9780881889000

Sound Reinforcement Handbook

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780881889000

  • ISBN10:

    0881889008

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/1/1988
  • Publisher: Hal Leonard Corp

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Supplemental Materials

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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
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Summary

Sound reinforcement is the use of audio amplification systems. This book is the first and only book of its kind to cover all aspects of designing and using such systems for public address and musical performance. The book features information on both the audio theory involved and the practical applications of that theory, explaining everything from microphones to loudspeakers. This revised edition features almost 40 new pages and is even easier to follow with the addition of an index and a simplified page and chapter numbering system. New topics covered include: MIDI, Synchronization, and an Appendix on Logarithms. 416 Pages.

Table of Contents

Section 1. What is a Sound System
The audio signal
1(3)
Sound waves
1(1)
The electrical representation of sound
2(1)
Phase
2(1)
Adding sine waves
3(1)
The basic purpose of a sound system
4(1)
A conceptual model of a sound system
4(1)
Input transducers
5(1)
Output transducers
5(1)
A practical model of a sound system
6(3)
Section 2. Frequency Response
A definition
9(3)
Basic specification methods
10(1)
Octave relationships and measurements
11(1)
Frequency response of practical audio devices
12(3)
Electronic circuits and cables
12(2)
Microphones
14(1)
Loudspeakers
14(1)
Voice and instrument ranges
15(2)
The speaking voice
15(1)
The singing voice and musical instruments
15(1)
Harmonics
16(1)
Effect of acoustical factors
17(2)
Section 3. The Decibel, Sound Level, & Related Items
What is a decibel?
19(3)
A mathematical definition of the dB
19(2)
Relative versus absolute levels
21(1)
Relating the decibel to electrical signal levels
22(3)
dBm
22(1)
dBu
22(1)
dBv and dBv
23(1)
Converting dBv to dBu (or to dBm across 600 ohms)
24(1)
Relating dBv, dBu and dBm to specifications
24(1)
dBw
25(1)
Relating the decibel to acoustic levels
25(2)
dB SPL
25(1)
dB PWL
26(1)
What is rms?
27(1)
Volume, level and gain
28(1)
Loudness
29(4)
Equal loudness contours and phons
29(1)
What we can deduce from equal loudness contours
30(1)
Loudness compensation
31(2)
Section 4. Dynamic Range
Dynamic range
33(2)
A definition
33(1)
The dynamic range of a typical rock concert
33(1)
The electrical dynamic range of the sound system
33(1)
The acoustical dynamic range of the system
34(1)
Headroom
35(2)
A definition
35(1)
Why headroom is important
36(1)
Manipulating dynamic range in a practical sound system
37(6)
Why not build a sound system with excess dynamic range?
37(1)
What happens when the sound system is inadequate?
37(2)
How to fit wide program dynamics into a sound system with limited dynamic range
39(3)
How much headroom is adequate?
42(1)
Section 5. Sound Outdoors
The inverse square law
43(2)
Inverse square law calculations
44(1)
Effects of environmental factors
45(2)
Wind
45(1)
Temperature gradients
46(1)
Humidity
46(1)
Feedback control
47(6)
Maximum gain (available gain before feedback)
47(2)
Using directional microphones and loudspeakers
49(4)
Section 6. Sound Indoors
Boundaries
53(2)
The absorption coefficient
54(1)
Standing waves
55(2)
Standing waves in a room
56(1)
Reverberation
57(1)
Critical distance
58(3)
Implications for sound reinforcement
60(1)
Section 7. Block Diagrams
General discussion
61(2)
Symbolic conventions
63(3)
Notational conventions
66(1)
Analysis of simple block diagrams
67(3)
Summation
70(1)
Section 8. How to Read & Interpret Specifications
General discussion
71(1)
Why specs are not always what they seem
71(1)
Examples of specs that should be doubted
71(1)
What to look for
72(1)
Frequency response
72(3)
Distinguishing frequency response, frequency range, and power bandwidth
72(2)
Graphic versus printed specs
74(1)
What is a good frequency response spec?
74(1)
Noise
75(6)
What is noise?
75(1)
White noise
76(1)
Pink noise
