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Sources for Western Society provides a variety of primary sources to accompany A History of Western Society, Eleventh Edition and the newValue edition of A History of Western Society. With over fifty new selections—including a dozen new visual sources—and enhanced pedagogy throughout, students are given the tools to engage critically with canonical and lesser known sources, and prominent and ordinary voices. Each chapter includes a "Sources in Conversation" feature that presents differing views on key topics. This companion reader is an exceptional value for students and offers plenty of assignment options for instructors.Sources for Western Society is free when packaged with A History of Western Society and is heavily discounted when packaged with A History of Western Society, Value Edition.
John P. McKay (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is professor emeritus at the University of Illinois. He has written or edited numerous works, including the Herbert Baxter Adams Prize-winning book Pioneers for Profit: Foreign Entrepreneurship and Russian Industrialization, 1885-1913 and Tramways and Trolleys: The Rise of Urban Mass Transport in Europe. He also contributed to Imagining the Twentieth Century.
Bennett D. Hill (Ph.D., Princeton), late of the University of Illinois, was the history department chair from 1978 to 1981. He published Church and State in the Middle Ages, English Cistercian Monasteries and Their Patrons in the Twelfth Century, and numerous articles and reviews, and was one of the contributing editors to The Encyclopedia of World History. A Benedictine monk of St. Anselm's Abbey in Washington, D.C., he was also a visiting professor at Georgetown University.
John Buckler (Ph.D., Harvard University) taught history at the University of Illinois. Published books include Aegean Greece in the Fourth Century B.C., Philip II and the Sacred War, and Theban Hegemony, 371-362 B.C. With Hans Beck, he most recently published Central Greece and the Politics of Power in the Fourth Century.
Clare Haru Crowston (Ph.D., Cornell University) teaches at the University of Illinois, where she is currently associate professor of history. She is the author of Fabricating Women: The Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675-1791, which won the Berkshire and Hagley Prizes. She edited two special issues of the Journal of Women's History, has published numerous journal articles and reviews, and is a past president of the Society for French Historical Studies and a former chair of the Pinkney Prize Committee.
Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison) taught first at Augustana College in Illinois, and since 1985 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is currently UWM Distinguished Professor in the department of history. She is the coeditor of the Sixteenth Century Journal and the author or editor of more than twenty books, most recently The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and Their Worlds and Gender in History. She currently serves as the Chief Reader for Advanced Placement World History.
Joe Perry (Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is Associate Professor of modern German and European history at Georgia State University. He has published numerous articles and is author of the recently published book Christmas in Germany: A Cultural History. His current research interests include issues of consumption, gender, and television in East and West Germany after World War II.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Origins, to 1200 b.c.e. 1-1: A Mesopotamian Creation Myth: The Battle Between Marduk and Tiamat (ca. 2000–1000 b.c.e.) 1-2: The Quest for Eternal Life: The Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 2750 b.c.e.) 1-3: Society and Law in Ancient Babylonia: The Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1780 b.c.e.) 1-4: A Declaration of Innocence: The Egyptian Book of the Dead (ca. 2100–1800 b.c.e.) 1-5: Enforcing Royal Authority: Letters Between a Sumerian King and His Prime Minister (ca. 2000–1700 b.c.e.) Sources in Conversation: The Great and Terrible Power of the Gods 1-6: AKHENATEN, The Hymn to Aton (ca. 1350 b.c.e.) 1-7: Lamentation Over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur (ca. 2000–1700 b.c.e.) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 2: Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East, 1200–510 b.c.e. 2-1: The Hebrews Explain Creation: Book of Genesis (ca. 950–450 b.c.e.) 2-2: The Hebrew Law and Covenant: Exodus and Deuteronomy (ca. 950–450 b.c.e.) 2-3: The Qualities of a King: Assyrian Kings Proclaim Their Greatness (ca. 1220–1070 b.c.e.) Sources in Conversation: The Legacy of Cyrus 2-4: CYRUS OF PERSIA: Ruling an Empire (ca. 550 b.c.e.) 2-5: Book of Isaiah: Blessings for Cyrus (ca. 550 b.c.e.) 2-6: A Choice Between Good and Evil: ZOROASTER, Gatha 30:Good Thoughts, Good Words, Good Deeds (ca. 600 b.c.e.) