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The Sociology of Health, Illness, and Health Care: A Critical Approach,9780534619381
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The Sociology of Health, Illness, and Health Care: A Critical Approach

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534619381

ISBN10:
053461938X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/7/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $107.33

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Summary

The medical sociology course looks at the distribution of health and illness, the nature of the health care system, the roles of mainstream and alternative health care providers, and the experiences of those who live with illness or disability. Rose Weitz adds to this traditional subject matter a critical approach which emphasizes the effects of power, such as how gender, ethnicity, and social class affect individuals' experiences of health and illness and how social forces create illness and affect our ideas about the nature of illness. This text concentrates on health within the United States, but also looks at health care issues globally in order to provide a perspective to the American experience.The book offers a comprehensive overview of the field of sociology of health, including both micro- and macro-level topics. It emphasizes the sociological issues far more than the other available textbooks. The book is highly readable, and grabs students attention in a way that is rare for

Author Biography

Rose Weitz (Ph.D., Yale University) is Professor of Sociology at Arizona State University

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
PART ONE Social Factors and Illness 1(114)
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
3(14)
The Sociology of Health, Illness, and Health Care: An Overview
4(1)
The Sociological Perspective
5(3)
A Critical Approach
8(2)
Chapter Organization
10(1)
A Note on Sources
11(3)
Printed Sources
11(2)
Internet Sources
13(1)
BOX 1.1: Useful Internet Sources
14(1)
Suggested Readings
14(1)
Review Questions
14(1)
Internet Exercises
15(2)
CHAPTER 2 The Social Sources of Illness
17(34)
An Introduction to Epidemiology
18(2)
A Brief History of Disease
20(12)
The European Background
20(2)
Disease in the New World
22(1)
The Epidemiological Transition
22(3)
The New Rise in Infectious Disease
25(2)
BOX 2.1: The Threat of Bioterrorism
27(4)
The Modern Disease Profile
31(1)
The Social Sources of Premature Deaths
32(15)
Tobacco
35(2)
Alcohol
37(1)
Diet and Exercise
38(1)
Microbial Agents
39(1)
Toxic Agents
40(1)
Firearms
41(1)
BOX 2.2: Making a Difference: Physicians for Social Responsibility
42(1)
Sexual Behavior
43(1)
Motor Vehicles
44(1)
Illicit Drugs
45(1)
BOX 2.3: Ethical Debate: Is Drug Testing in Schools and the Workplace Ethically Justifiable?
46(1)
Conclusions
47(1)
Suggested Readings
48(1)
Getting Involved
48(1)
Review Questions
49(1)
Internet Exercises
49(2)
CHAPTER 3 The Social Distribution of Illness in the United States
51(34)
Age
52(3)
Overview
52(1)
Case Study: Prostate Cancer and Aging in Men
53(2)
Sex
55(3)
Overview
55(1)
Case Study: Woman Battering as a Health Problem
56(2)
Social Class
58(7)
The Impact of Social Class on Health
58(1)
The Sources of Class Differences in Health
59(4)
Case Study: Health Among the Homeless
63(2)
Race and Ethnicity
65(17)
African Americans
66(4)
Hispanics
70(2)
BOX 3.1: Ethical Debate: How Should We Allocate Scarce Health Resources?
72(3)
Native Americans
75(1)
Asian Americans
76(1)
BOX 3.2: The Indian Health Service
77(2)
Case Study: Environmental Racism
79(2)
Box 3.3: Making a Difference: The Center for Health, Environment and Justice
81(1)
Conclusions
82(1)
Suggested Readings
82(1)
Getting Involved
82(1)
Review Questions
83(1)
Internet Exercises
83(2)
CHAPTER 4 Illness in the Developing Nations
85(30)
Disease Patterns Around the World
86(3)
The Sources and Nature of Disease in the Developing Nations
89(22)
Poverty, Malnutrition, and Disease
89(3)
Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
