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Now in its tenth edition, Sociology of North American Sport offers a compact yet comprehensive and integrated perspective on sport in North American society. Bringing a unique viewpoint to the subject, George H. Sage and D. Stanley Eitzen analyze and, in turn, demythologize sport. This method promotes an understanding of how a sociological perspective differs from common-sense perceptions about sport and society, helping students to understand sport in a new way.
George H. Sage is Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Kinesiology at the University of Northern Colorado.
D. Stanley Eitzen is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Colorado State University.
Table of Contents
Part I: Toward an Understanding of Sport
Chapter 1: The Sociological Analysis of Sport in North American Society An Overview of Sociology of Sport as a Field of Study The Pervasiveness of Sport The Discipline of Sociology Assumptions of the Sociological Perspective Thinking as a Sociologist: Sociological Imagination Units of Sociological Analysis Micro and Macro Levels and This Book Sociological Theories: Contrasting Ways to See and Understand Social Life Functionalism Conflict Theory Conflict/Cultural Social Theories Interactionist Theory Sociological Theories and Sociology of Sport: Our Position Sport as a Microcosm of Society Common Characteristics of Sport and Society Levels of Sport Informal Sport Organized Sport Corporate Sport Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 2: Social and Cultural Transformations and the Rise of Sport in North America Pre-Columbian and Colonial Traditions in North America The Colonists Restrict Physical Activities Early Nineteenth Century: Takeoff of Industrialization, Technology, and Organized Sport Building a Framework for Organized Sport The Technological Revolution and Sport Latter Nineteenth Century: The Beginnings of Modern Sport Urbanization and the Rise of Modern Sport Forms Technological Innovation and Sport: Transportation Technological Innovation and Sport: Communication Technological Innovation and Equipment to Play Modern Sports Other Technological Breakthroughs and Sport The Cult of Manliness and Sport Muscular Christianity and Intellectual Social Philosophy and Organized Sport Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries: The Modern World and Sport The Maturing of Modern Sport Twentieth-Century Technology and Sport: Transportation The Technological Revolution and Sport: Communication Other Technological Innovations and Sport Sport in Education Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 3: Sport and North American Culture and Values Culture, Values, and Social Theories The North American Value System Individual Striving for Success Competition: The Fundamental Social Process The Socially Valued Means to Achieve Progress Overcomes the Status Quo Materialism: Acquisitions and Consumption Social Conformity North American Social Values and Sport Competition and Success in Sport The Valued Means to Achievement in Sport Progress in Sport Materialism in Sport External Conformity in Sport Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 4: Social Problems and North American Sport: Violence, Substance Abuse, Eating Disorders, and Gambling Overview of Social Problems in Sport Social Theories and Social Problems Examples of Recent Social Problems in Sport Violence in North American Society Violence in Historical Context Contemporary Violence in North America Violence in Sport: Terminology, Theories Is It Violence or Aggression? Confusion in the Literature Theories About the Connection Between Aggressive Behavior and Sport Aggression Theories and Research on Sports Violence in North American Sport Violence as Part of North American Sports Fostering and Supporting Player Violence Violent Behavior of Athletes in Their Personal Lives Sources for Violence by Male Athletes in Their Private Lives Athletes' Violence Against Teammates: Hazing Sports Fans: Violent and Abusive Actions Substance Abuse and Sport Substance Abuse Not New to Sports The Scope of Current Substance Abuse in Sport Anabolic Steroids: Promises Big and Strong Sports Anti-Doping Programs in North America Social/Cultural Influences and Substance Abuse Among Athletes Can Substance Abuse in Sports Be Reduced, Even Prevented? Eating Disorders in Sport Gambling and Sports Summary Web Resources Notes
Part II: Sport and Structured Inequality
