9780205294633

Sociology Changing Societies in a Diverse World

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780205294633

  • ISBN10:

    0205294634

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2000-07-28
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Summary

A paperback that helps readers understand not only their own society, but also the forces of globalization and modernization that are transforming the world.Sociology: Changing Societies in a Diverse World offers one of the broadest perspectives. It examines the basic structures and institutions of society, as well as the dynamics of social behavior, starting with the world students know best - contemporary American society with all of its diversity. In addition, the authors treat modernization - a process that is transforming countries in every stage of development throughout the world - as a core topic for sociological understanding. Readers will see how modernization affects virtually all aspects of contemporary society, and explains many of the momentous events occurring in the world today.For anyone who needs an introduction to sociology.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
The World According to Sociology
2(28)
Theme of the Text
5(5)
The Modernization of Sociology: A Growing International Perspective
5(1)
The Modernization of the World
5(3)
Globalization
8(1)
The Debunking Science
9(1)
The Sociological Style: Unraveling Human Social Patterns
10(2)
Prescientific and Nonscientific Interpretations of Social Reality
10(1)
The Sociological View of the World: Comte and Durkheim and the Development of Scientific Sociology
11(1)
Thinking Sociologically: Theoretical Paradigms
12(2)
Theories and Science
12(1)
The Organic Analogy: Classic and Contemporary Functionalist Theory
13(1)
Suicide
The Sociology of Self-Destruction
14(4)
Conflict Sociology: The Zero-Sum Game
18(2)
Symbolic Interactionism: The Subjectivist Approach
20(1)
Doing Sociology: Is There a Method to This Madness?
21(9)
Problems in Social Scientific Research
21(2)
Nonexperimental Research Designs in Sociology
23(3)
Experimental Research Designs in Sociology
26(4)
Culture
30(22)
The Roots of Human Culture
32(7)
The Biological Basis
32(2)
Language, Thought, and Culture
34(3)
Material and Nonmaterial Culture
37(1)
Popular Culture
38(1)
The Normative Order
39(5)
Core Values and National Character
39(1)
American Values
39(2)
Norms, Folkways, Mores, and Laws
41(1)
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
42(2)
Culture Shock
44(1)
Cultural Diversity and Change
44(2)
Subcultures and Countercultures
44(2)
Focus on CHINA
Changing Values, the Youth Culture, and Chairman Mao
46(3)
Integration and Change
49(3)
Groups and Social Structure
52(21)
The Concept of Social Structure
54(1)
Groups and Other Collectivities
54(3)
Status and Role
55(2)
Types of Social Groups
57(8)
Membership Groups and Reference Groups
57(1)
Primary Groups and Secondary Groups
58(3)
Formal Organizations
61(1)
Types of Formal Organizations
61(1)
Bureaucratic Organization
62(1)
Bureaucratic Shortcomings
63(1)
Bureaucratic Ritualism
63(1)
The Informal Organization
64(1)
Alternatives to Bureaucracy
64(1)
Societies and Societal Development
65(3)
Durkheim and Tonnies
66(1)
Lenski's Evolutionary Theory of Societal Development
67(1)
Focus on Germany
E Pluribus Einum? Reuniting a Divided Society
68(5)
Socialization
73(18)
On Being Human: Biology and Human Nature
75(1)
On Being Human: Social Learning and Human Nature
76(1)
The Effects of Isolation: The Cases of Anna, Isabelle, and Genie
76(1)
Theories of Socialization as Human Development
77(3)
Socialization as Conflict Management: Freud
77(1)
