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Sociology : Your Compass for a New World

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780495008484

ISBN10:
0495008486
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/4/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $214.99

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Summary

This balanced, mainstream, beautifully written and totally up-to-date text is unrivalled in its ability to get students to see the connection between themselves and the social world. It teaches students how to think sociologically, not just what to think, and emphasizes the importance of diversity and a global perspective. It has been heralded for its inclusion of pop culture examples that instantly connect with today's students, and for its presentation of sociological concepts in a fresh, contemporary light.

Table of Contents

PART 1 Foundations
A Sociological Compass
1(31)
Introduction
1(2)
Why Robert Brym Decided Not to Study Sociology
1(1)
A Change of Mind
2(1)
The Power of Sociology
2(1)
The sociological Perspective
3(5)
The Sociological Explanation of Suicide
3(2)
From Personal Troubles to Social Structures
5(2)
The Sociological Imagination
7(1)
Box 1.1 Sociology at tne Movies: Minority Report (2002)
8(3)
Origins of the Sociological Imagination
9(2)
Theory, Research, and values
11(2)
Theory
12(1)
Research
12(1)
Values
12(1)
Sociological Theory and Theorists
13(7)
Functionalism
13(1)
Conflict Theory
14(2)
Symbolic Interactionism
16(2)
Feminist Theory
18(2)
Applying tne Four Theoretical Perspectives: The Problem of Fashion
20(3)
A Sociological Compass
23(5)
Equality versus Inequality of Opportunity
25(1)
Individual Freedom versus Individual Constraint
26(1)
Where Do You Fit In?
26(1)
Careers in Sociology
27(1)
Box 1.2 Social Policy: What Do You Think? Are Corporate Scandals a Problem of Individual Ethics or Social Policy?
28(4)
Summary
29(1)
Questions to consider
30(1)
web Resources
30(2)
How Sociologists Do Research
32(30)
Science and Experience
33(3)
Ottffssent
33(1)
Scientific versus Nonscientific Thinking
34(2)
Conducting Research
36(2)
The Research Cycle
36(1)
Ethical Considerations
37(1)
The Main Methods of Sociological Research
38(11)
Field Research
38(2)
Participant Observation
40(2)
Methodological Problems
42(2)
Experiments
44(3)
Surveys
47(2)
Box 2.1 Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Politics of the U.S. Census
49(5)
Box 2.2 You and the Social World: Thinking causally
54(2)
Analysis of Existing Documents and Official Statistics
54(2)
Box 2.3 Sociology at the Movies: Kinsey (2004)
56(2)
The importance of Being subjective
58(4)
Summary
59(1)
Questions to Consider
60(1)
Web Resources
60(1)
Appendix: Pour Statistics You snouid Know
60(2)
PART II Basic Social Processes
culture
62(32)
Culture as Problem Solving
63(1)
The Origins and components of Culture
64(3)
Symbols
65(1)
Norms and Values
65(1)
Material and Nonmateriai Culture
65(1)
Sanctions, Taboos, Mores, and Folkways
66(1)
Culture and Biology
67(5)
The Evolution of Human Behavior
67(2)
Language and the Sapir-Whorf Thesis
69(3)
Culture and Ethnocentrism: A Functionalist Analysis of Culture
72(1)
Box 3.1 Sociology at the Movies: Austin Powers.- international Man of Mystery (1997), The spy Who Shagged Me (1999), and Goldmember (2002)
73(1)
The Two Faces of Culture: Freedom and Constraint
74(3)
Culture as Freedom
74(1)
Cultural Production and Symbolic Interactionism
74(1)
Cultural Diversity
75(1)
Multiculturaiism
75(1)
The Rights Revolution: A Conflict Analysis of Culture
76(1)
Box 3.2 Social Policy: What Do YOU Think? Female Genital Mutilation: Cultural Relativism or Ethnocentrism?
