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Solid State Electronic Devices

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Pub. Date:
Oxford University Press

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 8/1/2014.
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Author Biography

K. Bhattacharya, Solid State Physics Laboratory, New Delhi,Rajnish Sharma, Chitkara University, HP

D.K. Bhattacharya currently heads the Ion Implantation Group, Microwave and Instrumentation Group, Hydrophone Group and Quality Promotion Group at the Solid State Physics Laboratory, New Delhi. He has over two decades of experience as a practicing semiconductor scientist including a long association with the MEMS Division , Solid State Physics Laboratory , New Delhi.

Rajnish Sharma teaches subjects related to electronic devices at Chitkara University, HP. A PhD from Kurukshetra University and National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, he has served BITS , Pilani as a faculty for almost 6 years.

Table of Contents

Important Formulae and Expressions
1. : Electron Dynamics
Introduction 2
1.1 Conduction of Electricity through Gases
1.1.1 Glow Discharge
1.2 Motion of Charged Particle in Electric Field
1.2.1 Energy Acquired by Electron
1.2.2 Electron Transit Time
1.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in Magnetic Field
1.4 Motion of Charged Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Field
1.5 Cathode-ray Tube
1.5.1 Focussing with Electric Fields
1.5.2 Focussing with Magnetic Field
1.5.3 Deflection Systems
2. : Growth and Crystal Properties of Semiconductors
2.1 Semiconductor Materials
2.2 Types of Solids
2.3 Crystal Lattices
2.3.1 Unit Cell
2.3.2 Cubic Lattices
2.3.3 Crystal Planes and Directions
2.3.4 Diamond Lattice
2.4 Atomic Bonding
2.4.1 Van der Waals Bond
2.4.2 Ionic Bond
2.4.3 Covalent Bond
2.4.4 Metallic Bond
2.5 Imperfections and Impurities in Solids
2.5.1 Imperfections
2.5.2 Impurities
2.6 Bulk Crystal Growth
2.6.1 Starting Material
2.6.2 Single-crystal Ingots
2.7 Epitaxial Growth
2.7.1 Vapour-phase Epitaxy
2.7.2 Liquid-phase Epitaxy
2.7.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy
3. : Energy Bands and Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
3.1 Bonding Force and Formation of Energy Bands
3.2 E-k Diagrams
3.2.1 Band Structure Modification in Semiconductors
3.4 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
3.4.1 Electrons and Holes
3.4.2 Intrinsic Semiconductor
3.4.3 Extrinsic Semiconductor
3.5 Carrier Concentrations in Semiconductors
3.5.1 Fermi Level
3.5.2 Equilibrium Electron and Hole Concentrations
3.5.3 Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentrations
3.5.4 Compensation
3.6 Carrier Drift
3.6.1 Mobility and Conductivity
3.6.2 High-field effect
3.6.3 Hall Effect
3.7 Carrier Diffusion
3.7.1 Diffusion Current Density
3.7.2 Total Current Density
3.8 Graded Impurity Distribution
3.8.1 Induced Field
3.8.2 Einstein Relation
4. : Excess Carriers in Semiconductors
4.1 Semiconductor in Equilibrium
4.2 Excess Carrier Generation and Recombination
4.2.1 Optical Absorption
4.2.2 Excess Minority Carrier Lifetime
4.3 Carrier Lifetime (General Case)
4.3.1 Shockley-Read-Hall Theory