Socialization as Cognitive Development: Piaget
77(1)
Socialization as Self-Development: Cooley and Mead
78(2)
Socialization as Social Learning
80(6)
The Family
80(1)
The School
81(1)
Peer Groups
81(1)
The Mass Media
82(3)
Adult Socialization and Resocialization
85(1)
Focus on Canada
Canadians Mount Policing of Mass Media
86(2)
Socialization, Oversocialization, and Social Control
88(3)
Inequality and Stratification
91(23)
Assessing Inequality and Stratification
93(2)
Economic Dimensions of Inequality
93(1)
Global Inequality
93(1)
Global Economic Inequality
94(1)
Explanations and Interpretations of Stratification
95(6)
Natural Superiority Theory
95(2)
Functionalist Theory
97(1)
Marxist Class Conflict Theory
98(2)
Weberian Multiple-Hierarchies Model
100(1)
Open and Closed Stratification Systems: Class, Caste, and Social Mobility
101(3)
The Open-Class System: (Nearly) All Things Are Possible
101(1)
The Closed-Caste System: Stay Where You Were
102(1)
Social Mobility Principles and Patterns
103(1)
Inequality and Stratification in the United States
104(2)
Economic Inequality
104(2)
Social Class
106(1)
The Consequences of Social Stratification
106(2)
Physical and Mental Health
107(1)
Focus on Brazil
Brazil's Children Face Dead-End Street
108(3)
Political Involvement
111(1)
Crime and Criminal Justice
112(2)
Race and Ethnicity
114(23)
Race and Ethnic Relations: An Overview
116(3)
Race
117(1)
Ethnicity
118(1)
Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Relations
119(3)
Assimilation
119(2)
Pluralism
121(1)
Legal Protection of Minorities
121(1)
Focus on Yugoslavia
Breaking Up Is Hard to Do: Crisis in Kosovo
122(3)
Population Transfer
125(1)
Continued Subjugation
126(1)
Extermination
127(1)
Racial and Ethnic Intergroup Relations in the United States
127(5)
African Americans
127(3)
Hispanic Americans
130(1)
Asian Americans
130(1)
Native Americans
130(2)
Minorities and Poverty in the United States: A Declining Significance of Race?
132(5)
Poverty
132(5)
Gender and Gender Issues
137(23)
Understanding Sex and Gender
139(1)
Biological Considerations
140(1)
Psychological and Sociocultural Considerations
140(1)
Traditional Gender Stereotyping and Gender Roles
140(2)
Sexual Morphology and Gender Differences
140(1)
Biological Findings
140(1)
Psychological Findings
141(1)
Anthropological Findings
142(1)
Becoming Women and Men: Gender Socialization
142(2)
Infancy and Childhood
143(1)
Adolescence and Early Adulthood
143(1)
Middle and Late Adulthood
143(1)
Theoretical Interpretations and Explanations of Gender Roles
144(2)
Gender Roles as Salvation: Classical Functionalism
144(1)
Gender Roles as Suppression: The Conflict Model
145(1)
Patterns of Gender Stratification
146(6)
Gender and Work
147(1)
Gender and Income
148(2)
Gender and Politics
150(2)
Focus on Afghanistan
Taliban Imposes Total Ban on Women's Rights
152(3)
Gender and Law
155(1)
Gender Equality and Social Theory
156(4)
Crime, Deviance, and Social Control
160(32)
Deviance: A Sociological View
162(2)
Theories of Crime and Deviance
164(8)
Biological Explanations
164(2)
Sociological Perspectives
166(6)
Deviant and Criminal Behavior
172(15)
Counting Crime
172(2)
The Offenders
174(2)
Sexual Deviance
176(2)
Violence
178(5)
White-Collar Crime
183(2)
Drug and Alcohol Abuse
185(2)
Focus on South Africa
The Demise of Apartheid and Death in the Streets
187(5)
Marriage and the Family
192(25)
The Family in America: A Brief History
194(1)
Theoretical Perspectives
195(1)
Functionalist Theory
195(1)
Conflict Theory
196(1)
Love, Marriage, and Divorce American Style
196(8)
Marriage
198(1)
Divorce
199(1)
Divorce and the Law
200(1)
Why Marriages Fail
200(2)
Divorce and Children
202(2)
Focus on Sweden
