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Society : The Basics

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780132284905

ISBN10:
0132284901
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $95.60

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Summary

Placing an emphasis on global perspectives and current research, this wide praised and adopted sociology textbook introduces the reader to the field of sociology. John Macionis, like many people, took a college course that shaped his life. His first sociology course helped him make sense of the world. John shares his enthusiasm, excitement, and teaching experience through a clear and engaging writing style and emphasis on sociologyrs"s relevance to everyday life.

Table of Contents

Boxesp. xiii
Mapsp. xvi
Prefacep. xviii
Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Methodp. 1
The Sociological Perspectivep. 2
Seeing the General in the Particularp. 2
Seeing the Strange in the Familiarp. 2
Seeing Personal Choice in Social Contextp. 4
Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisisp. 4
The Importance of a Global Perspectivep. 5
Applying the Sociological Perspectivep. 8
Sociology and Public Policyp. 8
Sociology and Personal Growthp. 8
Careers: The "Sociology Advantage"p. 9
In the Times: "For Illegal Immigrants, a Harsh Lesson"p. 10
The Origins of Sociologyp. 11
Social Change and Sociologyp. 11
Science and Sociologyp. 12
Sociological Theoryp. 13
The Structural-Functional Approachp. 14
The Social-Conflict Approachp. 15
Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approachp. 15
The Race-Conflict Approachp. 17
The Symbolic-Interaction Approachp. 17
Three Ways to Do Sociologyp. 18
Scientific Sociologyp. 19
Interpretive Sociologyp. 23
Critical Sociologyp. 23
Methods and Theoryp. 24
Gender and Researchp. 24
Research Ethicsp. 25
Research Methodsp. 25
Testing a Hypothesis: The Experimentp. 25
Asking Questions: Survey Researchp. 27
In the Field: Participant Observationp. 28
Using Available Data: Existing Sourcesp. 31
Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Researchp. 34
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 34
Making the Gradep. 35
Visual Summaryp. 35
Sample Test Questionsp. 37
Culturep. 39
What Is Culture?p. 40
Culture and Human Intelligencep. 42
How Many Cultures?p. 44
The Elements of Culturep. 44
Symbolsp. 44
Languagep. 46
Values and Beliefsp. 46
Normsp. 50
Ideal and Real Culturep. 50
Technology and Culturep. 50
Hunting and Gatheringp. 50
Horticulture and Pastoralismp. 51
Agriculturep. 51
Industryp. 52
Postindustrial Information Technologyp. 52
Cultural Diversityp. 52
High Culture and Popular Culturep. 52
Subculturep. 53
In the Times: "Cast from Their Ancestral Home, Creoles Worry about Culture's Future"p. 54
Multiculturalismp. 55
Counterculturep. 56
Cultural Changep. 57
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativismp. 58
A Global Culture?p. 59
Theoretical Analysis of Culturep. 60
The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Analysisp. 60
Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Analysisp. 61
Evolution and Culture: Sociobiologyp. 62
Culture and Human Freedomp. 64
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 64
Making the Gradep. 65
Visual Summaryp. 65
Sample Test Questionsp. 67
Socialization: From Infancy to Old Agep. 69
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanityp. 70
Human Development: Nature and Nurturep. 70
Social Isolationp. 71
Understanding Socializationp. 72
Sigmund Freud's Elements of Personalityp. 72
Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Developmentp. 73
Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Developmentp. 74
Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Developmentp. 74
George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Selfp. 75
Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of Developmentp. 76
Agents of Socializationp. 77
The Familyp. 77
The Schoolp. 79
The Peer Groupp. 79
The Mass Mediap. 80
Socialization and the Life Coursep. 82
Childhoodp. 82
Adolescencep. 83
Adulthoodp. 83
In the Times: "Adultescent"p. 84
Old Agep. 85
Death and Dyingp. 87
The Life Course: Patterns and Variationsp. 88
Resocialization: Total Institutionsp. 89
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 90
Making the Gradep. 91
Visual Summaryp. 91
Sample Test Questionsp. 93
Social Interaction in Everyday Lifep. 95
Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Livingp. 96
Statusp. 97
Ascribed and Achieved Statusp. 97
