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Society : The Basics

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130207487

ISBN10:
0130207489
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Placing an emphasis on global perspectives and current research, this wide praised and adopted sociology textbook introduces the reader to the field of sociology. & John Macionis, like many people, took a college course that shaped his life. His first sociology course helped him make sense of the world. John shares his enthusiasm, excitement, and teaching experience through a clear and engaging writing style and emphasis on sociology's relevance to everyday life.

Table of Contents

Preface xviii
Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method
The Sociological Perspective
2(6)
Seeing the General in the Particular
2(1)
Seeing the Strange in the Familiar
3(1)
Seeing Individuality in Social Context
3(2)
Benefits of the Sociological Perspective
5(1)
Applied Sociology
5(1)
The Importance of a Global Perspective
6(2)
The Origins of Sociology
8(3)
Science and Sociology
8(2)
Social Change and Sociology
10(1)
Marginal Voices
10(1)
Sociological Theory
11(4)
The Structural-Functional Paradigm
11(2)
The Social-Conflict Paradigm
13(1)
The Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm
14(1)
Scientific Sociology
15(7)
Concepts, Variables, and Measurement
16(2)
Correlation and Cause
18(1)
The Ideal of Objectivity
19(1)
Research and Gender
19(1)
Feminist Research
20(1)
Research Ethics
20(2)
Research Methods
22(10)
Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment
22(1)
Asking Questions: The Survey
22(1)
In the Field: Participant Observation
22(1)
The Second Time Around: Existing Sources
23(1)
Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Research
24(1)
Summary
25(1)
Key Concepts
26(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
27(1)
Learning Exercises
27(1)
Welcome to the Information Revolution!
28(4)
Culture
32(28)
What is Culture?
35(2)
Culture and Human Intelligence
35(2)
The Components of Culture
37(4)
Symbols
37(1)
Language
38(1)
Values
38(3)
Norms
41(1)
``Ideal'' and ``Real'' Culture
41(1)
Technology and Culture
41(4)
Hunting and Gathering
42(1)
Horticulture and Pastoralism
42(1)
Agriculture
42(2)
Industry
44(1)
Postindustrial Information Technology
45(1)
Cultural Diversity
45(8)
High Culture and Popular Culture
46(1)
Subculture
46(1)
Multiculturalism
47(2)
Counterculture
49(1)
Cultural Change
49(1)
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativity
50(1)
A Global Culture?
51(2)
Theoretical Analysis of Culture
53(3)
Structural-Functional Analysis
53(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
53(1)
Sociobiology
54(2)
Culture and Human Freedom
56(4)
Summary
57(1)
Key Concepts
58(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
59(1)
Learning Exercises
59(1)
Socialization: From Infancy To Old Age
60(24)
Social Experience: The Key To Our Humanity
61(3)
Human Development: Nature and Nurture
61(2)
Social Isolation
63(1)
Understanding Socialization
64(6)
The Elements of Personality
64(1)
Sigmund Freud
Cognitive Development
65(1)
Jean Piaget
Moral Development
66(1)
Lawrence Kohlberg
The Gender Factor
67(1)
Carol Gilligan
The Social Self
67(2)
George Herbert Mead
Eight Stages of Development
69(1)
Erik H. Erikson
Agents of Socialization
70(4)
The Family
70(1)
The School
70(1)
The Peer Group
71(1)
The Mass Media
71(3)
Socialization and the Life Course
74(6)
Childhood
74(2)
Adolescence
76(1)
Adulthood
76(1)
Old Age
76(2)
Death and Dying
78(1)
The Life Course: An Overview
79(1)
Resocialization: Total Institutions
80(4)
Summary
81(1)
Key Concepts
82(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
83(1)
Learning Exercises
83(1)
Social Interaction In Everyday Life
84(22)
Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living
85(1)
Status
86(1)
Ascribed and Achieved Status
86(1)
Master Status