77(13)
From Diversity to Globalization
78(3)
Aspects of Postmodernism
81(3)
Culture as Constraint
84(1)
Values
84(4)
Consumerism
88(2)
Box 3.3 You and the Social World: Labeling Yourself and others
90(4)
From Counterculture to Subculture
90(2)
Summary
92(1)
Questions to Consider
93(1)
Web Resources
93(1)
Socialization
94(30)
Social isolation and Socialization
95(2)
The Crystallization of Self-Identity
96(1)
Theories of Childhood Socialization
97(3)
Freud
97(2)
Cooley's Symbolic Interactionism
99(1)
Mead
99(1)
Box 4.1 Sociology at the Movies: Monster (2003)
100(3)
Piaget
101(1)
Kohlberg
102(1)
Vygotsky
102(1)
Gilligan
103(1)
Agents of socialization
103(10)
Families
103(1)
Schools
104(1)
Class, Race, and Conflict Theory
105(2)
The Functions of Peer Groups
107(1)
The Mass Media
108(1)
Gender Roles, the Mass Media, and the Feminist Approach to Socialization
109(1)
Professional Socialization
110(2)
Resocialization and Total Institutions
112(1)
Socialization Across the Life Course
113(6)
Adult Socialization
113(2)
The Flexible Self
115(1)
Identity and the Internet
116(1)
Dilemmas of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization
117(1)
The Emergence of Childhood and Adolescence
118(1)
Problems of Childhood and Adolescent Socialization Today
118(1)
Box 4.2 You and the Social World: Changing Patterns of Adolescent socialization
119(1)
Box 4.5 Social Policy: What DO You Think? Socialization versus Gun Control
120(4)
summary
121(1)
Questions to Consider
122(1)
web Resources
122(2)
Social Interaction
124(26)
What is Social Interaction?
125(3)
The Structure of Social Interaction
125(1)
Case Study: Stewardesses and Their Clientele
126(2)
What Shapes Social Interaction?
128(1)
The Sociology of Emotions
129(5)
Laughter and Humor
129(2)
Emotion Management
131(1)
Emotion Labor
132(1)
Emotions in Historical Perspective
133(1)
Modes of Social interaction
134(2)
Interaction as Competition and Exchange
134(1)
Exchange and Rational Choice Theories
135(1)
Box 5.1 You and the Social world: Competing for Attention
136(2)
Interaction as Symbolic
137(1)
Box 5.2 Sociology at the Movies: Miss Congeniality (2000)
138(7)
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
140(3)
Power and Conflict Theories of Social Interaction
143(2)
Box 5.3 Social Policy. What Do You Think? Allocating Time Fairly in Class Discussions
145(2)
Micro, Meso, Macro, and Global Structures
147(3)
Summary
148(1)
Questions to Consider
148(1)
wee Resources
148(2)
Social Collectivities: From Croups to Societies
150(32)
Beyond individual Motives
151(3)
The Holocaust
151(1)
How Social Groups Shape Our Actions
152(2)
Box 6.1 Social Policy: What Do You Think? Croup Loyalty or Betrayal?
154(3)
Networks
156(1)
It's a Small World
156(1)
Network Analysis
157(3)
Box 6.2 You and the Social World: Networks and Health
160(1)
The Building Blocks of Social Networks: Dyads and Triads
160(6)
Groups
161(1)
Love and Group Loyalty
161(1)
Varieties of Group Experience
161(1)
Primary Groups and Secondary Groups
162(1)
Group Conformity
162(1)
Groupthink
163(1)
Inclusion and Exclusion; In-groups and Out-groups
164(1)
Groups and Social Imagination
165(1)
Bureaucracy
166(2)
Bureaucratic Inefficiency
166(2)
Box 6.3 Sociology at the Movies: Ikiru (1952)
168(5)
Bureaucracy's Informal Side
170(1)
Leadership
171(1)
Overcoming Bureaucratic Inefficiency
171(1)
Organizational Environments
172(1)
Societies
173(5)
Foraging Societies
174(1)
Pastoral and Horticultural Societies
175(1)
Agricultural Societies
175(1)
Industrial Societies
176(1)
Postindustrial Societies
177(1)
Postnatural Societies
178(1)
Freedom and Constraint in social Life
178(4)
Summary
179(1)
Questions to Consider
180(1)
web Resources
180(2)
PART III Inequality
Deviance and Crime
182(30)
The Social Definition of Deviance and Crime
183(10)
The Difference Between Deviance and Crime
184(1)
Types of Deviance and Crime
185(2)
Power and the Social Construction of Crime and Deviance
187(2)
Measuring Crime
189(1)
Crime Rates
189(3)
Criminal Profiles
192(1)
Explaining Deviance and Crime
193(1)
Box 7.1 Social Policy: What Do You Think? The war on Drugs
194(7)
Learning the Deviant Role: The Case of Marijuana Users
194(1)
Motivational Theories
195(2)
Constraint Theories
197(4)
Trends in Criminal Justice
201(4)
Social Control
201(1)
The Prison
202(1)
Moral Panic
203(2)
Box 7.2 Sociology at the Movies: Bowling for Columbine (2002)
205(1)
Box 7.3 You and the Social World: Moral Panic
206(6)
Alternative Forms of Punishment
207(3)
Summary
210(1)
Questions to Consider
211(1)
Web Resources
211(1)
Stratification: united States and Global Perspectives
212(36)
Social stratification: Shipwrecks and inequality
213(1)
Patterns of social inequality
214(6)
Wealth
214(2)
Income
216(1)
Income Classes
217(1)
How Green Is the Valley?