76(1)
Shaping the noise
77(1)
EIN: a measure of mic preamplifier noise
78(1)
Specifying output noise
78(2)
Other types of noise
80(1)
Harmonic distortion
81(4)
What is harmonic distortion?
81(1)
Measuring harmonic distortion
82(2)
Factors affecting harmonic distortion specifications
84(1)
Intermodulation distortion
85(2)
Measuring IM distortion
85(1)
Sources of IM distortion
86(1)
How much distortion is tolerable?
86(1)
Transient intermodulation distortion
86(1)
Input and output impedances
87(5)
Confusion about input and output impedances
88(2)
Output impedance
88(1)
Input impedance
89(1)
The implications of impedance mismatches
90(1)
Impedance and frequency
91(1)
Standard operating levels
92(4)
General classification of levels
92(1)
Expressing the wide power range of a sound system
93(1)
How impedance relates to level specifications
94(1)
Power vs impedance
94(1)
Overloading an output
94(1)
How the load affects output voltage
95(1)
What happens when hi-fi and pro equipment mix
95(1)
Hi-fi output to pro equipment input
95(1)
Pro equipment output to hi-fi input
96(1)
Crosstalk
96(3)
What causes crosstalk?
97(1)
Crosstalk in cables
97(1)
Specification of crosstalk
97(2)
Filter slope rates and turnover frequencies
99(1)
Square wave tests
100(3)
Oscilloscopes
101(2)
What not to expect with square waves
103(1)
Miscellany
103(2)
Section 9. Why Ears Don't Always Correlate With Specs
Different points of view
105(2)
Calibrated mics vs ears
105(1)
Average ears vs ``golden ears''
106(1)
Test equipment measurements vs listening tests
107(4)
Test signals versus program material
107(2)
Location and number of test microphones
109(1)
Dynamic range
110(1)
Static vs dynamic tests
111(1)
Masking effects and equipment interaction
112(1)
Section 10. Microphones
Methods of transduction
113(3)
Dynamic
113(1)
Condenser
113(1)
Electret condenser
114(1)
Ribbon
114(1)
Carbon
115(1)
Piezoelectric
116(1)
Functional design
116(5)
Hand-held
116(1)
Stand-mounting
117(1)
Lavalier
117(1)
Contact pickup
118(1)
Pressure response
118(1)
Shotgun
119(1)
Parabolic
119(1)
Multi-element arrays
120(1)
Noise cancelling microphones
120(1)
Acoustical and electrical characteristics
121(8)
Pickup patterns
121(3)
Omnidirectional
121(1)
Cardioid
121(2)
Bidirectional or figure-8
123(1)
Supercardioid
123(1)
Frequency response
124(1)
Proximity effect
125(1)
Transient response
125(1)
Output level or sensitivity
126(1)
Overload
126(1)
Impedance
127(1)
Balanced and unbalanced connections
127(2)
Application information
129(3)
Windscreens and pop filters
129(1)
Shock mounts
129(1)
Phantom power
130(1)
Effect of the number of open microphones
130(1)
Gain and microphone placement
131(1)
Stereo recording
131(1)
Wireless intercom systems
132(7)
What is a wireless intercom?
132(1)
Who uses wireless intercoms?
132(1)
What is the background of wireless intercoms?
133(1)
Types of wireless intercoms
133(2)
Frequencies used
135(1)
Improved range and noise reduction
136(1)
Evaluating and selecting a system
136(1)
Conclusions
137(1)
Glossary of wireless intercom terms
138(1)
Wireless microphone systems
139(10)
What is a wireless mic?
139(1)
Who uses wireless mics?
139(1)
What is the background of wireless mics?
139(1)
Radio frequencies used
140(1)
Technical problems
141(1)
Solutions
142(3)
Compatibility of wireless mic systems
145(1)
Antenna cables
146(1)
Evaluating wireless microphone systems
146(1)
Conclusions
147(1)
Glossary of wireless microphone terms
148(1)
Section 11. Preamplifiers, Small Mixers, & Mixing Consoles
General discussion
149(3)
Preamplifiers
152(2)
What are they, and what do they do?
152(1)
Impedance converters
153(1)
Phono preamps
153(1)
Mixers
154(1)
Consoles
155(7)
What is a console?
155(1)
How mixes differ: pre & post fader considerations
155(2)
Panning, summing and master faders
157(5)
Understanding console specifications
162(5)
How many inputs, mixes and outputs?
162(1)
Signal-to-noise ratio
162(2)
Maximum voltage gain
164(1)
Headroom
165(1)
Indicators
166(1)
Transformer isolated versus electronically balanced inputs & outputs
167(5)
Transformers versus differetial amps: price concerns
168(1)
Discrete versus IC differential amps
168(1)
The case for the transformer
169(1)
