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The Sociology of Health, Illness, And Health Care: A Critical Approach,9780495172031
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The Sociology of Health, Illness, And Health Care: A Critical Approach

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780495172031

ISBN10:
0495172030
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/30/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $139.95
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Summary

Why do people get ill, and how should we care for them? These are some of the questions driving THE SOCIOLOGY OF HEALTH, ILLNESS, AND HEALTH CARE: A CRITICAL APPROACH. Inside, you'll learn about the nature of illness and how the health care industry works. Easy to understand and packed with study tools, this sociology textbook will not only get you ready to navigate the health care system, it will help you out in class as well.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART 1 Social Factors and Illness 1(122)
1 Introduction
3(14)
The Sociology of Health, Illness, and Health Care: An Overview
4(1)
The Sociological Perspective
5(3)
A Critical Approach
8(1)
Chapter Organization
9(2)
A Note on Sources
11(3)
Printed Sources
11(2)
Internet Sources
13(7)
BOX 1.1: Useful Internet Sources
14(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
14(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
14(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
15(2)
2 The Social Sources of Illness
17(38)
An Introduction to Epidemiology
18(2)
A Brief History of Disease
20(9)
The European Background
20(1)
Disease in the New World
21(1)
The Epidemiological Transition
21(3)
The New Rise in Infectious Disease
24(4)
Box 2.1: The Threat of Bioterrorism by Sarah St. John
26(2)
The Modern Disease Profile
28(1)
The Social Sources of Premature Deaths
29(18)
Tobacco
32(1)
Diet, Exercise, and Obesity
33(3)
Medical Errors
36(2)
Alcohol
38(1)
Bacteria and Viruses
39(1)
Toxic Agents
40(1)
Motor Vehicles
41(1)
Firearms
42(1)
Sexual Behavior
42(3)
BOX 2.2: Making a Difference: Physicians for Social Responsibility
43(1)
BOX 2.3: Ethical Debate: Drug Testing in Schools and Workplaces
44(1)
Illicit Drugs
45(2)
Health Behaviors, Social Stress, and Illness
47(4)
Health Behaviors and Health Lifestyles
47(3)
KEY CONCEPTS 2.1: The Health Belief Model
47(2)
KEY CONCEPTS 2.2: Health Lifestyle Theory
49(1)
Social Stress
50(1)
CONCLUSION
51(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
52(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
52(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
53(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
53(2)
3 The Social Distribution of Illness in the United States
55(38)
Age
56(3)
Overview
56(1)
Case Study: Prostate Cancer and Aging in Men
57(2)
Sex and Gender
59(5)
Overview
59(2)
A Sociology of Intersex
61(1)
Case Study: Woman Battering as a Health Problem
62(2)
Social Class
64(7)
Overview
64(2)
The Sources of Class Differences in Health
66(3)
Case Study: Health Among the Homeless
69(2)
Race and Ethnicity
71(17)
African Americans
72(5)
Hispanics
77(4)
BOX 3.1: Ethical Debate: Allocating Scarce Health Resources
78(3)
Native Americans
81(2)
BOX 3.2: The Indian Health Service
83(1)
Asian Americans
83(2)
Case Study: Environmental Racism
85(12)
BOX 3.3: Making a Difference: The Center for Health, Environment & Justice
87(1)
CONCLUSION
88(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
88(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
88(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
89(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
89(4)
4 Illness in the Developing Nations
93(30)
Disease Patterns Around the World
94(3)
Sources of Disease in the Developing Nations
97(22)
Poverty, Malnutrition, and Disease
97(3)
Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
100(9)
BOX 4.1: War and Health by Lisa Corner
102(3)
KEY CONCEPTS 4.1: Understanding the Spread of HIV in Africa
105(4)
Infant Mortality
109(7)
BOX 4.2: Ethical Debate: The Ethics of Sex Preselection
112(2)
BOX 4.3: Making a Difference: Freedom from Hunger
114(2)
Maternal Mortality
116(1)
Respiratory Diseases
117(9)
BOX 4.4: Female Circumcision
118(1)
CONCLUSION
119(2)
SUGGESTED READINGS
121(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
121(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
122(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
122(1)
PART 2 The Meaning and Experience of Illness 123(100)
5 The Social Meanings of Illness
125(30)
Models of Illness
126(10)