Chapter 5: Sport, Social Stratification, and Social Mobility Terminology and Theory in Social Stratification and Mobility Basic Terminology in Social Stratification Functional Theory and Social Stratification Conflict/Cultural Theories and Social Stratification Dimensions of Inequality Social Class and Sport Adult Participation Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic Status Youth Sport Participation by Socioeconomic Status Spectator Preferences for Sports by Socioeconomic Status Segregation in Sports by Social Class Social Mobility and Sport Sport as a Mobility Escalator Demythologizing the Social Mobility-Through-Sport Hypothesis Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 6: Racial-Ethnic Minorities and Sport Racial-Ethnic Minorities: Social Theories and Relevant Concepts Social Theories and Race and Minorities Relevant Concepts About Race Sports Participation Among Racial-Ethnic Minorities The History of African American Involvement in U.S. Sport Latino Involvement in North American Sport Asian American Involvement in North American Sport Native North American Involvement in Sport The Effects of Globalization on Ethnic Diversity in North American Sport African American Dominance in Sport Race-Linked Physical Differences Race-Linked Cultural Differences Social Structure Constraints Racial Discrimination in Sport Stacking Leadership, Administration, and Authority Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 7: Gender in North American Sport: Continuity and Change Social Theories and Gender Relations Constructing and Reproducing Gender Relations Through Sport The Heritage of Gender Inequality in Sport Social Sources of Gender Inequality in Sport Parental Child-Rearing Practices and Gender Construction The School and Gender Construction The Mass Media and Gender Construction Nicknames, Mascots, and Heroines Females Surmount Social Barriers to Participation in Sport Negative Myths Women's Struggle for Opportunity and Equality in Sport From Boys-Only Youth Sports to Opportunities for Both Sexes Title IX: Federal Government Support for Gender Equity Toward Gender Equity in High School Sports Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Sports Men Rule in the Coaching and Administration of Women's Sports High School and College Women's Coaching Positions High School and College Administrative/Management Positions Ownership, Management, and Coaching in Professional and Olympic Sports Coaching and Administration/Management in U.S. and Canadian Olympic Organizations Reasons for the Persistence of Men in Coaching and Administering Women's Sports Women Athletes' Careers at the Professional and Olympic Levels of Sport Female Olympic Athletes Sport, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation Summary Web Resources Notes
Part III: From Organized Sport to Corporate Sport: Youth Through College
Chapter 8: Youth and Sport Youth Sports Programs: Something for Everyone Social Theories and Youth Sports The Rise of Youth Sports Programs: The Takeoff and Expansion of a New Form of Sport Objectives of Youth Sports Programs What Do Young Athletes, Their Parents, and Coaches Want from Sports? Socialization and Sport: Involvement in Sport and Its Consequences Socialization into Sport: Why Do Children Parents Siblings Peers Coaches Schools Mass Media Participants: Youth Athletes Socialization via Sport: Process and Outcomes Two Forms of Play: Peer Group and Adult-Organized Development of Personal-Social Attributes Through Sport Youth Orientation Toward Sport Sportsmanship in Youth Sports Character Development in Youth Sports Potential Psychosocial Problems in Youth Sports Adult Intrusion in Youth Sports Risk of Injury The "Winning Is the Only Thing" Ethic and Youth Sports Sports Alternatives for the Young Athlete Emphasizing Personal Growth and Self-Actualization Alternative Sports Cooperative Games Youth Sports Coaches Bill of Rights for Young Athletes Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 9: Interscholastic Sport The Role of High Schools: Differing Interpretations The Status of Sport in Secondary Schools The Consequences of Sport for Schools, Communities, and Individuals The Consequences of Sport for the High School The Consequences of Sport for the Community The Consequences of Sport for Participants Problems, Dilemmas, and Controversies The Subversion of Educational Goals The Reinforcement of Gender Roles Cheating Unsportsmanlike Behavior of Fans Autocratic Coaches Excessive Pressures to Win Elitism Sport Specialization Budget Shortfalls Corporate High School Sport Programs Efforts to Reform High School Sports Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 10: Intercollegiate Sport Beginning and Development of College Sports Student-Centered College Sport Remains College Sport as Big Business Social Theories and Their Role in Colleges/Universities Functionalism and Big-Time College Sports Conflict/Culturalism and Big-Time College Sports Beliefs and Reality About Big-Time Sport Functions Further Consequences of the Commercial Orientation of Big-Time College Sports A Contradiction: Athletes as Amateurs in a Big-Business Environment The NCAA and Student-Athletes The Enforcement of "Amateurism" Appeals for Paying Athletes' a Salary The Restriction of Athletes' Rights Educational Performance and Student-Athletes Academic Predictions for Student-Athletes at College Academic Achievement and College Athletes Graduation Rates and Student-Athletes The Impediments to Scholarly Achievement by College Athletes Reform Initiatives and Intercollegiate Sports The Administration of Intercollegiate Sports Emphasizing the Education of Student-Athletes Commitment to Athletes' Rights Summary Web Resources Notes
