9789056996338

Solution Mining 2e

by
  • ISBN13:

    9789056996338

  • ISBN10:

    9056996339

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1998-09-01
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Summary

Solution mining, the extraction of metals, minerals & materials from the earth through leaching & fluid recovery, is still a relatively new but rapidly growing field. The annual economic value of solution mined metals in the United States now exceeds that of metals extracted by underground mining. Originally published in 1992, this updated second edition of an introductory text for students & professional engineers expands information on the science of fluid flow in heaps, nonsteady state in situ fluid flow & nonsteady state well hydraulics. Information on bioheap pretreatment of refractory gold ores & the environmental stabilization of contaminated earth materials has been added.

Table of Contents

List of Symbols
xv
Preface xxiii
Introduction
1(16)
Scope of Solution Mining
1(4)
Importance of Solution Mining
5(1)
Sharpening Our Intuitive Understanding of Leaching
6(5)
Modeling Extraction Rates Controlled by Chemical Diffusion
11(6)
Heap Leaching Gold (Silver) Ore---Theory
17(20)
Disseminated Gold Ore Deposits
17(1)
Gold Leaching Chemistry
18(2)
Modeling Disseminated Gold Ore Heap Leaching Extractions
20(5)
Estimating Fractional Extraction of Dissolved Solute from a Distribution of Ore Rock Particle Sizes Using a Dimensionless Extraction Curve
25(5)
Valuable Mineral Accessibility to the Lixiviant and Extraction
30(1)
Rock Particle Leaching Size Versus Sieve Passing Size
31(2)
Measuring Internal Rock Microporosity, &epsis;
33(4)
Heap Leaching Practice (With Applications to Gold and Silver Ores)
37(42)
Overview
37(2)
Heap Construction
39(3)
Ore Preparation
42(7)
Choosing Between Reusable Pad and Valley-Fill Heap Leaching
49(3)
Solution Distribution
52(6)
Solution Ponds
58(2)
Solution Chemical Control for Gold/Silver Leaching
60(2)
Gold (Silver) Recovery from Dilute Leaching Solutions
62(3)
Testing Gold (Silver) Ores for Heap Leaching
65(6)
Alternate Processes for Gold (Silver) Leaching
71(1)
Refractory Ore
72(2)
Examples of Gold Ore Heap Leaching Operations
74(5)
Environmental Control in Percolation Leaching
79(28)
Environmental Concerns
79(1)
Percolation Leach Pad Design
80(5)
Leach Pad Site Selection
85(1)
Solution Collection and Pond Design
86(1)
Seepage and French Drain Pipe Spacing
87(4)
Evidence of Seepage from Solution Chemistry
91(1)
Heap Geotechnical Failures
92(1)
Water Balance
93(3)
Cyanide Detoxification
96(7)
Permitting
103(4)
Percolation Leaching Oxidized and Secondary Sulfide Copper Minerals
107(52)
Introduction
107(1)
Copper Ore Deposit Geology
108(3)
Consequences of Different Copper Ore Types
111(1)
Mineralogy and Leaching Chemistry of Oxide Copper Ore
112(1)
Bluebird Mine Oxide Copper Ore Heap Leaching Practice
113(1)
Copper Solvent Extraction/Electrowinning
114(3)
Underground Copper Leaching Practice
117(2)
Leach Extraction from Oxide Copper Ore Rock Fragments
119(4)
The Shrinking Core Model of Monosize Oxide Copper Ore Rock Leaching
123(3)
Example of the Shrinking Core Model for Monosize Oxide Copper Ore Leaching
126(4)
Estimating Metal Extraction Versus Leaching Time for Multisize Ore Using Dimensionless Design Curves Based on the Shrinking Core Model
130(4)
Vertical Solution Variations in Heap Leaching Oxide Copper Ores