The Medical and Sociological Models of Illness
126(5)
KEY CONCEPTS 5.1: Medical and Sociological Models of Illness
128(3)
Popular Explanations for Illness
131(5)
BOX 5.1: Making a Difference: Doctors Without Borders
132(4)
Medicine as Social Control
136(15)
Creating Illness: Medicalization
136(8)
BOX 5.2: Ethical Debate: Medical Social Control and Fetal Rights
143(1)
Social Control and the Human Genome Project
144(4)
Social Control and the Sick Role
148(8)
KEY CONCEPTS 5.2: Strengths and Weaknesses of the Sick Role Model
150(1)
CONCLUSION
151(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
152(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
152(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
152(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
152(3)
6 The Experience of Disability, Chronic Pain, and Chronic Illness
155(34)
Understanding Disability
156(7)
Defining Disability
156(2)
People with Disabilities as a Minority Group
158(4)
BOX 6.1: Making a Difference: Disability Rights Advocates
161(1)
The Social Distribution of Disability
162(1)
Understanding Chronic Pain
163(1)
Living with Disability and Chronic Illness
164(21)
Initial Symptoms and Diagnosis
164(3)
KEY CONCEPTS 6.1: Some Factors Predicting Illness Behavior
166(1)
Responding to Illness or Injury
167(1)
Interruptions, Intrusions, and Immersions
168(1)
Managing Health Care and Treatment Regimens
169(7)
BOX 6.2: Ethical Debate: The Sale of Human Organs
170(2)
KEY CONCEPTS 6.2: The Health Belief Model and Medical Compliance
172(4)
Dealing with Service Agencies
176(1)
Illness, Disabilities, and Social Relationships
177(2)
BOX 6.3: American Sign Language and the Education of Deaf Children
178(1)
Managing Stigma
179(3)
Health Social Movements
182(1)
The Body and the Self
183(2)
CONCLUSION
185(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
185(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
186(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
186(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
186(3)
7 The Sociology of Mental Illness
189(34)
The Epidemiology of Mental Illness
190(4)
The Extent of Mental Illness
190(1)
Social Stress and the Distribution of Mental Illness
190(4)
BOX 7.1: Diagnostic Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder
193(1)
Defining Mental Illness
194(7)
The Medical Model of Mental Illness
194(1)
The Sociological Model of Mental Illness
195(2)
KEY CONCEPTS 7.1: Models of Mental/Mess
196(1)
The Problem of Diagnosis
197(1)
The Politics of Diagnosis
198(3)
A History of Treatment
201(11)
Before the Scientific Era
201(1)
The Rise and Decline of Moral Treatment
202(2)
Freud and Psychoanalysis
204(1)
The Antipsychiatry Critique
205(2)
Deinstitutionalization
207(3)
The Remedicalization of Mental Illness
210(1)
The Rise of Managed Care
211(1)
The Experience of Mental Illness
212(6)
BOX 7.2: Making a Difference: The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
213(1)
Becoming a Mental Patient
213(4)
The Post-Patient Experience
217(9)
BOX 7.3: Ethical Debate: Confidentiality and the Duty to Warn
218(1)
CONCLUSION
218(2)
SUGGESTED READINGS
220(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
220(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
221(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
221(2)
PART 3 Health Care Systems, Settings, and Technologies 223(100)
8 The U.S. Health Care System and the Need for Reform
225(32)
Health Insurance in the United States
226(10)
KEY CONCEPTS 8.1: Comparing Insurance Models
227(1)
Health Insurance Models
228(2)
The Managed Care Revolution
230(4)
BOX 8.1: Ethical Debate: Pharmacists and Conflicts of Interest
232(2)
Government-Funded Health Insurance Programs
234(2)
"Big Pharma": Pharmaceutical Companies and U.S. Health Care
236(5)
Big Pharma Comes of Age
236(3)
BOX 8.2: Making a Difference: No Free Lunch
237(2)
Developing New Drugs 238 Regulating Drugs
239(1)
Marketing Drugs
240(1)
Marketing Diseases
241(1)
The Crisis in Health Care
241(11)
Rising Health Care Costs
242(4)
Declining Coverage
246(3)
The Consequences of Declining Coverage
249(1)
Why the United States Lacks National Health Care
250(2)
CONCLUSION
252(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
253(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
253(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
253(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
254(3)
9 Alternative Health Care Systems
257(34)
Evaluating Health Care Systems
259(5)
Universal Coverage
259(1)
Portability
259(1)
BOX 9.1: Ethical Debate: Is There a Right to Health Care?