4.3.2 Low Injection
4.4 Diffusion and Recombination
4.4.1 Continuity Equation
4.4.2 Haynes-Shockley Experiment
4.5 Quasi-Fermi Energy Levels
4.6 Surface Effects
4.6.1 Surface States
4.6.2 Surface Recombination Velocity
5. : p-n Junction
5.1 Fabrication of p-n Junctions
5.1.1 p-n Junction Formation
5.1.2 Thermal Oxidation
5.1.3 Diffusion
5.2 Basic p-n Junction
5.2.1 Basic Structure
5.2.2 No Applied Bias
5.2.3 Built-in Electric Field
5.2.4 Space-charge Region Width
5.3 Reverse-biased p-n Junction
5.3.1 Energy Band Diagram
5.3.2 Space-charge Width and Electric Field
5.3.2 Depletion Capacitance
5.3.4 One-sided Abrupt Junction
5.4 Junctions With Non-uniform Doping
5.4.1 Linearly Graded Junctions
5.4.2 Hyper-abrupt Junctions
5.5 Varactor Diode
5.6 Junction Breakdown
5.6.1 Zener Breakdown
5.6.2 Avalanche Breakdown
5.7 Tunnel Diode
6. : p-n Junction Current
6.1 p-n Junction Current Flow
6.1.1 Charge Flow in a p-n Junction
6.1.2 Ideal Current-Voltage Characteristics
6.1.3 Boundary Conditions
6.1.4 Minority Carrier Distribution
6.1.5 Junction Current in Ideal p-n Junction
6.1.6 Short Diode
6.2 Small-signal Model of p-n Junction
6.2.1 Diffusion Resistance
6.2.2 Diffusion Capacitance
6.2.3 Equivalent Circuit
6.3 Generation-Recombination Currents
6.3.1 Reverse-bias Generation Current
6.3.2 Forward-bias Recombination Current
6.3.3 Net Forward-bias Current
6.4 Junction Diode Switching Times
7. : Metal-Semiconductor Junctions and Hetero-junctions
7.1 Metal-Semiconductor Contacts
7.1.1 Schottky Model
7.1.2 Space-charge Width and Junction Capacitance
7.1.3 Characteristics Based on Emission Model
7.1.4 Schottky Effect
7.1.5 Tunnelling Current
7.2 Effect of Surface States and Interface
7.3 Metal-Semiconductor Ohmic Contacts
7.3.1 Specific Contact Resistance
7.4 Heterojunctions
7.4.1 Energy Band Diagram
7.4.2 Two-dimensional Electron Gas
7.4.3 Quantum Confinement of Carriers
8. : Bipolar Junction Transistors
8.1 Fundamentals of Bipolar Junction Transistors
8.2 Current Components and Relations
8.3 Important Notations and Configurations
8.4 BJT Characteristics
8.5 Current Gains for Transistor
8.6 Minority Carrier Distribution
8.6.1 Base Region
8.6.2 Emitter Region
8.6.3 Collector Region
8.7 Models for Bipolar Junction Transistors
8.7.1 Ebers-Moll Model
8.7.2 Gummel-Poon Model
8.7.3 Hybrid-pi Model
8.7.4 h-parameter Equivalent Circuit Model
8.8 Important Configuration of BJT
8.8.1 Common-emitter Amplifier
8.8.2 Common-base Amplifier
8.8.3 Common-collector Amplifier
8.9 Thermal Runaway
8.10 Kirk Effect
8.11 Frequency Limitation for Transistor
8.12 Webster Effect
8.13 High-frequency Transistors
8.14 Switching Characteristics of BJT
8.14.1 Schottky Transistor
9. : Field-effect Transistor
9.1 Junction-field-effect Transistor
9.1.1 Operating Principle
9.1.2 Current-Voltage Characteristics
9.2 Metal-semiconductor Field-effect Transistor
9.2.1 Normally Off and Normally On MESFETs
9.2.2 High-electron-mobility Transistor
9.3 Basic MOS Structure
9.3.1 Depletion Layer Thickness
9.3.2 Work-function Difference
9.4 Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics of MOS Capacitor
9.4.1 Interface Traps and Oxide Charge
9.4.2 Effect of Oxide Charge on C-V Characteristics