92(4)
Box 4.1: War and Health
96(4)
Infant Mortality
100(4)
Box 4.2: Ethical Debate: The Ethics of Sex Preselection
104(2)
Box 4.3: Making a Difference: Freedom from Hunger
106(2)
Maternal Mortality
108(1)
Respiratory Diseases
109(1)
BOX 4.4: Female Circumcision
110(1)
Conclusions
111(2)
Suggested Readings
113(1)
Getting Involved
113(1)
Review Questions
114(1)
Internet Exercises
114(1)
PART TWO The Meaning and Experience of Illness 115(106)
CHAPTER 5 The Social Meanings of Illness
117(30)
Models of Illness
118(9)
The Sociological Model of Illness
118(2)
Explaining Illness
120(4)
The Medical Model of Illness
124(3)
Medicine as Social Control
127(16)
Creating Illness: Medicalization
127(7)
Box 5.1: Ethical Debate: Medical Social Control and Fetal Rights
134(3)
Social Control and the Human Genome Project
137(3)
Social Control and the Sick Role
140(3)
Conclusions
143(1)
Suggested Readings
144(1)
Getting Involved
144(1)
Review Questions
144(1)
Internet Exercises
144(3)
CHAPTER 6 The Experience of Chronic Illness and Disability
147(36)
Understanding Disability
148(8)
Defining Disability
148(2)
People with Disabilities as a Minority Group
150(4)
Box 6. l: Making a Difference: Disability Rights Advocates
154(1)
The Social Distribution of Disability
155(1)
Living with Chronic Illness and Disability
156(23)
Initial Symptoms and Diagnosis
158(1)
BOX 6.2: Ethical Debate: Advertising Drugs Direct to Consumers
158(5)
Responding to Illness or Injury
163(1)
Interruptions, Intrusions, and Immersions
164(1)
Managing Health Care and Treatment Regimens
165(6)
Dealing with Service Agencies
171(1)
BOX 6.3: American Sign Language and the Education of Deaf Children
172(2)
Illness, Disabilities, and Social Relationships
174(1)
Managing Stigma
174(3)
The Body and the Self
177(2)
Conclusions
179(1)
Suggested Readings
179(1)
Getting Involved
180(1)
Review Questions
180(1)
Internet Exercises
180(3)
CHAPTER 7 The Sociology of Mental Illness
183(38)
The Epidemiology of Mental Illness
184(5)
The Extent of Mental Illness
184(1)
The Distribution of Mental Illness
185(1)
Box 7.1: Diagnostic Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder
186(3)
Defining Mental Illness
189(7)
The Medical Model of Mental Illness
189(1)
The Sociological Model of Mental Illness
190(2)
The Problem of Diagnosis
192(1)
The Politics of Diagnosis
193(3)
A History of Treatment
196(15)
Before the Scientific Era
196(1)
The Rise of Moral Treatment
197(1)
The Decline of Moral Treatment
198(2)
Freud and Psychoanalysis
200(2)
The Antipsychiatry Critique
202(1)
Deinstitutionalization
203(5)
The Remedicalization of Mental Illness
208(2)
The Rise of Managed Care
210(1)
The Experience of Mental Illness
211(6)
Becoming a Mental Patient
211(4)
The Post-Patient Experience
215(1)
Box 7.2: Ethical Debate: Confidentiality and the Duty to Warn
216(1)
Conclusions
217(1)
Suggested Readings
218(1)
Getting Involved
218(1)
Review Questions
218(1)
Internet Exercises
219(2)
PART THREE Health Care Systems and Settings 221(98)
CHAPTER 8 The U.S. Health Care System and the Need for Reform
223(28)
Health Insurance in the United States
224(10)
Blue Cross and Blue Shield
225(1)
Commercial Insurance
226(1)
The Rise of HMOs
226(1)
The Changing Structure of HMOs
227(1)
Government-Provided Health Care: Medicare and Medicaid
228(2)
The Rise of Managed Care
230(4)
BOX 8.1: Ethical Debate: Pharmacists and Conflicts of Interest
234(1)
The Crisis in Health Care
234(13)
Rising Health Care Costs
234(5)
Rising Prescription Drug Costs
239(1)
Declining Coverage
240(5)
The Consequences of Declining Coverage
245(2)
Conclusions
247(1)
Suggested Readings
247(1)
Getting Involved
248(1)
Review Questions
248(1)
Internet Exercises
248(3)
CHAPTER 9 Alternative Health Care Systems
251(40)
Evaluating Health Care Systems
252(6)
Universal Coverage
252(1)
Portability
253(1)
BOX 9.1: Ethical Debate: Is There a Right to Health Care?
254(1)
Geographic Accessibility
254(1)
Comprehensive Benefits
255(1)
Affordability
256(1)
Financial Efficiency
257(1)
Consumer Choice