Master Statusp. 97
Rolep. 98
Role Conflict and Role Strainp. 99
Role Exitp. 99
The Social Construction of Realityp. 99
"Street Smarts"p. 100
The Thomas Theoremp. 101
Ethnomethodologyp. 101
Reality Building: Class and Culturep. 102
Dramaturgical Analysis: The "Presentation of Self"p. 102
Performancesp. 103
Nonverbal Communicationp. 103
Gender and Performancesp. 104
Idealizationp. 106
Embarrassment and Tactp. 106
Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applicationsp. 107
Emotions: The Social Construction of Feelingp. 107
Language: The Social Construction of Genderp. 108
Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humorp. 111
In the Times: "Seriously, the Joke Is Dead"p. 112
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 114
Making the Gradep. 115
Visual Summaryp. 115
Sample Test Questionsp. 117
Groups and Organizationsp. 119
Social Groupsp. 120
Primary and Secondary Groupsp. 121
Group Leadershipp. 122
Group Conformityp. 122
Reference Groupsp. 124
In-Groups and Out-Groupsp. 124
Group Sizep. 125
Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Genderp. 126
Networksp. 126
Formal Organizationsp. 127
Types of Formal Organizationsp. 127
Origins of Formal Organizationsp. 129
Characteristics of Bureaucracyp. 129
Organizational Environmentp. 129
The Informal Side of Bureaucracyp. 130
Problems of Bureaucracyp. 131
In the Times: "The Beast That Feeds on Boxes: Bureaucracy"p. 132
The Evolution of Formal Organizationsp. 134
Scientific Managementp. 134
The First Challenge: Race and Genderp. 134
The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organizationp. 135
The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Workp. 135
The "McDonaldization" of Societyp. 137
The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trendsp. 140
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 140
Making the Gradep. 141
Visual Summaryp. 141
Sample Test Questionsp. 143
Sexuality and Societyp. 145
Understanding Sexualityp. 146
Sex: A Biological Issuep. 146
Sex and the Bodyp. 147
Sex: A Cultural Issuep. 148
The Incest Taboop. 149
In the Times: "Children, Media, and Sex: A Big Book of Blank Pages"p. 150
Sexual Attitudes in the United Statesp. 150
The Sexual Revolutionp. 151
The Sexual Counterrevolutionp. 152
Premarital Sexp. 153
Sex between Adultsp. 154
Extramarital Sexp. 155
Sex over the Life Coursep. 155
Sexual Orientationp. 155
What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation?p. 156
How Many Gay People Are There?p. 157
The Gay Rights Movementp. 157
Sexual Issues and Controversiesp. 158
Teen Pregnancyp. 158
Pornographyp. 159
Prostitutionp. 159
Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rapep. 161
Theoretical Analysis of Sexualityp. 163
Structural-Functional Analysisp. 163
Symbolic-Interaction Analysisp. 164
Social-Conflict Analysisp. 165
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 168
Making the Gradep. 169
Visual Summaryp. 169
Sample Test Questionsp. 171
Deviancep. 173
What Is Deviance?p. 174
Social Controlp. 174
The Biological Contextp. 175
Personality Factorsp. 175
The Social Foundations of Deviancep. 176
The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysisp. 176
Durkheim's Basic Insightp. 176
Merton's Strain Theoryp. 177
Deviant Subculturesp. 178
Labeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Analysisp. 179
Labeling Theoryp. 179
The Medicalization of Deviancep. 181
Sutherland's Differential Association Theoryp. 182
Hirschi's Control Theoryp. 182
Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysisp. 183
Deviance and Powerp. 183
Deviance and Capitalismp. 183
White-Collar Crimep. 184
Corporate Crimep. 185
Organized Crimep. 185
Deviance, Race, and Genderp. 186
Hate Crimesp. 186
The Feminist Perspective: Deviance and Genderp. 186
Crimep. 188
Types of Crimep. 187
Criminal Statisticsp. 188
The Street Criminal: A Profilep. 188
Crime in Global Perspectivep. 191
The U.S. Criminal Justice Systemp. 193
Due Processp. 193
Policep. 194
Courtsp. 194
Punishmentp. 195
In the Times: "Despite Drop in Crime, an Increase in Inmates"p. 196
Community-Based Correctionsp. 199
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 200
Making the Gradep. 201
Visual Summaryp. 201
Sample Test Questionsp. 203
Social Stratificationp. 205
What Is Social Stratification?p. 206
Caste and Class Systemsp. 207
The Caste Systemp. 207
The Class Systemp. 208
Caste and Class: The United Kingdomp. 210
Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Unionp. 211
China: Emerging Social Classesp. 212