87(1)
Role
87(1)
Role Conflict and Role Strain
88(1)
Role Exit
88(1)
The Social Construction of Reality
88(4)
``Street Smarts''
90(1)
The Thomas Theorem
90(1)
Ethnomethodology
91(1)
Reality-Building: Some Broader Considerations
92(1)
Dramaturgical Analysis: ``The Presentation of Self''
92(7)
Performances
93(1)
Nonverbal Communication
94(2)
Gender and Performances
96(1)
Idealization
97(1)
Embarrassment and Tact
98(1)
Interaction in Everyday Life: Two Illustrations
99(7)
Language: The Gender Issue
99(1)
Humor: Playing with Reality
100(4)
Summary
104(1)
Key Concepts
104(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
105(1)
Learning Exercises
105(1)
Groups and Organizations
106(24)
Social Groups
107(8)
Primary and Secondary Groups
108(1)
Group Leadership
109(1)
Group Conformity
110(2)
Reference Groups
112(1)
Ingroups and Outgroups
112(1)
Group Size
113(1)
Social Diversity
114(1)
Networks
114(1)
Formal Organizations
115(12)
Types of Formal Organizations
116(1)
Origins of Bureaucracy
117(1)
Characteristics of Bureaucracy
117(2)
The Informal Side of Bureaucracy
119(1)
Problems of Bureaucracy
119(2)
Gender and Race in Organizations
121(2)
Self-Managed Work Teams
123(1)
Organizational Environment
123(1)
The McDonaldization of Society
124(1)
Japanese Organizations
125(2)
Groups and Organizations in Global Perspective
127(3)
Summary
128(1)
Key Concepts
129(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
129(1)
Learning Exercises
129(1)
Deviance
130(30)
What is Deviance?
131(3)
The Biological Context
132(1)
Personality Factors
133(1)
The Social Foundations of Deviance
133(1)
The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysis
134(3)
Durkheim's Basic Insight
134(1)
Merton's Strain Theory
135(1)
Deviant Subcultures
135(2)
Labeling Deviance: The Symbolic-Interaction Approach
137(3)
Labeling Theory
137(1)
Primary and Secondary Deviance
137(1)
Stigma
137(1)
Labeling and Mental Illness
138(1)
The Medicalization of Deviance
138(1)
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
139(1)
Hirschi's Control Theory
139(1)
Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis
140(3)
Deviance and Power
140(1)
Deviance and Capitalism
140(1)
White-Collar Crime
141(2)
Deviance and Social Diversity
143(1)
Deviance and Gender
143(1)
Hate Crimes
143(1)
Crime
144(7)
Types of Crime
145(1)
Criminal Statistics
146(1)
The ``Street'' Criminal: A Profile
146(3)
Crime in Global Perspective
149(2)
The Criminal Justice System
151(9)
Police
151(1)
Courts
152(1)
Punishment
152(4)
Summary
156(1)
Key Concepts
156(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
157(1)
Learning Exercises
157(1)
How New Technology Is Changing Our Way of Life
158(2)
Social Stratification
160(34)
What is Social Stratification?
162(1)
Caste and Class Systems
162(7)
The Caste System
162(1)
The Class System
163(3)
Classless Societies?
166(2)
Ideology: Stratification's ``Staying Power''
168(1)
The Functions of Social Stratification
169(1)
The Davis-Moore Thesis
169(1)
Stratification and Conflict
170(3)
Class Conflict
170(1)
Karl Marx
Why No Marxist Revolution?
171(1)
Class, Status, and Power
172(1)
Max Weber
Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective
173(1)
Inequality in the United States
174(5)
Income, Wealth, and Power
176(1)
Occupational Prestige
177(1)
Schooling
177(1)
Ancestry, Race, and Gender
177(2)
Social Classes in the United States
179(2)
The Upper Class
179(1)
The Middle Class
180(1)
The Working Class
180(1)
The Lower Class
180(1)
The Difference Class Makes
181(1)
Health
181(1)
Values and Attitudes
181(1)
Family Patterns
182(1)
Social Mobility
182(3)
Myth versus Reality
183(1)
Mobility by Income Level
183(1)
Mobility by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender
184(1)
The American Dream: Still a Reality?
184(1)
The Global Economy and the U.S. Class Structure
184(1)
Poverty in the United States
185(9)
The Extent of Poverty
186(1)
Who Are the Poor?