134(7)
Shallow Lift (Thin Layer) Leaching and Acid Cure Leaching
141(1)
Acid Cure Leaching Practice at the E1 Abra Copper Mine in Chile
142(1)
Advances in Mechanical Ore Stacking Systems at Large Copper Mines
143(2)
Leaching Secondary Sulfide Copper Minerals
145(1)
Ferric Sulfate Generation
146(2)
Measuring the Ferric Ion Concentration in Leaching Solutions
148(2)
Required Secondary Copper Sulfide Leaching Time When Governed by Ferric Ion Availability
150(2)
Ferric Cure Leaching Process
152(1)
Ore Testing
153(6)
Percolation Leaching Copper Mine Waste (Primary Sulfides)
159(36)
Introduction
159(2)
Overview of Copper Mine Dump Leaching Practice
161(3)
Copper Sulfide Minerals and Ferric Sulfate Leaching Kinetics
164(3)
Biologically Enhanced Oxidative Leaching of Sulfide Minerals
167(6)
Limiting Copper Oxidation Rates in Copper Dump Leaching
173(2)
Iron Removal from Copper Leach Solution
175(1)
Copper Separation
176(1)
Acid Weathering of Gangue Minerals
177(2)
Characteristics of As-Mined Rock Fragments
179(1)
Rock Leaching Mechanism and Implications for Forecasting Production
180(3)
Leaching Production Forecasting
183(7)
Acid Usage in Copper Dump Leaching
190(1)
Managing Primary Copper Sulfide Mineral Leaching Operations
190(5)
Solution Flow During Percolation Leaching of Ore Heaps
195(28)
Introduction
195(1)
Solution and Air Flow Regions in Fragmented Rock
196(2)
Solution Retention and Capillarity
198(2)
Hydraulic Conductivity Versus Intrinsic Permeability
200(4)
Percolation Flow Rates and Flooding
204(2)
Solution Percolation Flow Rates and Washing Efficiency
206(4)
Estimating Intrinsic Permeability from Rock Sizes
210(6)
Measuring Heap Hydraulic Conductivity
216(2)
Agglomeration to Improve Intrinsic Permeability
218(1)
Optimum Solution Application and Irrigation Rates
218(1)
Rubblization with Chemical Explosives
219(4)
Oxygen Diffusion and Air Flow During Heap Leaching
223(30)
Gaseous Diffusion of Oxygen in Ore Heaps
223
Vertical Air Flow by Natural Advection
218(13)
Air Flow by Natural Advection from the Sloping Sides of Ore Heaps
231(3)
Finger Dumps
234(3)
Horizontal Flow by Natural Air Advection Underneath a Heap
237(2)
Forced Air Ventilation of Ore Heaps
239(6)
Forced Air Ventilation with Non-Uniform Heap Permeability
245(1)
Estimating Intrinsic Permeability
246(1)
Measuring Intrinsic Permeability
247(2)
Rejuvenating Depleted Copper Mine Waste Dumps with Forced Air Ventilation
249(4)
Biooxidation Heap Pretreatment of Sulfide Refractory Gold Ore and High-Sulfur Coal
253(28)
Introduction
253(1)
Refractory Gold Ore Sulfide Mineralogy
254(1)
Development of Heap Biooxidation of Refractory Gold Ore
255(2)
Ore Crushing Requirements
257(2)
Bioheap Acidity, Bacteria Culture and Ore Agglomeration
259(1)
Bioheap Energy Balance and Temperature Control
260(3)
Intrinsic Sulfide Mineral Oxidation Kinetics
263(8)
Economic Considerations
271(3)
Heap Biooxidation Processing of Other Metal Sulfide Ores
274(1)
Desulfurization of Coal
274(1)
Heap Biooxidation of Pyrite in Coal
275(6)
In Situ Flooded Leaching
281(42)
Ore Deposit Types
281(4)
Modified In Situ (Flooded) Leaching of Fragmented Copper Deposits
285(2)
True In Situ (Flooded) Leaching of Copper Ore Deposits
287(2)
Uranium Ore Deposit Geology
289(2)
Uranium Leaching Chemistry
291(2)
Flooded Leaching with Wells
293(1)
Pregnant Liquor Recovery Using Wells
293(5)
Leaching Kinetics
294(2)
Injectivity Response
296(1)