9.5 MOS Field-effect Transistor
9.5.1 MOSFET Characteristics
9.5.2 Short Channel Effect
9.5.3 Control of Threshold Voltage
9.5.4 Substrate Bias Effect
9.5.5 Sub-threshold Characteristics
9.5.6 Equivalent Circuit for MOSFET
9.5.7 MOSFET Scaling and Hot Electron Effects
9.5.8 Drain-induced Barrier Lowering
9.5.9 Short Channel and Narrow Width Effect
9.5.10 Gate-induced Drain Leakage
9.5.11 Comparison of BJT with MOSFET
9.5.12 Types of MOSFET
10. : Opto-electronic Devices
10.1 Optical Absorption
10.1.1 Optical Absorption
10.1.2 Excess Carrier Generation Rate
10.2 Photovoltaic Cells
10.2.1 p-n Junction Solar Cells
10.2.2 Conversion Efficiency
10.2.3 Effect of Series Resistance
10.2.4 Heterojunction Solar Cells
10.2.5 Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells
10.3 Photodetectors
10.3.1 Photoconductors
10.3.2 Photodiodes
10.3.3 Phototransistors
10.4 Light-emitting Diodes
10.4.1 LED Materials and Devices
10.4.2 Loss Mechanisms and Structure
10.5 Laser Diodes
10.5.1 Materials and Structures
10.5.2 Population Inversion
11. : Power Devices
11.1 Bipolar Power Transistors
11.1.1 Current Crowding
11.1.2 Vertical Transistor Structure
11.1.3 Transistor Characteristics
11.1.4 Darlington Pair Configuration
11.2 Power MOSFETs
11.2.1 Structures
11.2.2 Power MOSFET Characteristics
11.3 Heat Sink
11.4 Semiconductor Controlled Rectifier
11.4.1 Fundamental Characteristics
11.4.2 Two-transistor Model
11.4.3 Depletion Layer Width and Effect of Gate Current
11.4.4 Bidirectional Thyristors
11.5 Gate Turn-off Thyristor
11.6 Insulated-gate Bipolar Transistor
11.7 Unijunction Transistor
12. : Integrated Circuits and Micro-electromechanical Systems
12.1 Photolithography
12.2 Etching Techniques
12.2.1 Wet Etching
12.2.2 Dry Etching
12.3 Passive Components
12.3.1 Resistors
12.3.2 Capacitors
12.3.3 Inductors
12.4 Bipolar Technology
12.4.1 Basic Process
12.4.2 Dielectric Isolation
12.5 MOSFET Technology
12.5.1 NMOS Process
12.5.2 NMOS Memory Devices
12.5.3 Charge-coupled Devices
12.5.4 CMOS Technology
12.6 MESFET Technology
12.7 Micro-electromechanical Systems
12.7.1 Basic Processes
13. : Microwave Devices
13.1 Types of Microwave Devices
13.2 Working Principle of Gunn and IMPATT Diodes
13.2.1 Gunn Diode
13.2.2 IMPATT Diode
13.3 Operation of TRAPATT and BARITT Diodes
13.3.1 TRAPATT Diode
13.3.2 BARITT Diode
14. : Rectifiers and Power Supplies
14.1 Single-phase Rectifiers
14.1.1 Half-wave Rectifier
14.1.2 Full-wave Rectifier
14.1.3 Bridge Rectifier
14.1.4 Ripple Factor
14.2 Filter Circuits
14.2.1 Shunt-capacitor Filter
14.2.2 ? Filter
14.2.3 RC Filter
14.3 Voltage Regulators
14.3.1 Zener Diode Regulator
14.3.2 Series Voltage Regulator
14.4 Switched-mode Power Supply
Appendix A: Important Physical Constants
Appendix B: Important Lattice Constants
Appendix C: Properties of Some Common Semiconductors
Appendix D: Bandgaps of Some Semiconductors Relative to the Optical Spectrum
Appendix E: Properties of Silicon, Germanium and Gallium Arsenide at 300 K
Appendix F: Important Properties of Si3N4 and SiO2 at 300 K
Appendix G: Table of the Error Function
Appendix H: The Periodic Table of Elements
Appendix I: International System of Units

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