218(2)
Box 8.1 Sociology at the Movies: Sweet Home Alabama (2002)
220(2)
Global inequality
222(5)
International Differences
222(2)
Measuring Internal Stratification
224(1)
Economic Development
224(3)
Theories of Stratification
227(5)
Marx
227(1)
Weber
228(1)
An American Perspective: Functionalism
229(3)
Social Mobility: Theory and Research
232(5)
Blau and Duncan: The Status Attainment Mode
233(1)
A Critique of Blau and Duncan
234(2)
The Revival of Class Analysis
236(1)
Noneconomic Dimensions of Class
237(6)
Prestige and Power
237(2)
Politics and the Plight of the Poor
239(1)
Government Policy and the Poverty Rate in the United States
240(2)
Poverty Myths
242(1)
Box 8.2 Social Policy: What DO You Think? Redesigning Welfare
243(1)
Box 8.3 You and the Social World: Perceptions of Class
244(4)
Perception of Class Inequality in the United States
244(1)
Summary
245(1)
Questions to Consider
246(1)
Web Resources
246(2)
Globalization, Inequality, and Development
248(28)
The Creation of a Global village
249(3)
The Triumphs and Tragedies of Globalization
250(2)
Globaiization
252(5)
Globalization in Everyday Life
252(2)
The Sources of Globalization
254(1)
A World Tike the United States?
255(2)
Box 9.1 Social policy. What Do You Think? Should the United States Promote World Democracy?
257(3)
Globalization and Its Discontents: Antiglobalization and Anti-Americanism
258(1)
The History of Globalization
259(1)
Global inequality
260(3)
Levels of Global Inequality
261(2)
Theories of Development and underdevelopment
263(5)
Modernization Theory: A Functionalist Approach
263(1)
Dependency Theory: A Conflict Approach
264(1)
Effects of Foreign Investment
265(1)
Core, Periphery, and Semiperiphery
266(2)
weoliberal versus Democratic Globalization
268(4)
Globalization and Neoliberalism
268(1)
Globalization Reform
269(3)
Box 9.2 Sociology at the Movies: Three Kings (1999)
272(4)
Summary
273(1)
Questions to consider
274(1)
Web Resources
274(2)
Race and Ethnicity
276(36)
Defining Race and Ethnicity
277(7)
The Great Brain Robbery
277(1)
Race, Biology, and Society
278(1)
Prejudice, Discrimination, and Sports
279(2)
The Social Construction of Race
281(1)
Ethnicity, Culture, and Social Structure
282(2)
Race and Ethnic Relations
284(4)
Labels and Identity
284(1)
The Formation of Racial and Ethnic Identities
285(1)
Case Study: The Diversity of the ``Hispanic American'' Community
285(3)
Box 10.1 Social Policy: What Do You mink? Bilingual Education
288(4)
Ethnic and Racial Labels: Choice versus Imposition
288(4)
Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations
292(6)
Ecological Theory
292(1)
Internal Colonialism and the Split Labor Market
293(5)
Some Advantages of Ethnicity
298(3)
Economic Advantages of Ethnic Group Membership
299(1)
Political Advantages of Ethnic Group Membership
299(1)
Emotional Advantages of Ethnic Group Membership
300(1)
Transnational Communities
300(1)
The Future of Race and Ethnicity
301(7)
The Declining Significance of Race?
302(3)
Immigration and the Renewal of Racial and Ethnic Communities
305(1)
A Vertical Mosaic
306(2)
Box 10.2 Sociology at the Movies: Hotel Rwanda (2004)
308(4)
Summary
310(1)
Questions to consider
310(1)
Web Resources
311(1)
Sexuality and Gender
312(34)
Sex versus Gender
313(2)
Is It a Boy or a Girl?
