and Reflection: Becoming an Effective Social Studies Teacher

Time for Reflection: What Do You Think?

Expansion: Practicing Skills in Pre-Assessment

Summary

Recommended Websites to Visit

 



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