186(1)
Explaining Poverty
187(2)
Homelessness
189(1)
Class and Welfare, Politics and Values
189(2)
Summary
191(1)
Key Concepts
192(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
193(1)
Learning Exercises
193(1)
Global Stratification
194(24)
Global Stratification: An Overview
195(3)
A Word about Terminology
196(1)
High-Income Countries
196(2)
Middle-Income Countries
198(5)
Slavery
203
Low-Income Countries
198(1)
Global Wealth and Poverty
198(7)
The Severity of Poverty
200(1)
The Extent of Poverty
201(1)
Poverty and Children
201(2)
Poverty and Women
203(1)
Slavery
203(1)
Correlates of Global Poverty
203(2)
Global Inequality: Theoretical Analysis
205(8)
Modernization Theory
205(5)
Dependency Theory
210(3)
Global Inequality: Looking Ahead
213(5)
Summary
216(1)
Key Concepts
217(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
217(1)
Learning Exercises
217(1)
Sex and Gender
218(26)
Sex and Gender
219(6)
Sex: A Biological Distinction
219(1)
Sexual Orientation
220(2)
Gender: A Cultural Distinction
222(1)
Patriarchy and Sexism
223(2)
Gender and Socialization
225(2)
Gender and the Family
225(1)
Gender and the Peer Group
226(1)
Gender and Schooling
226(1)
Gender and the Mass Media
227(1)
Gender and Social Stratification
227(9)
Working Women and Men
227(2)
Housework: Women's ``Second Shift''
229(1)
Gender, Income, and Wealth
230(1)
Gender and Education
231(1)
Gender and Politics
231(1)
Gender and the Military
232(1)
Are Women a Minority?
233(1)
Minority Women
233(1)
Violence against Women
234(2)
Theoretical Analysis of Gender
236(1)
Structural-Functional Analysis
236(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
236(1)
Feminism
237(3)
Basic Feminist Ideas
237(1)
Types of Feminism
238(1)
Opposition to Feminism
239(1)
Looking Ahead: Gender in the Twenty-First Century
240(4)
Summary
242(1)
Key Concepts
242(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
243(1)
Learning Exercises
243(1)
Race and Ethnicity
244(28)
The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicity
245(8)
Race
246(1)
Ethnicity
247(1)
Minorities
248(1)
Prejudice and Stereotypes
249(1)
Racism
250(1)
Theories of Prejudice
250(2)
Discrimination
252(1)
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination
252(1)
Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Cycle
252(1)
Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction
253(2)
Pluralism
253(1)
Assimilation
253(1)
Segregation
254(1)
Genocide
254(1)
Race and Ethnicity in the United States
255(11)
Native Americans
255(1)
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
256(1)
African Americans
257(2)
Asian Americans
259(5)
Hispanic Americans
264(1)
White Ethnic Americans
265(1)
Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead
266(6)
Summary
268(1)
Key Concepts
268(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
269(1)
Learning Exercises
269(1)
New Information Technology and Social Stratification
270(2)
Economics and Politics
272(34)
The Economy: Historical Overview
274(2)
The Agricultural Revolution
274(1)
The Industrial Revolution
274(1)
The Information Revolution and the Postindustrial Society
275(1)
Sectors of the Economy
275(1)
The Global Economy
276(1)
Economic Systems: Paths to Justice
276(5)
Capitalism
278(1)
Socialism
278(1)
Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism
279(1)
Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism
279(1)
Changes in Socialist Countries
280(1)
Work in the Postindustrial Economy
281(4)
The Changing Workplace
281(1)
Labor Unions
282(1)
Professions
282(1)
Self-Employment
283(1)
Unemployment
283(1)
Social Diversity in the Workplace
284(1)
New Information Technology and Work
284(1)
Corporations
285(3)
Economic Concentration
285(1)
Corporate Linkages
286(1)
Corporations: Are They Competitive?
286(1)
Corporations and the Global Economy
286(1)
Looking Ahead: The Economy of the Twenty-First Century
287(1)
Politics: Historical Overview
288(1)
Global Political Systems
289(3)
Monarchy
289(1)
Democracy
289(1)
Authoritarianism
289(2)
Totalitarianism
291(1)
A Global Political System?