Transformers and AC safety
170(1)
More on transformers
170(2)
Gain staging and gain structure
172(3)
Why does gain have to be manipulated? a review of sound levels fed to the console
172(1)
Gain control at the microphone input
173(1)
Input attenuation or padding
173(1)
Eliminating other causes of signal-level (& gain) related distortion
174(1)
Summing amp overdrive
174(1)
Power amp overdrive
174(1)
Interface with sub-mixers
175(3)
Stage monitor mixing consoles
178(4)
What is a stage monitor system?
178(1)
Why a monitor console is preferable to a mix from the main house console
179(1)
The importance of a high quality monitor mix
180(1)
Other benefits of a separate monitor console
180(1)
Polarity (phase) reversal as a tool to fight feedback
181(1)
Eliminating SCR dimmer noise
182(1)
Microphone splitting
182(4)
The splitter transformer
183(1)
Additional isolation for high-noise environments
184(1)
Splitting a mic without a transformer
185(1)
Reducing feedback in the stage monitor system
186(3)
Directional microphones
186(1)
Polarity reversal (or ``phase'' reversal)
186(1)
Ringing out a monitor system
187(2)
Aiming monitor loudspeakers
189(1)
Equipment placement
189(4)
Additional monitor console placement factors
189(1)
Main house mixing console placement
190(3)
Section 12. Power Amplifiers
General discussion
193(1)
Ohm's law & related equations
193(4)
Voltage, resistance and current
193(1)
Electrical power
194(1)
Ohm's law chart
195(1)
Electrical power and amplifier gain
196(1)
Power ratings of amplifiers
197(5)
FTC preconditioning
198(1)
Power bandwidth
198(1)
Slew rate and output power
199(1)
Bridged operation
200(1)
The effect of clipping
201(1)
The relationship between amplifier power and SPL
202(2)
Matching power amplifiers to loudspeakers
204(5)
Interpreting loudspeaker power ratings
204(1)
Impedance calculations
205(3)
Constant-voltage distribution systems
208(1)
Section 13. Loudspeakers
Introduction
209(1)
Common methods of acoustic transduction
210(2)
Electromagnetic transduction
210(1)
Piezoelectric transduction
211(1)
Low frequency drivers
212(2)
Directional characteristics of cone drivers
213(1)
Low frequency enclosures
214(4)
Vented enclosures
215(1)
Low frequency horns
216(2)
High frequency drivers
218(1)
High frequency horns
219(3)
Crossovers
222(6)
General model
222(1)
Passive, high level crossovers
223(2)
Active, low level crossovers
225(3)
Headroom
225(2)
Efficiency
227(1)
Damping
227(1)
Distortion
227(1)
Biamp or triamp versus conventional system
227(1)
Full-range loudspeakers
228(2)
Effect of boundary conditions
229(1)
Loudspeaker specifications
230(6)
Frequency response
230(1)
Power handling
231(1)
Sensitivity
232(1)
Impedance
233(1)
Directional characteristics
234(2)
Sources of distortion
236(2)
Over-excursion
236(1)
Intermodulation distortion
236(1)
Mechanical defects
237(1)
Typical failure modes
238(6)
Manufacturing defects
238(1)
Improper operation
239(2)
Failures due to other components in the signal chain
241(3)
Section 14. Signal Processing Equipment
Equalizers
244(15)
General discussion
244(1)
Common tone controls
244(2)
Multi-band conventional equalizers
246(2)
Sweep-type equalizers
248(1)
Parametric equalizers
248(3)
Graphic equalizers
251(3)
Paragraphic equalizers
254(1)
Tuning a sound system with graphic (or paragraphic) equalization
254(2)
High pass and low pass filters
256(3)
Reverberation and delay
259(11)
Reverb chambers
261(1)
Duct-type reverbs
262(1)
Spring-type reverbs
262(2)
Plate-type reverbs
264(1)
Digital reverberation
264(2)
Tape delay
266(1)
Digital delay
267(2)
Analog delay
269(1)
Compressors & limiters
270(4)
General discussion
270(1)
How compressor/limiters work
271(1)
Setup adjustments
272(2)
Noise gates & expanders
274(3)
General
274(1)
Noise gate applications
275(1)
Expander applications
276(1)
Flangers and phasers
277(2)
Flanging
277(1)
Phasing
278(1)
What to look for
278(1)
Exciters
279(2)
Section 15. Cabling
The importance of good cables
281(1)
Types of cables, their construction and use
282(9)
Electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding
282(1)
Cable self-capacitance
283(1)
Single and dual conductor shielded cables
284(3)
Strain relief
287(1)