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 3: The Development of Greek Society and Culture, ca. 3000–338 b.c.e. 3-1: A Long Journey Home: HOMER, The Odyssey: Odysseus and the Sirens (ca. 800 b.c.e.) 3-2: Moral Instruction and Good Advice: HESIOD, Works and Days (ca. 800 b.c.e.) 3-3: A Clash of Loyalties: SOPHOCLES, Antigone (441 b.c.e.) Sources in Conversation: Political Philosophy 3-4: THUCYDIDES, The History of the Peloponnesian War: Pericles’s Funeral Oration (ca. 400 b.c.e.) 3-5: PLATO, The Republic: The Allegory of the Cave (ca. 360 b.c.e.) 3-6: Choosing the Best State: ARISTOTLE, Politics: Democracy (ca. 340 b.c.e.) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 4: Life in the Hellenistic World, 336–30 b.c.e. 4-1: Remembering a Legend: EPHIPPUS OF OLYNTHUS, On the Burial of Alexander and Hephaestion: Ephippus of Olynthus Remembers Alexander the Great (ca. 323 b.c.e.) 4-2: A Spartan King Pays Homage to the Past: PLUTARCH, Life of Cleomenes III (75 c.e.) Sources in Conversation: Living the Good Life 4-3: DIOGENES LAERTIUS, The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers: Diogenes of Sinope, the Cynic (ca. 300–200 b.c.e.) 4-4: EPICURUS, The Principal Doctrines of Epicureanism (ca. 306 b.c.e.) 4-5: EPICTETUS, Encheiridion, or The Manual (ca. 100 c.e.) 4-6: A Greek View of Byzantium: POLYBIUS, A Greek Historian Describes Byzantium’s Contribution to Regional Trade (ca. 170–118 b.c.e.) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 5: The Rise of Rome, ca. 1000–27 b.c.e. 5-1: The Moral Roots of the Republic: LIVY, The Rape of Lucretia (ca. 27–25 b.c.e.) 5-2: The Role of the Family in Roman Society: A Roman Wedding (ca. 160 c.e.) 5-3: An Effort to Resolve Social Conflict: The Law of the Twelve Tables (449 b.c.e.) 5-4: Life in a Roman City: SENECA, The Sounds of a Roman Bath (ca. 50 c.e.) Sources in Conversation: Political Unrest in Rome 5-5: APPIAN OF ALEXANDRIA, The Civil Wars (ca. 100 c.e.) 5-6: PLUTARCH, On Julius Caesar, a Man of Unlimited Ambition (ca. 44 b.c.e.) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 6: The Roman Empire, 27 b.c.e.–284 c.e.6-1: Romans and Barbarians: TACITUS, Germania (ca. 100 c.e.) 6-2: A Roman Seeks the Aid of an Egyptian Goddess: APULEIUS, The Golden Ass: The Veneration of Isis (ca. 170 c.e.) Sources in Conversation: Jews, Christians, and the Hebrew Law 6-3: The Gospel According to Matthew: The Sermon on the Mount (28 c.e.) 6-4: PAUL OF TARSUS, Epistle to the Galatians (ca. 50–60 c.e.) 6-5: Anti-Christian Sentiment: The Alexamenos Graffito (ca. 100 c.e.) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 7: Late Antiquity, 250–600 7-1: Church and State in Late Antiquity: SAINT AMBROSE OF MILAN, Emperor Theodosius Brought to Heel (390) 7-2: Rules for Monastic Living: SAINT BENEDICT OF NURSIA, The Rule of Saint Benedict (529) 7-3: Contrasting the Works of God with Those of Men: SAINT AUGUSTINE, City of God: The Two Cities (413–426) 7-4: Law and Society in the Early Middle Ages: The Law of the Salian Franks (ca. 500–600) Sources in Conversation: The Rebirth of the Roman Empire in the East 7-5: EMPEROR JUSTINIAN, The Institutes of Justinian (529–533) 7-6: PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA, The Secret History (ca. 550) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 8: Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 600–1000 8-1: A Muslim Describes the Conquest of Spain: IBN ABD-EL-HAKEM, The Conquest of Spain (ca. 870) Sources in Conversation: Conquest and Conversion 8-2: WILLIBALD, Saint Boniface Destroys the Oak of Thor (ca. 750) 8-3: CHARLEMAGNE, Capitulary for Saxony (ca. 775–790) 8-4: Instructions for Royal Envoys: CHARLEMAGNE, General Capitulary for the Missi (802) 8-5: Muslims Versus Christians in the Early Middle Ages: The Song of Roland (ca. 1100–1300) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 9: State and Church in the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300 9-1: A Nobleman Establishes a Religious House: DUKE WILLIAM OF AQUITAINE, On the Foundation of Cluny (909) 9-2: William the Conqueror Surveys His Kingdom: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: William the Conqueror and the Domesday Book (1086) 9-3: Placing Limits on Royal Power: KING JOHN OF ENGLAND, From Magna Carta: The Great Charter of Liberties (1215) 9-4: A Pope and an Emperor Compete for Power: POPE GREGORY VII AND EMPEROR HENRY IV, Mutual Recriminations: The Investiture Controversy Begins (1076) 9-5: A Call for Crusade: ROBERT THE MONK OF RHEIMS, Urban II at the Council of Clermont (ca. 1120) Sources in Conversation: The Response to Urban II’s Call for Holy War 9-6: GUIBERT OF NOGENT/ANNA COMNENA, Peter the Hermit and the "People’s Crusade" (ca. 1108–1148) 9-7: ANONYMOUS OF MAINZ, The Slaughter of the Jews (ca. 1096) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 10: Life in Villages and Cities of the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300 10-1: Life on a Medieval Manor: Manorial Records of Bernehorne (1307) 10-2: Medieval Workers: On Laborers: A Dialogue Between Teacher and Student (ca. 1000) Sources in Conversation: Living and Working in a Medieval City 10-3: The Charter of the Laon Commune (ca. 