313(1)
Gender Identity and Gender Role
314(1)
Theories of Gender
315(11)
Essentialism
316(1)
Functionalism and Essentialism
316(1)
A Critique of Essentialism from the Conflict and Feminist Perspectives
316(2)
Social Constructionism and Symbolic Interactionism
318(4)
The Mass Media and Body Image
322(3)
Male/Female Interaction
325(1)
Homosexuality
326(3)
Box 11.1 Social policy: What Do YOU Thihk? Hate Crime Law and Homophobia
329(1)
Box 11.2 Sociology at the Movies: Boys Don't cry (1999)
330(1)
Gender inequality
330(6)
The Origins of Gender Inequality
330(2)
The Earnings Gap Today
332(1)
Male Aggression Against Women
333(3)
Toward 2050
336(3)
Child Care
338(1)
Comparable Worth
339(1)
The Women's Movement
339(7)
Summary
343(1)
Questions to Consider
343(1)
Web Resources
344(2)
Sociology of the Body: Disability, Aging, and Death
346(24)
Bob Dole's Body
347(1)
Society and the Human Body
348(2)
The Body and Social Status
348(2)
Box 12.1 You ana the Social World: Height Discrimination
350(2)
Sociology of the Body
351(1)
Disability
352(3)
The Social Construction of Disability
352(1)
Rehabilitation and Elimination
352(1)
Ablism
353(1)
The Normality of Disability
354(1)
Box 12.2 Sociology at the Movies: Shallow Hal (2001)
355(1)
Aging
356(9)
Sociology of Aging
356(2)
Aging and Inequality
358(2)
Theories of Age Stratification
360(1)
Social Problems of the Elderly
361(3)
Death and Dying
364(1)
Box 12.3 Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Social Security Crisis
365(5)
Summary
368(1)
Questions to Consider
369
Web Resources
363(7)
PART IV Institutions
Work and the Economy
370(32)
The Promise and History of Work
371(3)
Salvation or Curse?
371(2)
Three Revolutions
373(1)
The Quality of Work: ``Good'' versus ``Bad'' Jobs
374(10)
The Deskilling Thesis
375(2)
A Critique of the Deskilling Thesis
377(2)
Labor Market Segmentation
379(1)
Worker Resistance and Management Response
380(2)
Unions and Professional Organizations
382(1)
Barriers Between the Primary and Secondary Labor Markets
383(1)
Box 13.1 Sociology at the Movies: Roger and Me (1989)
384(3)
The Time Crunch and Its Effects
385(2)
The Problem of Markets
387(1)
Box 13.2 Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Minimum Wage
388(14)
Economic Systems
390(4)
The Corporation
394(1)
Globalization
395(3)
The Future of Work and the Economy
398(1)
Summary
399(1)
Questions to Consider
400(1)
Web Resources
400(2)
Politics
402(32)
Introduction
403(2)
The Tobacco War
403(2)
Power and Authority
405(3)
Types of Authority
406(1)
Types of Political System
406(2)
Theories of Democracy
408(4)
Pluralist Theory
408(1)
Elite Theory
409(1)
A Critique of Pluralism
409(3)
Box 14.1 Social Policy: What Do You Think? Financing Political Campaigns
412(5)
Power Resource Theory
413(3)
State-Centered Theory
416(1)
Box 14.2 You and the Social World: Felon Dlsenfranchisement
417(2)
Box 14.3 Sociology at the Movies: Gangs of New York (2002)
419(2)
The Future of Democracy
421(6)
Two Cheers for Russian Democracy
421(2)
The Three Waves of Democracy
423(1)
The Social Preconditions of Democracy
424(1)
Electronic Democracy
425(1)
Postmaterialism
426(1)
Politics by Other Means
427(7)
War
428(3)
Terrorism and Related Forms of Political Violence
431(1)
Summary
432(1)
Questions to Consider
433(1)
Web Resources
433(1)
Families
434(144)
Introduction
435(1)
Is the Family in Decline?