257(1)
Provider Satisfaction
257(1)
Health Care in Other Countries
258(25)
Germany: Social Insurance for Health Care
260(4)
Canada: National Health Insurance
264(6)
Great Britain: National Health Service
270(5)
China: Good Health at Low Cost
275(5)
Mexico: Struggling to Provide Health Care Equitably
280(3)
Reforming Health Care in the United States
283(4)
Conclusions
287(1)
Suggested Readings
288(1)
Getting Involved
288(1)
Review Questions
288(1)
Internet Exercises
288(3)
CHAPTER 10 Health Care Settings
291(28)
The Hospital
292(7)
The Premodern Hospital
292(1)
Beginnings of the Modern Hospital
293(2)
The Rise of the Modern Hospital
295(1)
Hospitals Today
296(2)
The Hospital-Patient Experience
298(1)
Nursing Homes
299(4)
Who Uses Nursing Homes?
300(1)
Financing Nursing Home Care
300(1)
Working in Nursing Homes
301(1)
Life in Nursing Homes
301(2)
Board and Care Homes
303(1)
Assisted Living Facilities
303(1)
Hospices
304(8)
Origins of Hospice
305(1)
The Hospice Philosophy
305(1)
Box 10.1: Ethical Debate: A Right to Die?
306(2)
The Cooptation of Hospice
308(2)
Box 10.2: Making a Difference: The Human Service Alliance
310(1)
Use of Hospice
310(2)
Costs and Financing
312(1)
Home Care
312(5)
The Nature of Family Caregiving
313(2)
Easing the Burdens of Caregiving
315(2)
Conclusions
317(1)
Suggested Readings
317(1)
Getting Involved
318(1)
Review Questions
318(1)
Internet Exercises
318(1)
PART FOUR Health Care Providers and Bioethics 319(100)
CHAPTER 11 The Profession o f Medicine
321(40)
Medicine as a Profession
322(17)
American Medicine in the Nineteenth Century
322(3)
Beginnings of Medical Dominance
325(1)
The Flexner Report and Its Aftermath
326(1)
Doctors and Professional Dominance
327(1)
The Problem of Medical Errors
328(2)
The Decline of Medical Dominance
330(7)
The Continued Strength of Medical Dominance
337(2)
Becoming a Doctor
339(17)
The Structure of Medical Education
339(1)
Learning Medical Values
340(6)
BOX 11.1: The American Medical Student Association
346(1)
The Consequences of Medical Values
346(1)
BOX 11.2: The Story o f Baby Andrew
347(2)
Building a Medical Career
349(2)
Patient-Doctor Relationships
351(1)
BOX 11.3: Ethical Debate: Truth Telling in Health Care
352(2)
BOX 11.4: "Hi, Lucille, This Is Dr. Gold!"
354(2)
Conclusions
356(1)
Suggested Readings
357(1)
Getting Involved
358(1)
Review Questions
358(1)
Internet Exercises
358(3)
CHAPTER 12 Other Mainstream and Alternative Health Care Providers
361(36)
Mainstream Health Care Providers
363(16)
Nursing: A Semiprofession
363(8)
Nurse-Midwifery: The Limits of Specialization
371(2)
Pharmacy: The Push to Reprofessionalize
373(3)
Osteopathy: A Parallel Profession
376(3)
Alternative Health Care Providers
379(14)
Chiropractors: From Marginal to Limited Practitioners
380(3)
Lay Midwives: Limited but Still Marginal
383(4)
Curanderos
387(2)
Christian Science Practitioners
389(1)
Acupuncturists
390(1)
BOX 12.1: Ethical Debate: Choosing Alternative Options
390(3)
Conclusions
393(1)
Suggested Readings
394(1)
Getting Involved
394(1)
Review Questions
394(1)
Internet Exercises
395(2)
CHAPTER 13 Issues in Bioethics
397(22)
A History of Bioethics
399(11)
The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code
399(2)
The 1960's: The Rise of Bioethics
401(1)
BOX 13.1: Principles of the Nuremberg Code
401(2)
The 1970's: Willowbrook, Tuskegee, and Karen Quinlan
403(3)
The 1980's and 1990's: Reproductive Technology, Enhancing Human Traits, and Setting Priorities
406(3)
Entering the Twenty-First Century
409(1)
Institutionalizing Bioethics
410(1)
Hospital Ethics Committees
410(1)
Research Ethics Committees
411(1)
Professional Ethics Committees
411(1)
The Impact of Bioethics
411(6)
The Impact on Research
412(2)
The Impact on Medical Education
414(1)
The Impact on Clinical Practice
414(3)
Conclusions
417(1)
Suggested Readings
417(1)
Getting Involved
418(1)
Review Questions
418(1)
Internet Exercises
418(1)
Glossary 419(16)
References 435(34)
Photo Credits 469(2)
Index 471


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