Ideology: The Power behind Stratificationp. 213
The Functions of Social Stratificationp. 213
The Davis-Moore Thesisp. 214
Stratification and Conflictp. 215
Karl Marx: Class Conflictp. 215
Why No Marxist Revolution?p. 216
Max Weber: Class, Status, and Powerp. 217
Stratification and Interactionp. 218
Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspectivep. 212
Hunting and Gathering Societiesp. 219
Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societiesp. 219
Industrial Societiesp. 219
The Kuznets Curvep. 220
Inequality in the United Statesp. 220
Income, Wealth, and Powerp. 220
Schoolingp. 223
Occupational Prestigep. 223
Ancestry, Race, and Genderp. 223
Social Classes in the United Statesp. 225
The Upper Classp. 225
The Middle Classp. 226
The Working Classp. 226
The Lower Classp. 227
The Difference Class Makesp. 227
Healthp. 227
Values and Attitudesp. 227
Politicsp. 227
Family and Genderp. 228
Social Mobilityp. 228
Myth versus Realityp. 229
Mobility by Income Levelp. 229
Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Genderp. 229
Mobility and Marriagep. 231
The American Dream: Still a Reality?p. 231
The Global Economy and the U.S. Class Structurep. 231
Poverty in the United Statesp. 232
The Extent of Povertyp. 232
Who Are the Poor?p. 233
Explaining Povertyp. 234
In the Times: "Surge in Homeless Families Sets Off Debate on Cause"p. 236
The Working Poorp. 236
Homelessnessp. 237
Class, Welfare, Politics, and Valuesp. 238
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 238
Making the Gradep. 239
Visual Summaryp. 239
Sample Test Questionsp. 241
Global Stratificationp. 243
Global Stratification: An Overviewp. 244
A Word about Terminologyp. 245
High-Income Countriesp. 245
Middle-Income Countriesp. 246
Low-Income Countriesp. 248
Global Wealth and Povertyp. 249
The Severity of Povertyp. 249
The Extent of Povertyp. 252
Poverty and Childrenp. 253
Poverty and Womenp. 253
Slaveryp. 254
Explanations of Global Povertyp. 254
Global Stratification: Theoretical Analysisp. 257
Modernization Theoryp. 257
Dependency Theoryp. 260
Global Stratification: Looking Aheadp. 283
In the Times: "Shantytown Dwellers in South Africa Protest Sluggish Pace of Changep. 264
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 266
Making the Gradep. 267
Visual Summaryp. 267
Sample Test Questionsp. 269
Gender Stratificationp. 271
Gender and Inequalityp. 272
Male-Female Differencesp. 272
Gender in Global Perspectivep. 273
Patriarchy and Sexismp. 274
Gender and Socializationp. 276
Gender and the Familyp. 276
Gender and the Peer Groupp. 277
Gender and Schoolingp. 277
Gender and the Mass Mediap. 277
Gender and Social Stratificationp. 279
Working Women and Menp. 279
Gender, Income, and Wealthp. 280
Housework: Women's "Second Shift"p. 281
Gender and Educationp. 281
Gender and Politicsp. 282
Gender and the Militaryp. 283
Are Women a Minority?p. 283
Minority Women: Intersection Theoryp. 283
Violence against Womenp. 284
Violence against Menp. 285
Sexual Harassmentp. 287
Pornographyp. 287
Theoretical Analysis of Genderp. 288
Structural-Functional Analysisp. 288
Social-Conflict Analysisp. 289
Feminismp. 290
Basic Feminist Ideasp. 290
Types of Feminismp. 291
In the Times: "Men Are Becoming the Ad Target of the Gender Sneer"p. 292
Opposition to Feminismp. 292
Gender: Looking Aheadp. 294
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 294
Making the Gradep. 295
Visual Summaryp. 295
Sample Test Questionsp. 297
Race and Ethnicityp. 299
The Social Meaning of Race and Ethnicityp. 300
Racep. 300
Ethnicityp. 302
Minoritiesp. 303
Prejudice and Stereotypesp. 304
Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scalep. 305
Racismp. 307
Theories of Prejudicep. 308
Discriminationp. 310
Institutional Prejudice and Discriminationp. 310
Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circlep. 310
Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interactionp. 311
Pluralismp. 311
Assimilationp. 311
In the Times: "Around the World in Five Boroughs"p. 312
Segregationp. 312
Genocidep. 313
Race and Ethnicity in the United Statesp. 314
Native Americansp. 314
White Anglo-Saxon Protestantsp. 316
African Americansp. 316
Asian Americansp. 318
Hispanic Americans/Latinosp. 322
Arab Americansp. 324
White Ethnic Americansp. 326
Race and Ethnicity: Looking Aheadp. 328
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 328
Making the Gradep. 329
Visual Summaryp. 329
Sample Test Questionsp. 331
Economics and Politicsp. 333
The Economy: Historical Overviewp. 334