1100–1120) 10-4: The Ordinances of London’s Leatherworkers (1346) 10-5: THE COMMUNE OF FLORENCE, A Sumptuary Law: Restrictions on Dress (1373) 10-6: A Master of Medieval Scholasticism: SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS, Summa Theologica: Proof of the Existence of God (1268) 10-7: An Author Relates a Popular Religious Story: JACQUES DE VITRY, The Virgin Mary Saves a Monk and His Lover (ca. 1200) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 11: The Later Middle Ages, 1300–1450 11-1: The Psychological and Emotional Impact of the Plague: GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO, The Decameron: The Plague Hits Florence (ca. 1350) 11-2: A Town Chronicler Describes the Black Death: ANGELO DI TURA, Sienese Chronicle (1348–1351) 11-3: Social and Economic Unrest in England: The Anonimalle Chronicle: The English Peasants’ Revolt (1381) 11-4: A Simple Social World?: PETRARCA-MEISTER, The Social Order (ca. 1515) Sources in Conversation: Women and Power 11-5: CATHERINE OF SIENA, Letter to Gregory XI (1372) 11-6: The Debate Over Joan of Arc’s Clothes (1429) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 12: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350–1550 12-1: An Italian Admirer of the Classical Past: PETRARCH, Letter to Livy (1350) 12-2: Power Politics During the Italian Renaissance: NICCOLÒ MACHIAVELLI, The Prince (1513) 12-3: A Description of the Ideal Courtier: BALDASSARE CASTIGLIONE, The Book of the Courtier (1528) 12-4: A Humanist Prescription for the Education of Princes: DESIDERIUS ERASMUS, The Education of a Christian Prince (1516) 12-5: A Female Author Argues for the Education of Women: CHRISTINE DE PIZAN, The Book of the City of Ladies: Against Those Men Who Claim It Is Not Good for Women to Be Educated (1404) Sources in Conversation: A Female Painter Tells Stories About Women 12-6: ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Susannah and the Elders (1610) 12-7: ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, Judith and Holofernes (1610) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 13: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600 13-1: Martin Luther Takes a Stand: MARTIN LUTHER, Ninety-ﬁve Theses on the Power of Indulgences (1517) 13-2: Reformation Propaganda: HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER, Luther as the German Hercules (ca. 1519) Sources in Conversation: The War on Witches 13-3: JEAN BODIN, On the Demon-Mania of Witches (1580) 13-4: Elizabeth Francis Confesses to Witchcraft (1566) 13-5: Calvin Defines His Protestant Vision: JOHN CALVIN, The Institutes of Christian Religion (1559) 13-6: Training the Soldiers of Christ: IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA, Rules for Right Thinking (1548) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 14: European Exploration and Conquest, 1450–1650 14-1: Columbus Sets the Context for His Voyage: CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, Diario (1492) 14-2: Cortés Describes the Conquest of the Aztecs: HERNANDO CORTÉS, Two Letters to Charles V: On the Conquest of the Aztecs (1521) Sources in Conversation: The Slave Trade in Africa 14-3: ALVISE DA CA’ DA MOSTO, Description of Capo Bianco and the Islands Nearest to It: Fifteenth-Century Slave Trade in West Africa (1455–1456) 14-4: KING NZINGA MBEMBA AFFONSO OF CONGO, Letters on the Slave Trade (1526) 14-5: The Jesuits Bring Christianity to Asia: SAINT FRANCIS XAVIER, Missionaries in Japan (1552) 14-6: A Critique of European "Superiority": MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE, Of Cannibals (1580) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism, ca. 1589–1725 15-1: A French King Establishes Limited Religious Toleration: HENRY IV, Edict of Nantes (1598) 15-2: An Argument for the Divine Right of Kings: JACQUES-BÉNIGNE BOSSUET, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture (1679) 15-3: The English Place Limits on Monarchical Power: The Bill of Rights (1689) 15-4: A Tsar Imposes Western Styles on the Russians: PETER THE GREAT, Edicts and Decrees (1699–1723) Sources in Conversation: The Commonwealth and the State of Nature 15-5: THOMAS HOBBES, Leviathan (1651) 15-6: JOHN LOCKE, Second Treatise of Civil Government: Vindication for the Glorious Revolution (1690) Comparative and Discussion QuestionsChapter 16: Toward a New Worldview, 1540–1789 16-1: A New Model of the Solar System: NICOLAUS COPERNICUS, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1542) 16-2: A Defense of Science: FRANCIS BACON, On Superstition and the Virtue of Science (1620) Sources in Conversation: Monarchical Power and Responsibility 16-3: FREDERICK THE GREAT, Essay on the Forms of Government (ca. 1740) 16-4: CHARLES DE SECONDAT, BARON DE MONTESQUIEU, From The Spirit of Laws: On the Separation of Governmental Powers (1748) 16-5: JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU, The Social Contract: On Popular Sovereignty and the General Will (1762) 16-6: A Philosophe Argues for Religious Toleration: VOLTAIRE, A Treatise on Toleration (1763) Comparative and Discussion Questions