Unshielded cables and speaker cables
288(1)
Multicore audio cables (``snakes'')
289(2)
Connectors
291(12)
General
291(1)
Phone plugs
291(6)
Phono (pin) conncectors
297(2)
XLR connectors
299(4)
Section 16. Sound System Test Equipment
The volt-ohm meter
303(2)
The sine wave oscillator
305(2)
The oscilloscope
307(2)
The phase tester
309(1)
The sound pressure level meter
310(1)
The real-time analyzer
311(1)
The loudness monitor
312(1)
Summary
312(1)
Section 17. The Electronics
Basic sound system types
313(2)
Sound reproduction systems
313(1)
Sound reinforcement systems
314(1)
Developing a logical system architecture
315(10)
Functional grouping
316(1)
System examples
317(8)
Basic connections
325(2)
Signal levels and impedance
325(1)
Unbalanced and balanced connections
326(1)
Grounding
327(6)
Why is proper grounding important?
328(1)
Ground loops
329(1)
Basic grounding techniques
330(3)
Using audio signal transformers
333(4)
Properties and functions of signal transformers
333(2)
Some practical applications
335(2)
The main power source
337(5)
Verify the correct mains voltage
337(1)
Ensure there is a good earth ground
338(1)
How to obtain a safety ground when using a two-wire outlet
339(1)
Imporperly wired AC outlets: lifted grounds
339(1)
Improperly wired AC outlets: lifted neutral
340(1)
AC safety tips
341(1)
Turn-on sequencing
341(1)
Power source integrity
341(1)
Configuring equipment racks
342(1)
Troubleshooting
343(4)
Absence of signal
343(1)
Undesired signals
343(4)
Section 18. the loudspeakers
Analyzing the application
347(1)
The program material
347(1)
The environment
348(1)
Directional control
348(3)
Widening dispersion
349(1)
Narrowing dispersion
350(1)
SPL estimations
351(1)
Placement considerations
351(4)
Directionality and coverage
351(2)
Feedback control review
353(1)
Outdoor sound systems
353(1)
Controlling feedback indoors
354(1)
Loudspeaker placement indoors
354(1)
Connections
355(3)
Wire size
355(1)
Connectors
355(2)
Polarity of connections
357(1)
General guidelines
358(1)
Setting electronic crossovers
358(6)
Choice of crossover frequency and slope
358(2)
Setting up the loudspeaker system
360(1)
Testing and optimizing the system
361(2)
High frequency driver protection networks
363(1)
Use of fill systems
364(4)
Balancing fill systems
368(1)
Testing and Equalization
368(3)
Single loudspeakers
368(1)
Multiple loudspeaker systems
369(1)
Room equalization
370(1)
Section 19. MIDI
Interface specifications
371(4)
Hardware configuration
372(1)
Data structure
373(1)
Channel messages
374(1)
System messages
374(1)
Control of musical instruments
375(7)
MIDI modes
377(1)
Controllers
378(1)
Patch editor/librarian functions
379(1)
MIDI implementation charts
380(2)
MIDI sequencing
382(5)
Basic theory
382(1)
Channels & tracks
383(2)
Hardware vs computer-based sequencers
385(1)
Typical sequencer features
385(2)
Song editing
386(1)
Step editing
386(1)
Common editing features
386(1)
MIDI data processors
387(2)
Thru boxes
387(1)
MIDI mergers
387(1)
MIDI patchers
388(1)
Mapping devices
388(1)
SysEx data storage
388(1)
Automation through MIDI
389(2)
Instrument patch changes
389(1)
Signal processors
390(1)
Console functions
390(1)
Sync to media
391(1)
Troubleshooting
391(4)
Lack of response
391(1)
Stuck notes
392(1)
MIDI feedback
392(1)
MIDI time delays
393(2)
Section 20. Synchronization
General discussion
395(3)
Basic theory
395(1)
Pulse methods
396(1)
Timepiece methods
397(1)
AMPTW/EBU time code
398(8)
Signal structure
398(2)
Frame rates and line references
400(1)
Longitudinal, vertical interval and visible time code
401(1)
Machine control
402(2)
Slave code error
402(1)
Slave code offset
402(1)
Flying offsets
403(1)
Slew
403(1)
Advanced transport controls
403(1)
Event triggers
403(1)
Time code and audio tape
404(1)
Printing SMPTE time code
404(1)
Copying SMPTE time code
405(1)
SMPTE-to-MIDI conversion
405(1)
Edit decision lists
406(6)
Appendix A. Logarithms
A.1 Raising Numbers to a Power: The Key to Logs
409(1)
A.2 Simple Logs (and Antilogs) to the Base 10
409(1)
A.3 Less Obvious Logs to The Base 10
410(1)
A.4 Mathematical Properties of Logs
411(1)
A.5 One More Look At Logs and Decibels
412(1)
Index

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