Part IV: Sport and Social Institutions
Chapter 11: Sport and the Economy Professional Sport as a Business Social Theories and the Economy Professional Team Sports as Monopolies Public Subsidization of Professional Team Franchises Ownership for Profit A Radical Question: Are Owners Necessary? Who Benefits Economically from Sports? Professional Athletes' Earnings Auxiliary Professions and Occupations in Sport Sport-Related Businesses Corporate Advertising in Sport The Relationship Between Owners and Athletes The Draft and the Reserve Clause Professional Team Sport Athletes Fight for Free Agency Amateur Sport as a Business The Ambiguous Case: Intercollegiate Sports and Amateurism The Economics of Collegiate Sport Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 12: Sport and the Mass Media Social Roles of the Mass Media Prominent and Subtle Roles of the Media Mass Media and Social Theories The Symbiosis of Mass Media and Sport Enduring Linkages Between the Mass Media and Sport Television: The Monster of the Sports World Increasing TV Sports Coverage Economic Aspects of Televised Sports Television's Influence on Sport Increases in Sport Revenue Television Drives Shifts in Popularity of Sports Professional Sports Franchise Locations and the Media Television: The Financial Foundation for Big-Time Intercollegiate Sport Television Taps High School Sports Modifying Sports to Accommodate TV Television's Own Sports Televised Sport as a Mediated Event The Impact of Sport on the Mass Media Increased Sport in the Media Sport's Privileged Treatment by the Media Sports Consumers and the Mass Media The Internet: The Newest Form of Mass Communications for Sports Integration of the Internet, Television, Computers, and Video Games Social Media: Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter Media Sport: Gender and Race Issues Reproduction of Hegemonic Masculinity in Media Sport Media Sport and Gender Inequities Media Sport and Racial and Ethnic Inequities Sports Journalism and the Mass Media Sportscasters: Narrators of Mediated Sport Minority Sport Journalists and Broadcasters Women Sport Journalists and Broadcasters Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 13: Sport and Politics Politics as a Social Institution Social Theories and Politics Intertwining of Politics and Sports The Political Uses of Sport Sport as a Vehicle for Propaganda Sport and Nationalism Sport as an Opiate of the Masses The Exploitation of Sport by Politicians Sport as a Vehicle of Change in Society Internationalization of Social Activism and Sport Globalization and Sport The Political Olympic Games Political Problems and the Olympic Movement Proposals for Reforming the Olympic Games Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 14: Sport and Religion The Relationship Between Religion and Society Personal and Social Roles of Religion Historical Affiliation Between Religion and Sport Ancient Greece: Creators of Organized Sports Events The Early Christian Church and Roman Sport Spectacles Pre-Columbian Societies: Sport in the Americas Reformation and Protestantism in the North American Colonies Religious Objections to Sport Declined in the Nineteenth Century Religion and Sport Conciliation Sport as Religion Similarities Between Sport and Religion Critical Views About Sport-as-Religion Religion Uses Sport Churches Religious Leaders Embrace Sport Church Colleges and Universities Religious Organizations and Sports The Fellowship of Christian Athletes Religion and Professional Sports Organizations Sport and Religion Publications Missionary Work of Churches and Sport Religious Evangelizing by Athletes and Coaches The Promise Keepers: Patriarchy, Gender, and Sexuality Sportianity Confronting Social Issues Value Orientations of Religion and Sport The Protestant Ethic and Sports Protestantism and Contemporary Sport Sport Uses Religion The Use of Prayer and Divine Intervention The Use of Magic Magic and Its Uses in Sports Summary Web Resources Notes
Chapter 15: Contemporary Trends and the Future of Sport in North America Demographic Trends in North America Population Composition Location of Population Population Trends and Sport Dominating Forces in Our Lives: Work, Technology, and Sporting Activities An Information/Service North American Society The Information/Service Workplace and Sporting Activities A Future Society and Sport Cerebral Sports of the Future Violent Sports of the Future Technology and Future Sport A Counterpoint to Technosports: Ecosports Trends in the Economy and Future Sports The Future of Professional Sports The Future of Televised Sports Internet Technology and Sports Viewing Video Technology and Sports Video Games Intercollegiate Athletics and the Future Secondary School Sports and the Future Trends in Social Values and Future Sport The Quest for Democracy and Equality Trends in Sports Values People With Disabilities and Sport Senior Populations and Sport LGBT in Sport New Emphasis on Participation and Cooperation A Troubling Trend: Sports Incivility Summary Web Resources Notes