The Agricultural Revolutionp. 334
The Industrial Revolutionp. 335
The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Societyp. 335
Sectors of the Economyp. 336
The Global Economyp. 337
Economic Systems: Paths to Justicep. 338
Capitalismp. 338
Socialismp. 339
Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalismp. 340
Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialismp. 340
Changes in Socialist and Capitalist Countriesp. 341
Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economyp. 342
The Changing Workplacep. 342
Labor Unionsp. 342
Professionsp. 343
Self-Employmentp. 344
Unemployment and Underemploymentp. 344
Workplace Diversity: Race and Genderp. 345
New Information Technology and Workp. 345
Corporationsp. 347
Economic Concentrationp. 347
Conglomerates and Corporate Linkagesp. 347
Corporations: Are They Competitive?p. 347
Corporations and the Global Economyp. 348
The Economy: Looking Aheadp. 349
In the Times: "Rewards of a 90-Hour Week: Poverty and Dirty Laundry"p. 350
Politics: Historical Overviewp. 350
Politics in Global Perspectivep. 352
Monarchyp. 352
Democracyp. 352
Authoritarianismp. 352
Totalitarianismp. 353
A Global Political System?p. 354
Politics in the United Statesp. 354
U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare Statep. 355
The Political Spectrump. 355
Party Identificationp. 356
Special-Interest Groupsp. 357
Voter Apathyp. 357
Should Convicted Criminals Vote?p. 358
Theoretical Analysis of Power in Societyp. 358
The Pluralist Model: The People Rulep. 358
The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rulep. 358
The Marxist Model: The System Is Biasedp. 359
Power Beyond the Rulesp. 360
Revolutionp. 360
Terrorismp. 360
War and Peacep. 382
The Causes of Warp. 362
Social Class and the Militaryp. 362
Is Terrorism a New Kind of War?p. 363
The Costs and Causes of Militarismp. 363
Nuclear Weaponsp. 364
Mass Media and Warp. 364
Pursuing Peacep. 365
Politics: Looking Aheadp. 366
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 366
Making the Gradep. 367
Visual Summaryp. 367
Sample Test Questionsp. 369
Family and Religionp. 371
Family: Basic Conceptsp. 372
Family: Global Variationsp. 373
Marriage Patternsp. 373
Residential Patternsp. 374
Patterns of Descentp. 375
Patterns of Authorityp. 375
Theoretical Analysis of Familyp. 375
Functions of Family: Structural-Functional Analysisp. 375
Inequality and Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysisp. 376
Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysisp. 376
Stages of Family Lifep. 377
Courtship and Romantic Lovep. 377
Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriagep. 379
Child Rearingp. 379
The Family in Later Lifep. 380
U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Genderp. 381
Social Classp. 381
Ethnicity and Racep. 381
In the Times: "Crisis of Indian Children Intensifies as Families Fail"p. 382
Genderp. 384
Transitions and Problems in Family Lifep. 384
Divorcep. 384
Remarriage and Blended Familiesp. 385
Family Violencep. 386
Alternative Family Formsp. 387
One-Parent Familiesp. 387
Cohabitationp. 387
Gay and Lesbian Couplesp. 388
Singlehoodp. 390
New Reproductive Technologies and Familyp. 390
Families: Looking Aheadp. 390
Religion: Basic Conceptsp. 391
Theoretical Analysis of Religionp. 391
Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysisp. 391
Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysisp. 392
Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Analysisp. 393
Religion and Social Changep. 394
Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalismp. 394
Liberation Theologyp. 395
Types of Religious Organizationsp. 395
Churchp. 395
Sectp. 395
Cultp. 396
Religion in Historyp. 397
Religion in the United Statesp. 397
Religious Commitmentp. 397
Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and Racep. 399
Religion in a Changing Societyp. 399
Secularizationp. 399
Civil Religionp. 400
"New Age" Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religionp. 400
Religious Revival: "Good Old-Time Religion"p. 401
Religion: Looking Aheadp. 404
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 404
Making the Gradep. 405
Visual Summaryp. 405
Sample Test Questionsp. 407
Education, Health, and Medicinep. 409
Education: A Global Surveyp. 410
Schooling and Economic Developmentp. 410
Schooling in Indiap. 412
Schooling in Japanp. 412
Schooling in the United Statesp. 412
The Functions of Schoolingp. 413
Schooling and Social Interactionp. 414
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecyp. 414