291(1)
Politics in the United States
292(3)
U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State
292(1)
The Political Spectrum
293(1)
Party Identification
294(1)
Special-Interest Groups
294(1)
Voter Apathy
294(1)
Theoretical Analysis of Politics
295(2)
The Pluralist Model: The People Rule
295(1)
The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule
295(1)
The Marxist Model: Bias in the System Itself
296(1)
Power Beyond the Rules
297(1)
Revolution
297(1)
Terrorism
298(1)
War and Peace
298(8)
The Causes of War
299(1)
The Costs and Causes of Militarism
299(1)
Nuclear Weapons
300(1)
Pursuing Peace
300(2)
Looking Ahead: Politics in the Twenty-First Century
302(1)
Summary
303(1)
Key Concepts
304(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
305(1)
Learning Exercises
305(1)
Family and Religion
306(34)
The Family: Basic Concepts
308(1)
The Family: Global Variations
308(3)
Marriage Patterns
309(1)
Residential Patterns
309(1)
Patterns of Descent
310(1)
Patterns of Authority
311(1)
Theoretical Analysis of the Family
311(2)
Functions of the Family: Structural-Functional Analysis
311(1)
Inequality and the Family: Social-Conflict Analysis
311(1)
Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis
312(1)
Stages of Family Life
313(3)
Courtship and Romantic Love
313(1)
Settling in: Ideal and Real Marriage
313(1)
Child Rearing
314(1)
The Family in Later Life
315(1)
U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender
316(2)
Social Class
316(1)
Ethnicity and Race
317(1)
Gender
318(1)
Transitions and Problems in Family Life
318(3)
Divorce
318(2)
Remarriage
320(1)
Family Violence
320(1)
Alternative Family Forms
321(4)
One-Parent Families
321(1)
Cohabitation
322(1)
Gay and Lesbian Couples
322(1)
Singlehood
323(1)
New Reproductive Technology
323(1)
Looking Ahead: The Family in the Twenty-First Century
324(1)
Religion: Basic Concepts
325(1)
Theoretical Analysis of Religion
326(2)
Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysis
326(1)
Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis
327(1)
Religion and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis
327(1)
Religion and Social Change
328(1)
Protestantism and Capitalism
328(1)
Max Weber
Liberation Theology
328(1)
Church, Sect, and Cult
329(2)
Religion in History
331(1)
Religion in the United States
331(2)
Religious Commitment
331(1)
Religion and Social Stratification
332(1)
Religion in a Changing Society
333(7)
Secularization
333(1)
Civil Religion
333(1)
Religious Revival
334(2)
Looking Ahead: Religion in the Twenty-First Century
336(1)
Summary
337(1)
Key Concepts
338(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
339(1)
Learning Exercises
339(1)
Education and Medicine
340(34)
Education: A Global Survey
341(3)
Schooling in Low-Income Countries
342(1)
Schooling in High-Income Countries
343(1)
Schooling in the United States
344(1)
The Functions of Schooling
344(1)
Schooling and Social Inequality
345(3)
Public and Private Education
346(1)
Access to Higher Education
347(1)
Credentialism
348(1)
Privilege and Personal Merit
348(1)
Problems in the Schools
348(4)
Discipline and Violence
348(1)
Bureaucracy and Student Passivity
349(1)
College: The Silent Classroom
350(1)
Dropping Out
350(1)
Academic Standards
351(1)
Recent Issues in U.S. Education
352(2)
School Choice
352(1)
Schooling People with Disabilities
352(1)
Adult Education
353(1)
Looking Ahead: Schooling in the Twenty-First Century
353(1)
Health
354(1)
Health and Society
354(1)
Health: A Global Survey
354(2)
Health in Low-Income Countries
355(1)
Health in High-Income Countries
355(1)
Health in the United States
356(6)
Social Epidemiology: Who Is Healthy?