260(1)
Geographic Accessibility
260(1)
Comprehensive Benefits
261(1)
Affordability
262(1)
Financial Efficiency
262(1)
Consumer Choice
263(1)
Provider Satisfaction
263(1)
Health Care in Other Countries
264(20)
Canada: National Health Insurance
266(6)
Great Britain: National Health Service
272(4)
China: Good Health at Low Cost
276(5)
Mexico: Struggling to Provide Health Care Equitably
281(1)
Structure of the Health Care System
282(2)
Reforming Health Care in the United States
284(4)
BOX 9.2: Making a Difference: Physicians for a National Health Program
285(3)
CONCLUSION
288(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
289(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
289(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
289(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
289(2)
10 Health Care Settings and Technologies
291(1)
The Hospital
292(11)
The Premodern Hospital
292(2)
Beginnings of the Modern Hospital
294(1)
The Rise of the Modern Hospital
295(1)
Hospitals Today
296(2)
The Hospital-Patient Experience
298(1)
Nursing Homes
299(1)
Who Uses Nursing Homes?
300(1)
Financing Nursing-Home Care
300(1)
Working in Nursing Homes
301(1)
Life in Nursing Homes
301(2)
Board and Care Homes
303(1)
Assisted Living Facilities
303(1)
Hospices
304(8)
Origins of Hospice
304(1)
The Hospice Philosophy
305(3)
BOX 10.1: Ethical Debate: A Right to Die?
306(2)
The Cooptation of Hospice
308(2)
BOX 10.2: Making a Difference: The Human Service Alliance by W. Bradford Swift with Kimberly Ridley
310(1)
Use of Hospice
310(2)
Costs and Financing
312(1)
Home Care
312(4)
The Nature of Family Caregiving
313(2)
Easing the Burdens of Caregiving
315(1)
Health Care Technologies
316(3)
The Nature of Technology
316(1)
The Social Construction of Technology
317(2)
CONCLUSION
319(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
320(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
320(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
320(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
321(2)
PART 4 Health Care Providers and Bioethics 323(1)
11 The Profession of Medicine
325(98)
American Medicine in the Nineteenth Century
326(3)
Beginnings of Medical Dominance
329(3)
The Flexner Report and Its Aftermath
330(1)
Doctors and Professional Dominance
331(1)
The Decline of Medical Dominance
332(6)
Changing Patient Attitudes and Deprofessionalization
332(2)
KEY CONCEPTS 11.1: Divergent Views on Medical Dominance
333(1)
The Changing Structure of Medicine and Proletarianization
334(4)
The Continued Strength of Medical Dominance
338(2)
Medical Education and Medical Values
340(9)
The Structure of Medical Education
340(1)
Learning Medical Values
341(6)
BOX 11.1: Making a Difference: American Medical Student Association
346(1)
The Consequences of Medical Values
347(2)
Building a Medical Career
349(2)
Patient-Doctor Relationships
351(5)
BOX 11.2: Ethical Debate: Truth Telling in Health Care
352(2)
BOX 11.3: "Hi, Lucille, This Is Dr. Gold!"by Lucille G. Natkins
354(2)
CONCLUSION
356(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
357(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
358(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
358(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
358(3)
12 Other Mainstream and Alternative Health Care Providers
361(2)
Mainstream Health Care Providers
363(15)
Nursing: A Semiprofession
363(9)
Pharmacy: The Push to Reprofessionalize
372(3)
Osteopathy: A Parallel Profession
375(3)
Alternative Health Care Providers
378(14)
KEY CONCEPTS 12.1: Limited and Marginal Health Care Occupations
379(1)
Chiropractors: From Marginal to Limited Practitioners
379(3)
Lay Midwives: Limited but Still Marginal
382(4)
BOX 12.1: Making a Difference: Citizens for Midwifery
386(1)
Curanderos
386(2)
Christian Science Practitioners
388(1)
Acupuncturists
389(10)
BOX 12.2: Ethical Debate: Choosing Alternative Options
390(2)
CONCLUSION
392(1)
SUGGESTED READINGS
393(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
394(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
394(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
394(3)
13 Issues in Bioethics
397(2)
A History of Bioethics
399(11)
The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code
399(2)
Box 13.1: Principles of the Nuremberg Code
401(1)
The 1960's: The Rise of Bioethics
401(2)
The 1970's: Willowbrook,Tuskegee, and Karen Quinlan
403(3)
The 1980's and 1990's: Reproductive Technology, Enhancing Human Traits, and Setting Priorities
406(3)
Current Issues
409(1)
Institutionalizing Bioethics
410(2)
Hospital Ethics Committees
410(1)
Institutional Review Boards
411(1)
Professional Ethics Committees
412(1)
Community Advisory Boards
412(1)
The Impact of Bioethics
412(6)
The Impact on Research
413(2)
The Impact on Medical Education
415(1)
The Impact on Clinical Practice
415(3)
BOX 13.2: Making a Difference: Choosing Your Career
418(1)
CONCLUSION
418(2)
SUGGESTED READINGS
420(1)
GETTING INVOLVED
420(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
420(1)
INTERNET EXERCISES
420(3)
Glossary 423(18)
References 441(36)
Index 477


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