Schooling and Social Inequalityp. 414
Public and Private Educationp. 415
Access to Higher Educationp. 417
Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Educationp. 418
Community Collegesp. 418
Privilege and Personal Meritp. 419
Problems in the Schoolsp. 420
Discipline and Violencep. 420
Student Passivityp. 420
Dropping Outp. 421
In the Times: "The College Dropout Boom"p. 422
Academic Standardsp. 422
Grade Inflationp. 424
Recent Issues in U.S. Educationp. 424
School Choicep. 424
Home Schoolingp. 425
Schooling People with Disabilitiesp. 425
Adult Educationp. 427
The Teacher Shortagep. 427
Schooling: Looking Aheadp. 427
Health and Medicinep. 427
Health and Societyp. 427
Health: A Global Surveyp. 428
Health in Low-Income Countriesp. 428
Health in High-Income Countriesp. 429
Health in the United Statesp. 429
Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Racep. 429
Cigarette Smokingp. 430
Eating Disordersp. 431
Obesityp. 432
Sexually Transmitted Diseasesp. 433
Ethical Issues surrounding Deathp. 435
The Medical Establishmentp. 436
The Rise of Scientific Medicinep. 436
Holistic Medicinep. 437
Paying for Medical Care: A Global Surveyp. 437
Paying for Medical Care: The United Statesp. 438
The Nursing Shortagep. 440
Theoretical Analysis of Health and Medicinep. 440
Structural-Functional Analysis: Role Theoryp. 440
Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: The Meaning of Healthp. 441
Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysisp. 442
Health and Medicine: Looking Aheadp. 443
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 444
Making the Gradep. 445
Visual Summaryp. 445
Sample Test Questionsp. 447
Population, Urbanization, and Environmentp. 449
Demography: The Study of Populationp. 450
Fertilityp. 450
Mortalityp. 451
Migrationp. 452
Population Growthp. 452
Population Compositionp. 453
History and Theory of Population Growthp. 454
Malthusian Theoryp. 455
Demographic Transition Theoryp. 455
Global Population Today: A Brief Surveyp. 456
Urbanization: The Growth of Citiesp. 457
The Evolution of Citiesp. 458
The Growth of U.S. Citiesp. 459
Suburbs and Urban Declinep. 460
Postindustrial Sunbelt Cities and Sprawlp. 461
Megalopolis: The Regional Cityp. 461
Edge Citiesp. 461
The Rural Reboundp. 462
Urbanism as a Way of Lifep. 462
Ferdinand Tonnies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaftp. 462
Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarityp. 463
Georg Simmel: The Blase Urbanitep. 463
The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirthp. 464
Urban Ecologyp. 464
Urban Political Economyp. 465
In the Times: "Dump Trash, Add Scavengers, Mix and Get a Big Mess"p. 466
Urbanization in Poor Nationsp. 466
Environment and Societyp. 468
The Global Dimensionp. 468
Technology and the Environmental Deficitp. 468
Culture: Growth and Limitsp. 469
Solid Waste: The Disposable Societyp. 470
Water and Airp. 471
The Rain Forestsp. 473
Environmental Racismp. 474
Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and Worldp. 475
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 476
Making the Gradep. 477
Visual Summaryp. 477
Sample Test Questionsp. 479
Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societiesp. 481
What Is Social Change?p. 483
Causes of Social Changep. 484
Culture and Changep. 484
Conflict and Changep. 484
Ideas and Changep. 484
Demographic Changep. 484
Social Movements and Changep. 485
Disasters: Unexpected Changep. 488
Modernityp. 490
Ferdinand Tonnies: The Loss of Communityp. 491
Emile Durkheim: The Division of Laborp. 492
Max Weber: Rationalizationp. 493
Karl Marx: Capitalismp. 494
Structural-Functional Analysis: Modernity as Mass Societyp. 494
The Mass Scale of Modern Lifep. 494
The Ever-Expanding Statep. 496
Social-Conflict Analysis: Modernity as Class Societyp. 496
Capitalismp. 497
Persistent Inequalityp. 497
Modernity and the Individualp. 498
Mass Society: Problems of Identityp. 498
Class Society: Problems of Powerlessnessp. 499
Modernity and Progressp. 507
In the Times: "Modernity Tips Balance in a Remote Corner in Kashmirp. 502
Modernity: Global Variationp. 503
Postmodernityp. 503
Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Futurep. 507
Applying Sociology in Everyday Lifep. 508
Making the Gradep. 509
Visual Summaryp. 509
Sample Test Questionsp. 511
Glossaryp. 512
Referencesp. 518
Photo Creditsp. 539
Name Indexp. 541
Subject Indexp. 545
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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