356(1)
Cigarette Smoking
357(1)
Eating Disorders
358(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
358(3)
Ethical Issues: Confronting Death
361(1)
The Medical Establishment
362(4)
The Rise of Scientific Medicine
362(1)
Holistic Medicine
363(1)
Paying the Costs: A Global Survey
363(1)
Medicine in the United States
364(2)
Theoretical Analysis of Medicine
366(8)
Structural-Functional Analysis
366(1)
Symbolic-Interaction Analysis
366(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
367(1)
Looking Ahead: Health in the Twenty-First Century
368(2)
Summary
370(1)
Key Concepts
371(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
371(1)
Learning Exercises
371(1)
New Information Technology and Social Institutions
372(2)
Population and Urbanization
374(24)
Demography: The Study of Population
375(5)
Fertility
376(1)
Mortality
376(1)
Migration
377(1)
Population Growth
377(2)
Population Composition
379(1)
History and Theory of Population Growth
380(2)
Malthusian Theory
380(1)
Demographic Transition Theory
381(1)
Global Population: A Survey
382(2)
The Low-Growth North
382(1)
The High-Growth South
382(2)
Urbanization: The Growth of Cities
384(5)
The Evolution of Cities
384(2)
The Growth of U.S. Cities
386(1)
The Rise of Suburbs
387(1)
Postindustrial Sunbelt Cities
388(1)
Megalopolis: Regional Cities
388(1)
Edge Cities
389(1)
Urbanism as a Way of Life
389(4)
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
389(1)
Ferdinand Tonnies
Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
389(1)
Emile Durkheim
The Blase Urbanite
390(1)
Georg Simmel
Walking the Streets
390(1)
Robert Park
Urbanism as a Way of Life
391(1)
Louis Wirth
Urban Ecology
391(2)
Urban Political Economy
393(1)
Urbanization in Poor Societies
393(5)
Looking Ahead: Population and Urbanization in the Twenty-First Century
394(2)
Summary
396(1)
Key Concepts
396(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
397(1)
Learning Exercises
397(1)
Environment and Society
398(22)
Ecology: The Study of the Natural Environment
399(6)
The Role of Sociology
400(1)
The Global Dimension
400(1)
The Historical Dimension
401(1)
Population Increase
401(2)
Cultural Patterns: Growth and Limits
403(2)
Environmental Issues
405(7)
Solid Waste: The Disposable Society
405(1)
Preserving Clean Water
406(3)
Clearing the Air
409(1)
Acid Rain
410(1)
The Rain Forests
411(1)
Society and the Environment: Theoretical Analysis
412(3)
Structural-Functional Analysis
412(1)
Cultural Ecology
412(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis
413(1)
Environmental Racism
414(1)
Looking Ahead: Toward A Sustainable Society and World
415(5)
Summary
418(1)
Key Concepts
419(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
419(1)
Learning Exercises
419(1)
Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies
420(26)
What is Social Change?
422(2)
Causes of Social Change
424(3)
Culture and Change
424(1)
Conflict and Change
424(1)
Ideas and Change
424(1)
Demographic Change
425(1)
Social Movements and Change
425(2)
Modernity
427(3)
The Loss of Community
428(1)
Ferdinand Tonnies
The Division of Labor
429(1)
Emile Durkheim
Rationalization
429(1)
Max Weber
Capitalism
430(1)
Karl Marx
Structural-Functional Analysis: The Theory of Mass Society
430(3)
The Mass Scale of Modern Life
431(1)
The Ever-Expanding State
432(1)
Social-Conflict Analysis: The Theory of Class Society
433(1)
Capitalism
433(1)
Persistent Inequality
433(1)
Modernity and the Individual
434(2)
Mass Society: Problems of Identity
434(1)
Class Society: Problems of Powerlessness
435(1)
Modernity and Progress
436(1)
Modernity: Global Variations
437(1)
Postmodernity
437(2)
Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future
439(7)
Summary
442(1)
Key Concepts
442(1)
Critical-Thinking Questions
443(1)
Learning Exercises
443(1)
New Information Technology and Social Change
444(2)
Glossary 446(7)
References 453(24)
Photo Credits 477(2)
About the Author 479(1)
Name Index 480(6)
Subject Index 486


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