Displacement Studies (Dilution)
296(2)
Stream Tube Leaching Experiments
298(2)
Logarithmic Decline of Well Production during In Situ Leaching
300(2)
Evaluating Ore Deposit Host Formations for In Situ (Flooded) Leaching
302(3)
Well Patterns
305(2)
Vertical Wells
306(1)
Deviated and Horizontal Wells
307(1)
Well Completion
307(3)
Well Stimulation
310(2)
Hydraulic Fracturing
311(1)
Explosive Fracturing
311(1)
Economics of In Situ Leaching Ore Deposits
312(5)
Waste Water Treatment and Aquifer Restoration
317(1)
Uranium Solution Mining Environmental Restoration
318(5)
In Situ Leaching Hydrology
323(18)
Steady State Flow Assumptions and Definitions
324(1)
Flow from a Single Well in a Horizontal Aquifer
324(3)
Confined Ore-Bearing Aquifer
324(2)
Unconfined Ore-Bearing Aquifer
326(1)
Steady Flow from an Injection Well to a Production Well in a Confined Aquifer
327(2)
Well Radius and Skin Effects in Horizontally Confined Aquifers
329(3)
Steady Flow for Wellfield Configurations
332(5)
Flow in a Five Spot Extended Pattern of Vertical Wells
333(1)
Flow Between Two Levels of Horizontal Fractures
333(2)
Flow Between Fan Well Patterns
335(2)
Environmental Containment
337(4)
Numerical Simulation of Fragmented Rock Leaching
341(28)
Introduction
341(2)
A Review of Diffusion Controlled Rock (Ore Fragment) Leaching
343(2)
Extraction (Washing) Governed by Diffusion in Solution-Filled Pores
343(1)
Pseudo-Steady State Diffusion Coupled with Fast Mineral Dissolution
344(1)
Rock (Ore Fragment) Leaching with Mixed Kinetics
345(2)
Nonsteady State Mixed Kinetics Model
347(4)
Reaction Zone Model: Pseudo-Steady State Mixed Kinetics
351(3)
In Situ Leaching of Primary Copper Ore with Sparged Oxygen
354(2)
Mixed Kinetics Models Compared with Livermore Copper Leaching Experiments
356(4)
Nonsteady State Model Comparative Results
356(2)
Reaction Zone Model Comparative Results
358(2)
Simulated Parametric Leaching of Fragmented Primary Copper Ore
360(4)
Further Mixed Kinetics Ore Leaching Models with Macro-Extensions to Ore Heaps
364(5)
Evaporites, Brine and Sulfur
369(24)
Evaporite Deposits and Mineralogy
369(4)
Marine Evaporite Deposits
369(2)
Marine Salt Deposit Structures
371(1)
Alkali Evaporite Deposits
372(1)
Solution Mining Permeable Evaporites
373(1)
Solution Mining Impermeable Evaporites
374(3)
Searles Lake Brine
377(5)
Fort Cady Borate In Situ Leaching
382(2)
Brine Evaporative Crystallization Paths
384(1)
Salt Recovery and Separation Processes
384(3)
Sodium Chloride
384(1)
Soda Ash
385(1)
Potash and Borates
385(1)
Sodium Sulfate
386(1)
Magnesium
386(1)
Lithium
387(1)
Sulfur Deposits
387(1)
The Frasch Process
388(5)
Solar Evaporation Ponds
393(10)
Introduction
393(1)
Evaporation Rates
394(2)
Salt Deposits and Brine Entrainment
396(1)
Solar Pond Leakage
396(4)
Topography and Engineering Considerations
400(1)
Harvesting Salt Deposits
401(2)
Remediation of Contaminated Ground and Water
403(24)
Introduction
403(1)
Contaminants
404(1)
Mine Water and Acid Mine Drainage
405(1)
Groundwater Plume Movement
406(2)
Contaminant Removal with a Water Carrier
408(1)
In Situ Soil Washing
409(1)
Volatile Contaminant Removal with an Air Carrier
409(3)
In Situ Contaminant Fixation
412(3)
Bioremediation
415(7)
Passive Systems for Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage
422(1)
Miscellaneous Contaminant Fixation Methods
423(4)
Appendix 427(10)
Index 437

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