436(2)
Functionalism and the Nuclear Ideal
438(4)
Functional Theory
438(1)
Functions of the Nuclear Family
438(1)
Foraging Societies
439(2)
The American Middle Class in the 1950s
441(1)
Conflict and Feminist Theories
442(2)
Power and Families
444(4)
Love and Mate Selection
444(3)
Marital Satisfaction
447(1)
Box 15.1 Sociology at the Movies: My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002)
448(5)
Divorce
450(1)
Reproductive Choice
451(1)
Reproductive Technologies
452(1)
Box 15.2 You and the Social World: The Abortion Issue
453(4)
Housework and Child Care
454(1)
Domestic Violence
455(2)
Family Diversity
457(5)
Cohabitation
457(1)
Same-Sex Unions and Partnerships
458(2)
Single-Parent Families: Racial and Ethnic Differences
460(2)
Family Policy
462(1)
Crossnational Differences: The United States and Sweden
462(1)
Box 15.3 Social Policy: What Do You Think? The Pro-Fatherhood campaign
463(108)
Summary
465(1)
Questions to Consider
466(1)
Web Resources
466(101)
The Political Sociology of Mental Illness
567(2)
The Professionalization of Medicine
569(1)
The Social Limits of Modern Medicine
570(1)
Box 19.2 Sociology at the Movies: Patch Adams (1998)
571(2)
Recent Challenges to Traditional Medical Science
572(1)
Box 19.3 Social Policy: What Do You Think? The High Cost of Prescription Drugs
573(5)
Summary
576(1)
Questions to Consider
577(1)
Web Resources
577(1)
PART V Social Change
Population and Urbanization
578(26)
Population
579(4)
The City of God
579(1)
The Population ``Explosion''
580(3)
Theories of Population Growth
583(3)
The Malthusian Trap
583(1)
A Critique of Malthus
583(1)
Demographic Transition Theory
584(1)
A Critique ot Demographic Transition Theory
585(1)
Population and Social Inequality
586(2)
Karl Marx
586(1)
Gender Inequality and Overpopulation
586(1)
Class Inequality and Overpopulation
587(1)
Box 20.1 Social Policy: What Do You Think? How Can We Find 100 Million Missing women?
588(1)
Summing Up
589(1)
Urbanization
589(9)
From the Preindustrial to the Industrial City
590(1)
The Chicago School and the Industrial City
591(2)
After Chicago: A Critique
593(1)
The Conflict View and the New Urban Sociology
594(1)
The Corporate City
594(2)
The Urbanization of Rural America
596(1)
The Postmodern City
597(1)
Box 20.2 Sociology at the Movies: 8 Mile (2002)
598(6)
Summary
601(1)
Questions to Consider
602(1)
Web Resources
602(2)
Collective Action and Social Movements
604(28)
How to Spark a Riot
605(2)
The Study of Collective Action and Social Movements
606(1)
Nonroutine Collective Action: The Lynch Mob
607(6)
The Lynching of Claude Neal
607(1)
Breakdown Theory and Functionalism
608(1)
Deprivation, Crowds, and the Breakdown of Norms
609(1)
Assessing Breakdown Theory
610(2)
Rumors and Riots
612(1)
Social Movements
613(2)
Solidarity Theory: A Variant of Conflict Theory
614(1)
Case Study: Strikes and the Union Movement in the United States
615(1)
Box 21.1 Social Policy: What Do You Think? Government Surveillance of social Movements
616(5)
Strikes and Resource Mobilization
618(1)
Strikes and Political Opportunities
619(2)
Framing Discontent: The Contribution of Symbolic Interactionism
621(2)
Examples of Frame Alignment
621(1)
An Application of Frame Alignment Theory: Back to 1968
622(1)
Box 21.2 Sociology at the Movies: The Day after Tomorrow (2004)
623(1)
Where Do You Fit In?
624(1)
Social Movements from the 18th to the 21st century
624(8)
The History of Social Movements
625(2)
The Future of Social Movements
627(2)
Summary
629(1)
Questions to Consider
630(1)
Web Resources
630(2)
Technology and the Global Environment
632(28)
Technology: Savior or Frankenstein?
633(3)
The Environmental Awakening
634(1)
Normal Accidents and the Risk Society
635(1)
Box 22.1 Sociology at the Movies: The Matrix (1999), The Matrix Reloaded (2003), The Matrix Revolutions (2003), The Terminator (1984), Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003)
636(11)
Technology and People Make History
638(2)
How High Tech Became Big Tech
640(2)
Environmental Degradation
642(5)
The Social Construction of Environmental Problems
647(4)
The Case of Global Warming
647(1)
The Social Distribution of Environmental Risk
648(3)
Box 22.2 Social Policy: What Do You Think? Web-Based Learning ana Higher Education
651(1)
What Is to Be Done?
651(5)
The Market and High-Tech Solutions
651(2)
The Cooperative Alternative
653(3)
Evolution and Sociology
656(4)
Summary
658(1)
Questions to Consider
658(1)
web Resources
658(2)
Glossary 660(11)
References 671(46)
Credits 717(2)
Indexes 719


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