The Future of the Family, or a Future without Families?
204(2)
Single-Parent Families
206(2)
Polygamous Families
208(1)
Gay Families
209(2)
Violence in the Family
211(3)
Child Abuse
211(1)
Battered Women
212(1)
Abused Males
213(1)
The Family and Modernization
214(1)
The Developing World
215(2)
Education and Religion
217(26)
Education as a Social Institution
219(5)
Theoretical Interpretations of Education
219(4)
The U.S. Educational System
223(1)
Focus on Latin America
``ABC'' Countries Must Rethink Educational ABCs
224(4)
Problems and Proposals in U.S. Education
228(4)
Religion as a Social Institution
232(11)
Theoretical Perspectives on Religion
233(1)
Religion in the United States: From Puritans to Televangelists
234(4)
Religion and Modernization
238(5)
Economy and Politics
243(31)
Economy as a Social Institution
245(7)
Theoretical Interpretations of the Economy
246(1)
Types of Economies
246(2)
The U.S. Economic System
248(1)
``Haves'' and ``Have Nots'' in the International Marketplace
249(3)
Focus on South Korea
A Wounded Dragon Meets the IMF
252(10)
Politics as a Social Institution
262(12)
Theoretical Interpretations of Political Institutions
263(1)
The U.S. Political System
264(4)
Politics in a Changing World
268(6)
Population, Health Care, and the Environment
274(36)
Fertility
276(2)
Fertility Measures
277(1)
Mortality
278(5)
The Specter of AIDS
279(2)
Mortality Measures
281(1)
Social Correlates of Mortality
282(1)
Migration
283(2)
Internal and International Migration
283(1)
Illegal Immigration
284(1)
Population Composition
285(1)
The Sex Ratio
285(1)
The Age-Sex or Population Pyramid
285(1)
Population of the United States
286(2)
World Population
288(2)
Focus on Europe
Underpopulation and the ``Gray Continent''
290(2)
Malthus and Marx
292(1)
The Demographic Transition
293(1)
Controlling Fertility
294(1)
World Hunger
295(1)
Health Care in the United States
296(4)
Health Care and Crime
298(1)
The Health Care Delivery System
299(1)
The Environment and Environmental Issues
300(10)
Environmental Resource Deplition
300(2)
Problems of Environmental Pollution
302(2)
Problems of Waste Disposal
304(1)
Addressing Environmental Problems
305(1)
Sustainable Development
306(4)
Urbanization and Modernization
310(31)
Cities in the Modern World
312(1)
Human Ecology and the City
313(2)
The Concentric Zone Model
314(1)
The Sector Model
314(1)
The Multiple-Nuclei Model
314(1)
From Jamestown to Manhattan and Back
315(2)
Suburbanization
316(1)
Sunbelt Cities
317(2)
Winter Cities
319(1)
Urban Composition and Lifestyles
319(3)
Early Theorists
320(1)
Contemporary Urban Researchers
321(1)
Urban Explosion in Developing Nations
322(3)
Focus on India
Megacities in a Developing World
325(3)
Modern People
328(1)
Modernization Theories
329(2)
Evolutionary Models
329(1)
Impact of Classical Theorists
330(1)
Criticisms of Evolutionary Models
330(1)
World System Theory
331(6)
Immanuel Wallerstein and His Followers
332(2)
Colonialism and Modernization
334(1)
Overspecialization
335(1)
The Uncertain Future
335(1)
Criticism of World System Theory
336(1)
Women in the Developing World
337(4)
Reproductive Capacity and Control
338(1)
Effects of Modernization
338(3)
Sociology and the Future
341(14)
Things to Come?
342(1)
Culture
342(1)
Groups and Social Structure
343(1)
Socialization
344(1)
Inequality and Stratification
345(1)
Race and Ethnicity
346(1)
Sex and Gender
347(1)
Crime, Deviance, and Social Control
348(1)
Marriage and the Family
349(1)
Education and Religion
350(1)
Economy and Politics
351(1)
Population, Urbanization, Modernization, Health, and Environment
352(3)
Glossary 355(9)
Reference 364(21)
Author Index 385(5)
Subject Index 390

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